A CONDENSED HISTORY

OF THE

GENERAL BAPTISTS OF THE NEW CONNEXION.

PRECEDED BT

HISTOKICAL SKETCHES OE THE EAKLY BAPTISTS.

/ BY J. H/ WOOD.

WITH A RECOMMENDATORY PREFACE BY J. G. PIKE.

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND Co. LEICESTER: J. F. WINKS.

MDCCCXLV1I.

KECOMMENDATOKY PKE^ACE.

__ ~j| o M

My esteemed brother, the Author of this volume, requested 4 an introductory Essay from me. A multiplicity of imperative duties, and feeble health, prevented my complying with his request. But I cheerfully offer my humble testimony to the value of his little work. Though small in size and low in price, it must have cost him much time and great labour. An abun- dant mass of interesting details and of statistical information is included in comparatively a narrow space. There is much in this volume to interest as well as to instruct, and much that is useful for occasional reference. For Baptists generally, it is a compendium of valuable information ; and especially should it be welcomed by that branch of the Baptist body for whose benefit it is particularly intended. Their ancestors had the honour of being the first, in modern times, to advocate the sacred rights of conscience. They did this almost a century before Locke advocated the views they had asserted. The honour of publishing the pamphlet entitled "Persecution for Religion judged and condemned," has been claimed by our Independent brethren, but the claim is unfounded in truth — it belongs to the General Baptists. This volume records the sufferings and faithfulness of these servants of our God.

I take the liberty of cordially recommending it to Christians, — to Baptists, and more especially to the members of the New Connexion of General Baptists.

Let the younger members of that body learn from this volume what their predecessors endured, in support of the principles they maintain, and to secure the privileges they enjoy ; and let them learn to be followers of them who through faith and patience are inheriting the promises.

J. G. PIKE.

Derby, May 21, 1647.

a2

GENERAL INDEX.

ALBIGENSES, 42 ; identity with Waldenses, &c, 78 ; (see Baptists in France;) in England, 87 — American General Baptists, 234 — Amersham, General Baptists at, 93 — Anabaptists in England, 97 — Anglo-Saxons, baptism of, 85 — Antichrist, rise of, 14; spirit of, 66 — Apostolic doctrine and practice, continuance in, 6 — Arian emperors, 19 — Aries, council of, 82 — Aylesbury, General Baptists condemned to death, 139.

BAPTISM, the sacred historian on, 2 ; in Greek church, 8 ; Irenseus on, 41 ; Justin Martyr on, G; Tertullian on, 9; Waldenses on, 36: Luther on, 67 ; first record of a child's, 9 ; of minors, 85 ; at midnight, 121; subjects to imprisonment, 123 — Bearing each other's burdens, 124 — Beast, character of, 105 — Berengarians, 45, 87 — Bible pre- served by baptists, 10 — Bible designated damnable, 96 — Bishop ex- plained, 3; a valiant one, 141 — Bohemia, baptists in, 61; United Brethren, 64 — Boy refutes a monk,77 — Bulgaria, baptists in, 13 — Butchery of Waldenses described by a Catholic, 32.

BAPTISTS, origin, 2; witnesses of the truth, 44; maxim of their pecu- liarities^?; cause and means of extension, 74; succession of, 79; cherish principles of liberty, 43,107, 143 ; drowned in a barrel, 72 ; testimony to character by Catholics,29, 47, 55, 57, 73, 76, 80, 89 ; by others, 16, 26, 54, 67, 101-2 ; obligation of, 375.

BRITAIN, BAPTISTS IN.— Early British churches, 81— Persecution; number and order of the churches, 82 — Christianity in Scotland, 83 — Churches in Wales, 83 — Ireland, was (St.) Patrick a baptist? 84 — Baptism of the Anglo-Saxons, 85 — Infant baptism introduced and en- forced, 85 — The Waldenses in England, 87 — Heresy punished with death, 88 — Moral influence of the Waldenses and the clergy, 89 — THE LOLLARDS, 90— Their sentiments, 91 —Waldenses and Lollards in Scotland, 92 — Power and cruelty of the popish clergy, 92 — Number, con- tinued persecution, and character, 94 — Zeal and love foT the truth, 95 — Awful specimens of popish accusations, 96 — Henry VIII. and the bap- tists, 96 — Archbishop Cranmer and the baptists, 98 — Mary, 99 — Queen Elizabeth and the baptists, 100 —Sentiments of the baptists from a clerical opponent, 100— An expatriating edict, 101 — Character and num- ber of the baptists, 101 — Introduction of sprinkling, 102.

