The Philadelphia Confession, 1742
It pleased God in His eternal purpose,
to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, according to the covenant made
between them both, to be the Mediator between God and man;1 the
Prophet,2 Priest3 and King;4 head and Saviour of His church,5 the
heir of all things,6 and judge of the world;7 unto whom He did from all eternity give a people to be His seed,
and to be by Him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified.8
The Son of God, the second person in
the Holy Trinity, being very and eternal God, the brightness of the Father's glory, of one
substance, and equal with Him who made the world, who upholdeth and governeth all things
He hath made; did, when the fulness of time was come, take upon Him man's nature, with all
the essential properties and common infirmities thereof,9 yet
without sin;10 being conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb
of the Virgin Mary, the Holy Spirit coming down upon her: and the power of the Most High
overshadowing her; and so was made of a woman of the tribe of Judah, of the seed of
Abraham and David according to the Scriptures:11 so that two
whole, perfect, and distinct natures, were inseparably joined together in one person,
without conversion, composition, or confusion; which person is very God and very man, yet
one Christ, the only mediator between God and man.12
The Lord Jesus in His human nature thus
united to the divine, in the person of the Son, was sanctified, and anointed with the Holy
Spirit, above measure;13 having in Him all the treasures of
wisdom and knowledge;14 in whom it pleased the Father, that
all fullness should dwell15 to the end, that being holy,
harmless, undefiled,16 and full of grace, and truth,17 He might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a
mediator, and surety;18 which office He took not upon Himself,
but was thereunto called by His Father;19 who also put all
power and judgement in His hand, and gave Him commandment to execute the same.20
This office the Lord Jesus did most
willingly undertake,21 which that He might discharge He was
made under the law,22 and did perfectly fulfil it, and
underwent the punishment due to us, which we should have borne and suffered,23 being made sin and a curse for us;24
enduring most grievous sorrows in His soul; and most painful sufferings in His body;25 was crucified, and died, and remained in the state of the
dead; yet saw no corruption:26 on the third day He arose from
the dead,27 with the same body in which he suffered;28 with which He also ascended into heaven;29 and there sitteth on the right hand of His Father, making
intercession;30 and shall return to judge men and angels at
the end of the world.31
The Lord Jesus, by His perfect
obedience and sacrifice of Himself, which He through the eternal Spirit once offered up
unto God, hath fully satisfied the justice of God,32 procured
reconciliation, and purchased an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, for all
those whom the Father hath given unto Him.33
Although the price of redemption was
not actually paid by Christ, till after His incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and
benefit thereof was communicated to the elect in all ages successively, from the beginning
of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices, wherein He was revealed,
and signified to be the seed of the woman which should bruise the serpent's head;34 and the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world:35 being the same yesterday, and today, and for ever.36
Christ, in the work of mediation,
acteth according to both natures, by each nature doing that which is proper to itself; yet
by reason of the unity of the person, that which is proper to one nature, is sometimes in
Scripture, attributed to the person denominated by the other nature.37
To all those for whom Christ hath
obtained eternal redemption, He doth certainly and effectually apply, and communicate the
same; making intercession for them;38 uniting them to Himself
by His Spirit; revealing unto them, in and by the Word, the mystery of salvation;
persuading them to believe, and obey;39 governing their hearts
by His Word and Spirit,40 and overcoming all their enemies by
His almighty power and wisdom;41 in such manner and ways as
are most consonant to His wonderful, and unsearchable dispensation; and all of free and
absolute grace, without any condition forseen in them, to procure it.42
This office of Mediator between God and
man is proper only to Christ, who is the prophet, priest, and king of the church of God;
and may not be, either in whole, or any part thereof, transferred from Him to any other.43
10. This number and order of offices is necessary; for in respect of our ignorance we stand in need of His prophetical office;44 and in respect of our alienation from God, and imperfection of the best of our services, we need His priestly office, to reconcile us, and present us acceptable unto God;45 and in respect of our averseness, and utter inability to return to God, and for our rescue, and security from our spiritual adversaries, we need His kingly office, to convince, subdue, draw, uphold, deliver, and preserve us to His heavenly kingdom.46
1. Isa 42:1; 1Pe 1:19-20.
2. Ac 3:22.
3. Heb 5:5-6.
4. Ps 2:6; Lk 1:33.
5. Eph 1:22-23.
6. Heb 1:2.
7. Ac 17:31.
8. Isa 53:10; Jn 17:6; Ro 8:30.
9. Jn 1:14; Gal 4:4.
10. Ro 8:3; Heb 2:14,16-17; 4:15.
11. Mt 1:22-23; Lk 1:27,31,35.
12. Ro 9:5; 1Ti 2:5.
13. Ps 45:7; Ac 10:38; Jn 3:34.
14. Col 2:3.
15. Col 1:19.
16. Heb 7:26.
17. Jn 1:14.
18. Heb 7:22.
19. Heb 5:5.
20. Jn 5:22,27; Mt 28:18; Ac 2:36.
21. Ps 40:7-8; Heb 10:5-10; Jn 10:18.
22. Gal 4:4; Mt 3:15.
23. Gal 3:13; Isa 53:6; 1Pe 3:18.
24. 2Co 5:21.
25. Mt 26:37-38; Lk 22:44; Mt 27:46.
26. Ac 13:37.
27. 1Co 15:3-4.
28. Jn 20:25,27.
29. Mk 16:19; Ac 1:9-11.
30. Ro 8:34; Heb 9:24.
31. Ac 10:42; Ro 14:9-10; Ac 1:11; 2Pe 2:4.
32. Heb 9:14; 10:14; Ro 3:25-26.
33. Jn 17:2; Heb 9:15.
34. 1Co 4:10; Heb 4:2; 1Pe 1:10-11.
35. Rev 13:8.
36. Heb 13:8.
37. Jn 3:13; Ac 20:28.
38. Jn 6:37; 10:15-16; 17:9; Ro 5:10.
39. Jn 17:6; Eph 1:9; 1Jn 5:20.
40. Ro 8:9,14.
41. Ps 110:1; 1Co 15:25-26.
42. Jn 3:8; Eph 1:8.
43. 1Ti 2:5.
44. Jn 1:18.
45. Col 1:21; Gal 5:17.
46. Jn 16:8; Ps 110:3; Lk 1:74-75.
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