BAPTIST THOROUGH REFORMERS
THE SIXTH FEATURE
OF THE REFORM AT WHICH BAPTISTS AIM
THE RESTORATION OF THE ORDER OF THE PRIMITIVE CHURCHES.
"Then they that
gladly received his word, were baptized. . . And the Lord added
to the church, daily, such as should be saved." Acts 2:41,47.
professed Christians, who admit that the Scriptures contain a model for church
organization, strenuously maintain that the denomination with which they are connected, is
formed after the Scriptural pattern. This is true alike of Episcopalians, Presbyterians,
Methodists, and all others. But it is abundantly evident, that while these denominations
are so very dissimilar, they cannot all resemble one Scriptural model. It is further
evident, that some who make pretensions to be "THE CHURCH," are not satisfied to
rest their claim to that title, simply on a comparison of their organization with the new
Testament pattern of a Gospel church, but very gladly seek to bring in evidenee from other
quarters, by which they hope to support their cause. The Fathers, Tradition, Expediency,
are all pressed into their service, to supply the lack of evidence afforded in Scripture;
or, as is sometimes the case, to nullify and render powerless its direct testimony against
them. All this I say, is done by those who profess to find, in the New Testament alone, a
warrant for their ecelesiastieal systems and organizations. They do not seem to perceive,
that the very course which they adopt to support their claims, affords most conclusive
evidence that they are false and vain.
But while some appeal to Tradition, and others to expediency, it is the glory of the Baptists that they act on the principle of the sufficiency of the Bible in testing this, as well as all other questions relating to religion. Though Jewish antiquity, and the Fathers, yield as mueh or more support to their distinctive features, as to those who are most elamorous in demanding submission to them, still they prefer to appeal to "the law and to the testimony." I announce, as the Sixth Feature of the reform at which Baptists aim,
The Restoration of the Order of the Primitive Churches.
is certain that primitive church order has been generally abandoned, from the fact that so
many different organizations exist, each claiming to be the gospel church. Now, it is
evident that not more than one of these dissimilar organizations can be constructed after
the Scripture model. All that is necessary in testing their claims is, to compare them
with the New Testament description of a gospel church. And any body of Christians that is
unwilling to be brought to this test must of course give up this claim. Let us inquire,
I. What was the strict Order of lhe Primitive Churches.? We can only obtain satisfactory information on this point from the Word of God. The text and its connection present to us the circumstances under which the first gospel church was formed. From this it will be perceived, that first, the gospel was preached, then repentance and baptism were urged upon the hearers; "then they that gladly received the Word were baptized; and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. And the Lord added daily to the church such as should be saved."
1. The Primitive Churches were composed only of professed believers. Those who "gladly received the word." In all the epistles to the churches it will be seen that the members composing them are addressed as "believers," "saints," "chosen ones," "partakers of like precious faith" with the apostles; and even where their sins are spoken of, they are alluded to as "brethren," who had departed from the faith. Dr. Dwight says, "There is but one character given in the New Testament to those who were church members, and that is the character of Christians. There is no rnixture of any other character."
2. The Primitive churches were composed only of baptized believers. By baptized, I mean immersed believers. "They that gladly received his word were immereed." This is the translation in the common version we have only a transfer. Let me, on this point, give you a few authorities for this translation, as there are some who deny its correctness none, however, of any eminence as scholars. The learned Bossuet says: "Baptism was performed by plunging. In fine, we read not in Scripture that baptism was otherwise administered; and we are able to make it appear, that for thirteen hundred years baptism was thus administered throughout the whole church, as far as possible." Dr. Doddridge says: "'Buried with him by baptism.' It seems the part of candor to confess that here is an allusion to the manner of baptizing by imniersion, which was the primitive rnode." John Wesley says: "'Buried with him,' alluding to the ancient manner of baptizing by immersion." Whitby, author of a Commentary on the New Testament and more than forty other learned works, says: "It being so expressly declared here, that we are buried with Christ in baptism, by being buried under water, and the argument to oblige us to a conformity to his death, by dying to sin, being taken from hence; and this immersion being observed by all Christians for thirteen centuries, and the change of it into sprinkling without any allowance from the Author of this institution, being that which the Romanist still urges to justify his refusal of the cup to the laity; it were to be wished that this custom might be again of general use." Dr. Chalmers says: "The original meaning of the word baptism is immersion; and we doubt not that the general style of adrninistration in the apostles' days was by an actual submerging of the whole body under water." Archbishop Tillotson says: " Anciently those who were baptized were immersed and buried in water, to represent their death to sin; and then did rise up out of the water to signify their entrance upon a new life."