CALABRIA, Waldenses in, 29; extermination, 32 — Cataphrygians,^ — Catholics and early Puritans, comparative numbers, 20 — Chester- ton, baptists do penance, 94 — Children carefully instructed, 76 — Church and state, fruits of first alliance, 17— Christianity, continued purity, 6; corruption, 14— Clergy, immorality, 89; power and cruelty, 92 — Clergyman, good advice of, 168 — Cobham burnt, 94 — Constantine, emperor, 17 — Cranmer and the baptists, 97, 98 — Cromwell, generous interposition, 33 ; grants religious liberty, 123— Cruelty, specimens of 49— Crusaders, 48— Culdees, 83.

GENERAL INDEX. V.

DARK ages, 87 ; lights in, 22— Deliverances, remarkable, 144— Despotism, victims of, 143 — Dioclesian persecution, remark- able feature of, 10 ; in England, 82 — Discussions, public, 126 — Donatists, 16.

EDWARD VI., 98; immersed, 102— Elizabeth, enforces conformity, 100; immersed, 102; banishes the baptists,101 — Extension, cause and means of, 74.

EASTERN CHURCHES.— Baptism, 8— The Montanists, or Cata- phrygians, 8 — First record of a child's baptism, 9 — Baptists under the Dioclesian persecution, 10 — Emperors and nonconformists, 10 — The Paulicians in Armenia, 11 — Persecution and extension, 12— A cruel empress and popish inquisitors, 12 — Providential arrangement, 13.

FAITH, trials of, 196— Fanatics, 125 — Fleetwood opposes the designs of Cromwell, 113 — Fuller, Andrew, and Dan Taylor, 194.

FRANCE AND SPAIN, BAPTISTS IN.— Early existence of Christianity, 39 — Irenseus, clerical assumption rebuked, 40 — Earliest allusion to pouring, 40 — Novatians in France, 41 — Waldenses and Albigenses, an- tiquity and identity, 42 ; their sentiments, 42 — Spanish churches, 43 — Invasion of the Moors, 43 — Spread of baptism, 44 — Light in darkness, 44 — The baptists persecuted and recruited, 45 — Bruno and Berengarius, 45 — Peter de Bruys and Henry of Toulouse, 45 — Peter of Lyons, or Peter Waldo, 46— Pope Innocent III., 47 — The Crusaders, 48 — Speci- mens of cruelty, 49 — The inquisition, 50— A short respite, 51— A solitary victim, 51 — A popish holocaust, 52 — A million lives sacrificed, 53 — A remnant preserved, 54 — Martyrdom of Waldenses, 54 — Impor- tant testimony to character, 55 — Devastation and slaughter, 56 — Why were they persecuted ? 57.

f^ ASTALDO, order of, 33— Gazari, 28, 59— Greece, early churches, 8,

GENERAL BAPTISTS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.— John Smyth, 103 — John Smyth becomes a baptist, 103 — General Bap- tist church formed, 104— Confession of faith, 104— Earliest treatise on liberty of conscience, 105 — The character of the beast, 105— Return to England, 106— Persecution judged and condemned, 106 — Principles of religious liberty, 107— Appeal to the king, 108 — Testimony of an episcopalian, 108— General Baptists imprisoned at Yarmouth, 109 — Archbishop Laud and the baptists, 109 —The statue of gold— A list of General Baptist churches, 116 — Confused state of the nation, 119 — Henry Denne. Extension of the cause, 119 — Pres- byterian intolerance, 121 — Baptism at midnight, 121 — Trial for mnrder, 122 — Baptists at Nottingham ; colonel Hutchinson, 123 — Liberty of conscience, 123 — Thomas Grantham, 124 — Bearing each other's burdens, 124 — Internal troubles, 125 — Itinerant labours. As- sociation at Stamford, 125— Public discussions, 126 — Attachment to the great doctrine, 127 — Character and numbers, 128— List of churches, 129 — Confession of faith, 131 — An orthodox creed, 132— Messengers, 133 — Imposition of hands, 133 — Discipline, 134— General assembly,

Vl' GENERAL INDEX.

association, &c, 135— Fifth -monarchy men, 135 — Laws affecting dis- senters, 136— Appeals to the king, 137 — Protest against interference in religion, 137 — Military outrages, 138— The governor of Deal Castle a General Baptist, 139— General Baptists condemned to death, 139 — Jeremiah Ives and the priest, 140 — Man-takers, 140— Persecuting priests, 141 — Proceedings of the churches, 142 — John Milton a General Baptist, 142 — The victims of despotism, 143 — Bern arkable deliverances, 144 — Prosperity in affliction, 144 — Act of toleration, 145 — Elements of decay, Matthew Caffin, 146— The body divided, 346— Dan Taylor on the decay of the churches, 147 — Cause of the decline, 148— A rem- nant, J 49— An obituary, 150.

GEEMANY AND HOLLAND, BAPTISTS IN.— Early existence, 58— Infant baptism, 59 — Number of baptists, 59— Heresy, 60 — Peter Waldo in Germany, 60 — Baptists in Bohemia, 61 — Persecution in Germany, 61 — Walter Lollard, 62 — John Huss, 62 — Martyrdom r of John Huss, 63 — The United Brethren, 64 — The spirit of Antichrist, 66 — Retribution, 66— Baptists at the Reformation, 67--Luther and the baptists, 67 — The baptists scattered, 68— The affray at Munster, 69 — Baptists in Holland, Menno baptized, 69 — A great reformer, 70 — Antiquity of the Dutch Baptists, 71 — Societies formed, 72 — Baptist drowned in a barrel, 72 — Spirit and character of the martyrs, 73 — Religious liberty realized, 74.

H

ENRICIANS, 46— Henry VII., persecution under, 94— Henry VIII., 95, 96— Heresy, 60, 88; the book of, 96— Heretics, English law for burning, 88 — Holland (see Germany) — Hossius, on antiquity of baptists, 80 — Huss, martyrdom of, 63 — Hutchinson, colonel, 123.

IDENTIFICATION of sects, 77— Independence of early churches, 4 ; of General Baptists, 236 — Innocent of Rome, 28, 47 — Inquisition, 50 — Inquisitors, sanguinary extirpation by, 12 ; in France, 48, 54 ; in Germany, 62- — Interdict (papal) on England, 89 — Ireland, baptists in, 85, 113 — Ireneeus rebukes the bishop of Rome, 40 — Itinerancy, 59, 75 — Ives, Jeremiah and thepriest, 140 — Just-fast-men, 93 — John (King),88.

ITALY, BAPTISTS IN.— Early churches, 13— Bishop of Rome; rise of Antichrist, 14 — Purification of the church ; the Novatians, 15 — Prin- ciples of the Novatians, 16 — The Donatists, 16 — Constantine ; church and state, 17 — Consistent christians; council of Nice, IS — Arian emperors, 19 — Comparative numbers of the early Puritans and Catho- lics, 20 — Proscription and amalgamation, 22 — Persecuting bishop, 23 — The position and importance of the Novatian churches, 23 — Wal- denses of Piedmont, origin and antiquity, 25 — The Paterines, 26 — Extension and number of the Waldenses, 27— Popish impiety ; Arnold of Brescia, 27 — The Paterines persecuted, 28 — The Waldenses emi- grate from Piedmont, 29 — Outrage on the Waldenses, 30 — Military attack on the Waldenses, 30 — The Waldenses and the Reformers, 31 — Extermination of the Waldenses in Calabria, 32 — Proceedings against the Waldenses in Piedmont, 32— Generous interposition; Cromwell and Milton, 33 — Last act of the tragedy, 34 — Sentiments of the Wal- denses, 35 — The Waldenses were baptists, 36.