I might go on and fill a volume with similar quotations, from every scholar of any note who has ever written upon the subject. In additiou to this, every lexicon of note gives it a meaning, which signifies either an immersion into an element, or a complete overwhelming with it.
It is evident, also, from the narration of circumstances connected with baptism in the New Testament, that immersion was the primitive mode. Christ, when he was baptized, came up out of the water. When Philip baptized the eunuch, he went down into the water with him, in order to do it. The apostle Panl, in alluding to baptism, twice calls it a burial, and once a burial and resurrection. All who became members of the primitive churches were admitted by immersion; and as none were admitted but believers, none but believers were immersed.
3. In the Primitive Churches none were admitted to the Lord's table but those who were immersed. Though they were, at the time of their conversion, members of the Jewish nation, or, as a Pedobaptist would say, of the Jewish church, and had been circumcised in their infancy, still they must be immersed before becorning members, or enjoying the privileges of a Christian church. Yea, even though they had been proselytes to the Jewish religion, and were circumcised after they arrived at maturity, they must still be immersed, when they professed faith in Christ, before they could sit down at the Lord's table. It is admitted by all, to have been the practice of the primitive churches, to receive none but the baptized to the Lord's table.
4. The primitive churches were independent in their government. All the members were on an equality in each church, and each church was on the same equality with every other church. There were no bishops, in the sense in which that term is used by Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, and Methodists. There were no church sessions, presbyteries, assemblies, synods, or conferences. Advisory councils, having no power to legislate, were sometimes called to give counsel in difficult matters. But individual churches possessed supreme authority to administer discipline, and transact their own business. The church was the highest court of appeal.
II. Pedobaptists have universally departed from the strict Order of the Primitive Churches. The first Pedobaptist church was the Church of Rome. I presume I need not stop here to show that the Romish church does not conform to the Scripture model. All Protestants will affirm that she does not; and any one who will read the Bible will be convinced of it. Let me remind them, however, that in nothing is her dissimilarity to gospel churches more palpably manifest than in her infant baptism; and in this tliing all Pedobaptists are treading in her path, while not one of them is conformed to the New Testament pattern. For,
1. They are not composed of the same materials. They number among their members others than professed believers. Every Pedobaptist church holds that the children of believers, when they are baptized, are members of the church, and form a part of it. I substantiated this assertion by numerous quotations from printed documents, in my lecture on the "Spirituality of Christ's Kingdom." I need not, therefore, repeat them here. But I remark, in addition to this, that conversion is not neceesarily a qualification for membership in most Pedobaptist churches.
With Episcopalians, admission to full church privileges is granted to those who have been confirmed. The requirements for this service are thus stated in their Book of Common Prayer: "The Church hath thought good to order, that none shall be confirmed but such as can say the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandrnents, and can also answer to such other qnestions as in the Short Catechism are contained." The conditions of admission being thus made, irrespective of personal charaeter, it cannot be expected that the Episcopal church will bear a comparison with that of primitive times. Indeed, it will be perceived that all that is needed is a good memory, in order to be confirmed as a member of that church.
The Presbyterians acknowledge in their standard, that "the visible church consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together with their children." They further say, "Children born within the pale of the visible church, and dedicated to God in baptism, are under the inspection and government of the church, and are to be taught to read and repeat the Catechism the Apostles' Creed, and the Lord's Prayer. They are to be taught to pray, to abhor sin, to fear God, and to obey the Lord Jesus Christ. And when they come to years of discretion, if they be free from scandal, appear sober and steady, and to have sufficient knowledge to discern the Lord's body, they ought to be informed it is their duty and privilege to come to the Lord's supper." Now, in all this there is nothing said about regeneration, repentance, or faith. The late Dr. Chalmers, a distinguished Presbyterian minister, maintained that it was "wrong to say that none but the pious should be admitted to partake of the sacraments," while, for the decent regulation of the church, "it is well that the visibly profane or profligate are kept away." As to the duty of a minister to the "great majority of our species," who are "neither of the profligate or the pious," his business is, "not to exclude them, but to warn them." A church formed on such principles as these certainly cannot claim to be identical with the primitive churches.