K

GENERAL INDEX.

YLE, Lollards of, 92— Kent, Joan of, burnt, 98.

LANFRANC (archbishop) writes against baptists, 87 — Lateran council, 28, 49, 89 — Laws affecting dissenters, 136 — Liberty of conscience, earliest treatise on, 105*; principles of, 107, 110, 123, 137 — Luther and the baptists, 67.

LOLLARDS.— (See Britain, Baptists in.)

AN-TAKERS, 140— Martyrs, spirit of, 73, 64— Mary, queen, 99—

Massacre of three thousand, 57 — Mennonites, 71 — Million of

lives sacrificed, 53 — Milton, 142 ; writes in behalf of Waldenses, 33 —

Montanists, 8 — Moravia, United Brethren, 64 — Munster, affray at, 69

— Murder, baptist tried for, 122.

ICE, Council of, 18; and British christians, 82. Novatians, rise of, 15; principles, 16 ; preserve the Bible, 10; oppose Arianisru, 18; refuse to conform, 19; position and importance, 23; in France, 41; progenitors of Waldenses, 25; identified with the Paterines, 18, 26.

M

N

O

FFICERS, how elected in early churches, 3 — Oriya words ex- plained, 366.

P.EDOBAPTISM, absence of in early ages, 7; in Germany, 59; Luther on, 67 ; Wickliffe on, 91 ; introduced and enforced in Britain, 85 — Paterines, 26; persecuted, 28 — Patrick (St.) was he a baptist? 84 — Paulicians, 11; recruit the churches, 13; in France, 44, 45; in England, 88 — Persecution, inducements to, 57; judged and con- demned, 106— Picards, 47, 60, 66, 90— Piedmont described, 25 (see Waldenses) — Pope, title first used, 14; begins to dictate, 14; Innocent III., 47 — Popish impiety, 27 ; holocaust, 52; awful accu- sations, 96 ; priest foiled by a General Baptist, 140 — Pouring, earliest allusion to, 40 — Prelacy, bill to extirpate, 119 — Presbyterian intolerance, 121, 123 — Priests, persecuting, 141.

PARTICULAR BAPTISTS, rise of, 111; churches formed, 111; con- fession of faith, 112 ; baptists in Wales, 112 ; baptists in Ireland, 1 13 ; baptists in Scotland, 114; increase, persecution, &c, 115.

PRIMITIVE CHURCHES.— The statute of the christian church, 1— Churches planted, 2 — Officers, 2 — Election to office, 3 — Independence and union of the churches, 4— Extemporaneous prayers, 5 — Voluntary contributions, 5 — Continuance in the apostles' doctrine and practice, 6 — Absence of paedobaptism, 7.

REFORMATION, baptists at, 67— Reformer, a great, 70— Retribution, 66 — Rome, bishop of, 14.

REFORMERS, WORTHIES, &c— Arnold of Brescia, 27. Asecius, 19. Berengarius, 45. Christopher Blackwood, 113, 115, 120. Bruno, 45. Peter deBruys, 45. Leonard Busher, 105. Matthew Caffin, 146. Henry Denne, 119, 121, 125. Fabius, 15. Thomas Grantham, 124, 128, 138,

* See " Corrections and Additions," page xvi.

Vlll. INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION.

141. Thomas Helwisse, 106. Hinchmar,44. JohnHuss,62. Irenaeus,40. Jeremiah Ives, 140. W. andD.Jeffery, 120. Justin Martyr, 5, 6. Jerome, 62. HanserdKnollys,115. ThomasLamb, 109,121. Leutard,44. Walter Lollard, 62, 90. Luther, 31, 67. Thomas Mann, 95. Marcian, 15,41. Maximus, 15. Menno, 69. Montanus, 8. Novatian, 15, 16. Patrick (St.) 84. Polycarp, 40. John Smyth, 103. William Swinderby, 95. Sylvanus, 11. Dan Taylor, 173. Tertullian 9. Wickliffe, 91. Peter Waldo, 46, 60. (See also the " Obituary," page 150.)

SAWTREE, William, burnt, 93 — Saxons subdue Briton, 85— Sclavonia, baptists in, 12 — Scotland, Christianity in, 83 ; baptists in, 114 — Sects, early orthodox, 20 — Sprinkling introduced into England, 102 — Stamford, association at, 125 — Statue of gold, 110 — Statute of the christian church 1 — Succession of baptists, 79.

rpOLERATION Act, 145— Trinity, doctrine of, 6, 11, 16.

"YTlCTIM, a solitary, 51— Voltaire quoted, 54.

"Y1TALDEN8ES, of Piedmont, 25; principles, 35, 42; number, 27; Tf emigrate, 29; outrage on, 30; military attack on, 30; and Re- formers, 31; proceedings against, 32; relieved by Cromwell, 33; inhumanly butchered, 34; in Calabria, 29, 32; were baptists, 36; in France, 42 ; in England, 87; moral influence, 89; in Scotland, 92.

WALES, baptists in, 83, 86, 112, 234— William III., 145.

r^URICH, baptists persecuted, 68.

INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION.

NEW CONNEXION OF GENEEAL BAPTISTS.-Thh Barton Soci- ety. — General declension, 157 — The darkness penetrated, 158 — Sam- uel Deacon, Joseph Donisthorpe, and others, awakened, 158 — Persecu- tion at Barton, 159 — The dissenters unjustly condemned, 160 — The first church, meeting-house, and pulpit, 161 — Accession of labourers; ministers licensed, 162 — Indictment for adultery, 163— Extension of the cause, 164 — Adoption of baptism, 165 — General progress, 166— .A traitor at Melbourne, 166 — William Smith and the vicar of Exhall, 167.

The Five Midland Churches. — Division into five churches, 168 — Clerical and magisterial opposition, 169 — The mandamus, 170 — Statistics of the churches in 1770, 170 — Observations on exertion and success, 171.

Formation of the New Connexion. — Rise of General Baptists in Yorkshire, 173 — A union proposed, 175 — The New Connexion form- ed, 176— Articles of Religion, 177.

INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION. IX.

Short Notes. — Second and third Associations, 179 — Association rules, 179 — Church formed at Nottingham, 185 — Eevival of the church at Leicester, 186 — The cause strengthened and extended, 187 — Attempts at re-union, 188 — Members of the Association, 190 — Church formed at Derby, 193 — The sailor and the dippers, 194 — Dan Taylor and Andrew Fuller, 194 — Persecution at Hose, 195— Trials of faith, 196— General progress, 196 — State of the churches, 202 — Success at Beeston, 202 — French officers baptized, 203 — Borough-road church revived, 203 — An opponent subdued 204 — Remarks on progress, 212 — Zeal re-kindled, 225 — Care for the churches, 225 — American and Welsh General Baptists, 234 — Out-of-door preaching, 235 — Baptism at Stamford, 235 — Outrage on Mr. Peggs, 236— Independence of the churches, 236 — Revival meetings, 237 — Church gathered by a converted Jew, 237 — Centenary at Barton, 238* — A striking contrast, 239 — Compara- tive increase of members, 239 — The past and the future, 240.