In the Methodist body, it is held that a religious society is "a company of men, having the form and seeking the power of godliness, united in order to pray together, to receive the word of exhortation, and to watch over one another in the Lord, that they may help each other to work out their salvation." "There is one condition previously required of those who desire admission into these societies a desire to flee the wrath to come, and to be saved from their sins." It is well known that persons who give no evidencc of conversion are often allowed, and even urged, to become "class members;" and these "seekers," as they are termed, are admitted to the Lord's table. It is not necessary according to the Discipline, that a man should give evidence of convevsion. It is certainly not impossible for unconverted men to fulfil a term of probation. And thus, in almost every Pedobaptist church it may be seen, that conversion is not absolutely insisted on as a condition of membership on the part of adult applicants.
But what shall we say of their infant membership.? We frequently hear of the "children of the covenant," and the "children of the church," from Pedobaptist pulpits, but do we hear any thing of this kind in the New Testament? Do we find unconverted rnen addvessed as members of' the church in primitive times, or young persons urged to fulfil baptismal vows, made for them by their parents, when they were unconscious infants? No, no! We see parents urged to bring their children up in "the nurture and admonition of the lord," but we nowhere find this duty enforced by any allusion to vows made at the dedication of their children in baptism.
Again, those who united with the primitive churches came into them voluntarily. It was not necessary to look about, and see who were "free from scandal," and tell them that it was "their duty and privilege to come to the Lord's table;" but, constrained by the love of Jesus Christ, they voluntarily sought to profess his sacred name. "Here is water, what doth hinder me to be baptized:" "If thou believest with all thy heart, thou mayest."
2. Pedobaptists do not receive their members by the same initiatory rite that the primitive churches did. The primitive churches received their members by immersion. This was the act by which they publicly "put on Christ" before the world. A great many Pedobaptist authors acknowledge that the primitive saints were immersed, and that immersion is the proper signification of the terms which are used to designate the ordinance. In addition to those already quoted, I remark that Calvin says: "Here we perceive how baptism was administered among the ancients; for they immersed the whole body in water." Bishop Taylor says: "The custom of the ancient churches was not sprinkling, but immersion," Now, we know that Pedobaptist churches receive the majority of their members, not by immersion, but by sprinkling. Some may be imrnersed, but it is only after every argument to dissuade them from it has failed. The practice of these churches is sprinkling, the exceptions are inimersion. In the primitive churches there was "one Lord, one faith, one baptisrn;" and that was iinmersion. Here, then, is a striking dissimilarity between all Pedobaptist churches and the primitive churches. The latter were composed of immersed believers. The former are composed of a mixed multitude of believers and unbelievers, sprinkled, poured, and immersed. The language addressed to the primitive churches cannot be addressed to them. "For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ." Have infants put on Christ? "Therefore we are buried with him by baptisrn into death." Can any Pedobaptist minister address his church thus? "Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through faith of the operation of God." Can this language be appropriately addressed to a Pedobaptist church? No; so far from it, many Pedobaptists do not like to read it in their Bibles. But still further; a Pedobaptist preacher cannot stand up, in a Pedobaptist community, and address unconverted men as the primitive disciples did: "Repent, and be baptized, every one of you." They have been baptized, as they call it, already. From all this it is evident that Pedobaptist churches are very dissimilar to the churches in the times of the apostles, and to the teachings of the New Testament.
3. There is a wide dissimilarity between Pedobaptist churches and the primitive churches, in reference to the Lord's Supper. In the primitive churches, all who were baptized, and members of the church, were admitted to the Lord's table. None, who were considered proper subjects of baptism, and who had received that rite. were excluded from the communion. But Pedobaptists contend that infants are proper subjects, and that sprinkling is the proper mode. Every infant who is sprinkled, then, according to their view, is properly baptized, and is a member in the visible church and ought, according to their own reasoning, to be admitted to the Lord's table. Pedobaptists are most inveterate close communionists. They are very eloquent against the bigotry and closeness of the Baptists, for not admitting members of Pedobaptist churches to the Lord's table; but surely they should not expect us to receive persons whom we consider unbaptized, when they will not receive their own baptized members. All whom we consider baptized, and who are members of our churches, we receive; so did the primitive churches. But Pedobaptists have large numbers, whom they consider baptized members of their churches, whom they do not admit to the Lord's table. This is a kind of "close communion " that we have never practised.
4. There is a dissimilarity in the government of Pedobaptist churches and the primitive churches. One was independent; the other is arbitrary, despotic, and tyrannical. I exhibited this fully in my lecture on the "Equality of Christ's Disciples," and therefore need not repeat the arguments here.