Table of Churches. — Explanation of the table, 180* — Alfreton and Eipley, 230-Allerton, 227— Ashby and Packington, 207 — fAshford, 184-fAshbourne, 228— Audlem, 233— Austrey, 207 — f Aylesbury, 230— Barton, 181— fBarnstaple, 229— fBasford, 230 —Beeston, 206— Belper, 226— Berkhampstead, &c, 207— Billes- don, 211 — Birchcliffe, 182 — Birmingham, 191; f Edmund-street, 227— Boston, 182— Boughton, 228— Bourne, 192— Bradford, 229 — fBradwell, 208— Broughton and Hose, 205— Burnley, 184— Burton-on-Trent, 227— Castleacre, 231— Castle Donington, 191 — Cauldwell, 191*— fChatham, 208— Chatteris, 209— Chesterfield, 232— Clavton, 228— Colwell, 232— Cong] eton, 232— Coningsby, 228— Coventry, 226— Cradley Heath, 230-Crich, 229— Derby, Brook-street, 233 ; Mary's-gate, 192; Sacheverel-street, 229 — Down- ton, 206— Duffield, 207— Earl Shilton, 212— Epworth, &c, 209— Fenstanton, 232— Fleckney and Smeeton, 210— Fleet, 208— Ford, 210— Forncett, 208— Gamston and Retford, 191— Gedney-hill, 211— Gosberton, 184— Halifax, 184— fHalton East, 227— fHarbury, 182 Hathern,233— Heptonstall Slack, 206 -Hinckley, 182— Hugglescote, 192— Ilkeston, 191— f Ipswich, 208— Isleham, 229— Kegworth and Diseworth, 181 — Killingholrae, 183— Kirkby Woodhouse, 181— f Kir- ton, 232 — Kirton-in-Lindsey,183 — Knipton,205 — Leake and Wimes- would, 184 — Leeds, 231 — Leicester, Archdeacon-lane, 206; Carley- street, 227; Dover-street, 227 ; Friar-lane, 184; Vine-street, 233— Lincoln, 226 — Lineholm, 209 — London, Borough-road, 193; Charles- street, 233 ; Commercial-road, 191; f Edward-street, 230 — Euston- square, 231; New church-street, 229; Praed-street, 231 — Longford, 1st, 181; Union-place, 228-+Long Sutton, 182— Long Sutton, 231 — Long Whatton, 193 — fLongwood, 191 — Loughborough, 181 — Louth, 205— Lyndhurst, 232— Macclesfield, 226— Magdalen, &c, 226— Maltby and Alford, 182— Manchester, 226— Mansfield, 211— March, 193 — Market Harborough, 229 — Measham and Netherseal, 231— Melbourne and Ticknall, 181— +Mersham, 228— fMisterton, 209— Morcott and Barrowden, 209— fNantwich, 208 — fNetherseal, 228-Netherton, 212— Northampton, 228— Norwich, 211; fPros- pect-place, 226— Nottingham, Broad-street, 211; Stoney- street, 183

* See " Corrections and Additions," page xvi.

INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION.

— fNuneaton, 227— +Perth, 230— Peterborough, 205— Pinchbeck, 233— Portsea, 206— fPreston, 228— Queniborough, &c, 232— Queeushead, 182 — Quorndon and Woodhouse, 206 — Ramsgate, 233 — Eocester, 230— Rothley and Sileby, 205— Rushall, 230— Seven- oaks, 212— Sheffield, 231,— Shore, 192— Smalley, 226— Smarden, 210— Spalding, 192— Staley- bridge, 209 - fStarnford, 228— St. Ives, 192* — Stockport, 230 — Stoke-on-Trent, 232 — Sutterton, 207— Sutton-iu-Ashfield,211 — Sutton Bonington, 205 — fSutton ColdSeld, 183— fSyston, 227— Tarporlev, 2 1 0— Thurlaston, 208- -f-Tipton, 227 — fTiverton, 230— Tydd St. Giles, 192 -Walsall, 233— Warsop, 231— Wendover, 211— Wheelock Heath, 233— Whittlesea, 227— Wirksworth, 210— Wisbech, 185— Wolverhampton, 229— Wolvey, 209— f Woodhouse Eaves, 208- fWrotham, 209— Yarmouth, 183.

The Obituary. — Aldridge, John, 199— Allsop, John, 249 — Anderson, Joseph, 189— Atierby, William, 258— Bampton, William, 251— Barrow, Joseph, 252— Bartol, John, 214— Beardsall, Francis, 263 — Binns, Joseph, 256 — Birch, John, 253 — Birley, George, 243 — Bissill, John, 268 — Booth, John, 216 — Brewin, Jacob, 217 — Brittain, John, 199 — Burditt, Job, 197— Burgess, William, 216 — Chesman, David, 253— Compton, Robert. 256— Corah, William, 214— Cramp, John,247 — Cropper, J. M., 247 — Deacon, John, 242 — Deacon, Samuel, sen., 215 — Deacon, Samuel, jun., 217 — Dean, George, 253 — Donis- thorpe, Joseph, 189— Dossey, John, 198 — Ellis, Joseph, 244 — Ewen, Thomas, 274— Farrent, John, 253— Felkin, William, 244— Foster, Edward, 216 — Freeston, Joseph, 222 — Gamble, Thomas, 257— Goadby, Joseph, 262— Goddard, J. W., 215 -Grant, Thomas, 267 — Green, John, 223 — Green, Joseph, 214 — Gregory, Cornelius, 242 — Grimley, John, 197 — Gunning, Thomas, 267 — Hannah, John, 200-Hardstaff, George, 267— Hobbs, Joseph, 260— Hoe, Thomas, 259 — Hosmar, Daniel, 246 — Ingham, Jeremy, 200 — Ingham, Richard, 265 — Jarrom, Joseph, 264— Jeffery, Joseph, 198— Jones, William, 255— Keighley, C. E., 268— Kingsford, John, 224— Mills, Charles, 274— Norton, Charles, 201 — Orton, Thomas, 270— Perkins, Thomas, 198— Pickering, Nathaniel, 216- Pickering, Thomas, 213— Pollard, Benjamin, 221— Rogers, Thomas, 259 — Sexton, Edward, 255 — Sexton, John, 246— Scott, Jonathan, 198— Scott, Joseph, 247— Smart, James, 224— Smedley, John, 246— Smith, Francis, 199 — Smith, John, 213— Smith Robert, 248— Smith, William, 200— Spencer, John, 223 — Stenson, Silas, 252 — Stevenson, Thomas, 260-Sutcliffe, John, 201— Talbot, C. B., 267— Tarratt, John, 220— Taylor, Dan, 218 -Taylor, James, 272— Taylor, John, 222— Taylor, Stephen 274— Taylor, William, 250— Thompson, J. S., 257— Thompson, William, 198 — Thurman, Richard, 243 — Truman, Thomas, 201— Tutty, William, 263— Underwood. John, 254— Wesley, Thomas, 244— Whitaker, Edmund, 213— Wilders John, 269— Yates, John, 189.

The Association.— Original rules, 179 ; an assembly of delegates, 190; constitution, 276; rules for business, 278; resolutions, 281; annual statistics, 284; circular" letters, 284; Publications, 310.

CONFEBENCES, 296.*

* See " Corrections and Additions," page xvi.

INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION. XI.

The Academy, formed, 302; at Wisbech, 304; Education Society, 305; Academy at Loughborough, 306 ; in London, 3<)6; at Leicester, 307 ; constitution and rules, 308; finances, 310 ; fund and trustees, 310.

Home Mission. — Itinerant Fund, 311 — Home Mission, 312— New con- stitution, 312— Home missionary meetings, 313 — A worthy example, 313 — Progress, 313 — Reorganization of the midland Home Mission, 314 — Yorkshire and midland districts, 314— Cheshire and Lanca- shire district, 314 — London district, 315 — Lincolnshire district, 315 — Regulations; legacies, 315— A voice from the tomb, 316.

Foreign Missionary Society, formed, 317; India chosen, 317; West Indies, 318; China, 318; list of missionaries, 310; memorial of divine goodness, 319 ; finances, 320; constitution, &c, 320.