III. Baptists aim to Restore the Order of the Primitive Churches. They make no appeal to tradition, the Fathers, or expediency. They simply ask, "What do the Scriptures teach?" They follow the New Testament model of a church, and invite all to test them by it. It is not strange, therefore, that they confidently appeal to God's Word for proof of the correctness of all they do. They take it all from the Bible, and therefore they know it can all be found there. Take any Scripture account of the course pursued by the apostles, or of the practice of gospel churches, and you will find the counterpart in a Baptist church.
Like the primitive churches, they are composed of immersed believers. Show us an instance of the baptism of an infant in the primitive churches, and we will then baptize infants. But until you do, we will oppose infant sprinkling as an innovation of man, having no divine authority, and therefore sinful, when performed in the nanie of Jehovah.
Like the primitive churches, Baptists admit none to the Lord's table but those who are immersed on profession of their faith. Show us an instance of a gospel church doing otherwise, and we will conform to the model.
Like the primitive churches, Baptists are independent in their government. Show us a pope, or bishop, or conference, or synod, or presbytery, or council, authorized to govern the church, and we will submit to just such authority as you can show us in the Bible.
Our position in these matters is illustrated by a narrative contained in a tract, published by the American Tract Society, entitled "Mick Healy, the Bible Reader." Mick had been a strict Roman Catholic for fifty years. One day he accidentally found a Bible, and commenced reading it. The more he read, the more he neglected the Romish service. The priest at length heard of it, and visited Mick, and sought to get the Bible from him. Failing in this, he began to expostulate with him. He told him he must not read it any more; and reminding him that he had not been to confeseion for a long time, he told him he must come and confess, for it was his duty. Mick held out the Bible to the priest, and said, "Will your riverince please to show it to me in the Book." Now this is just what we say to all the arguments of Pedobaptists. They tell us that all Christian parents should have their infant children sprinkled. We say, "Will you please to show it to us in the Book." They tell us that sprinkling will do as well as to go "down into the water," and be "buried in baptism," and "come up out of the water." We say, "Will you please to show it to us in the Book."
After some time, Mick united with a Protestant church, and regularly attended the Sunday-school. The children used frequently to gather round hiin, and put questions to him, to hear his answers: "Well, Mick, why don't you now pray to the Virgin Mary?" "Because it is not in the Book." "Why don't you now confess your sins to Peter and Paul, Mick?" " Because it is not in the Book." "Why do you believe the Bible to be sufficient to make you wise unto salvation, withont tradition?" "Oh, sure, it is all in the Book." " Must every thing in religion be proved by the Bible, Mick?" "Yes; whatever is not so, is only moonshine." Now our Pedobaptist friends ask us why we do not sprinkle infants; we reply, "It is not in the Book." They wish to know why we "go down into the water," and immerse those who believe, and "come up out of the water." We reply, with Mick, "Oh, sure, it is all in the Book." They ask us why we do not admit to the Lord's table with us those who are unbaptized. We reply, "It is not in the Book; and whatever is not in the Book is only moonshine." We aim to be Bible Christians, and to make our churches Bible churches. In upholding Baptist sentiments, we simply aim to perpetuate primitive Christianity.
We resemble the primitive Christians in another respect we are "every where spoken against." This we expect, so long as men follow Tradition rather than the Word of God, and are influenced by the teachings of men, rather than by the example of Christ; but, when the Bible, and especially the Bible faithfully translated, is made the standard, then we shall triumph. We make no arrogant assumptions; we utter no idle boast; but we simply use the language of humble confidence and firm faith.
The progress of the Baptist denomination can be arrested only by taking the Bible away from the people; for, while they possess that, in spite of priests and princes, scaffolds and faggots, tortures and death, some will be found, as in all ages some have been found, who will contend for primitive simplicity, primitive purity, primitive order. On the other hand, Pedobaptism can only succeed by withholding the Bible from tlie people, or veiling the command to be immersed in an unknown tongue, or calling human tradition to support it, and enlisting carnal weapons to defend it. But its days are numbered; it is in its decline. Its end approaches; and soon will be heard the vocal shout, "Babylon the great is fallen, fallen," and Rome, and all that is Romish, infant sprinkling and all, shall be destroyed. And so let it be!
Do not imagine, from these remarks, that I cherish any feelings of animosity toward those who practice infant baptism. No; far from it, I sincerely pity them. Especially do I pity the priests and ministers who are engaged in defending it. So much labor in vain so much pains for nought. Has not Christ said, " Every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted up! " Oh, how much better to come out on Gospel ground, take the Bible and follow Christ, and enjoy the sweet and abiding confidence that you have done what is right!
 Directory for Worship, chap. 9, sec. 1.
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