Sketch of the Orissa Mission. — First missionaries, 321 — The departure, 321 — Orissa, 322 — Awful nature of Hindooism, 322 — Caste, 323 — Degraded state of the females, 324 — Commencement of labour at Cuttack; first station, 325 — First address, 325 — First church, 325 — Pooree or Juggernaut; second station, 326 — Horrors of the pilgrimage, 326 — Mr. Lacey, 327— Mode and extent of labour, 327— Mr. and Mrs. Sutton, 328— A suttee; widow rescued from death by Mr. Sutton, 329— Return of Mr. Peggs, 330— First meeting-house at Cuttack, 330— Erun, the first Hindoo con- vert, 330— Baptismal formula, 330 — Balasore ; third station, 331 — Mr. Cropper, 331 — Gunga Dhor, first Oriya convert, 331 — Gunga Dhor's baptism, 332 — Importance of Gunga Dhor's con- version, 333 — First Oriya preacher, 333 — Orphan asylums, 333 — Rama Chundra, second native preacher, 334 — Benevolent insti- tution; Mr. Brown, 334— Conspiracy against the christians, 335 — Death of Mr. Bampton, 335 — The best memorial, 330 — Blossoms in the desert, 336 — Removal of Mr. Sutton to Pooree, 337 — Forsaking all for Christ, 337 — Christianpoor, native christian village, 338— Dojtari, third native preacher, 339— First native christian marriage, 339— The marriage feast, 340— Mr. John Goadby, 340— Return of Mr. Sutton, 341— Mr. John Brooks; Midnapore, 341 — Ordination of native preachers, 342 — Return of Mr. Lacey, 342 — New English meeting-house at Cuttack, 342— Berhampore; Mr. Stubbins, 342 — Second ordination of native preachers, 343— The child and the devotee, 343— Death of Lockshmeebie, 343 —Progress reported, 345 — Miss Kirkman : female schools, 345— The Khunds, 346— Human victims: children rescued from sacrifice, 346 — Print- ing establishment: Mr. W. Brooks, 347 — Meeting-house enlarged at Cuttack, 348— Ganjam; Mr. Wilkinson, 348— Khunditta, or Beecher-Naggur, 349— Meeting-houses at Berhampore, 349 — Native missionary meeting, 350— Mr. Grant, Mr. W. Brooks, and Miss Derry, 350 — Benevolent institution relinquished, 351 — Removal of Mr. J. Brooks to Calcutta, 351- Return of Mr. Stubbins, 351— A peep at Miss Derry's school, 351 — Mr. Buckley, 352 — Mr. Bailey, and Mr. Millar, 352— Mr. Stubbins' return to India; Miss Jemima Collins, 353 — Odhyapoor, Choga, 353 — Interesting move- ment at Choga, 354 — Orissa mission college, 354— Return of Mr.

-11- INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION.

and Mrs. Wilkinson ; Ganjam relinquished, 355 — Conduct of native christians, 355 — Native preachers, 357 — The stations, loca- tions, &c, 361— General results, 363 — The great doctrine, 364— Vitality of the truth, 364— Tribute to the Missionaries, 365— A liberal donation, 366 — Grateful thanks and urgent request, 366 — Oriya words explained, 366.

The New Connexion in 1846— Statistics of the churches, 368— Statistical summary, 371 — Notes and observations on the statistics, 372 — Docrines, 373— Conclusion: obligation of baptists, 375.

Places Refebbed to. — Annesley Woodhouse, 164. Ashby, 203. — Barton, 159, 161-5-9, 171-6-9, 187, 197, 238. Barrow-on-Soar,26l— Beeston, 202. Belton, 187. Berkhampstead, 197. Bessell's Green, 176. Birchcliffe, 174, 188. Birmingham, 214, 250. Boston, 174-6-9, 188. Bourne, 236. Burnley, 188, 197.— Castle Donington, 164-9, 180-5-7, 194-7, 316; Donington Hall, 158, 199. Canterbury, 224. Castle Headingham, 176. Charnwood Forest, 162. Chatham, 260. Cauldwell, 187, 194. Chilwell, 202. Coggeshall, 176.— Dale Moor, 169. Deal, 176, 221. Derby, 193-4. Diseworth, 164-9, 187, 197. Donington-on-the-Heath, 162.— Exhall, 167. Eythorne, 176. —Fleet, 176-9. Foleshill, 168.— Gamston, 174, 198. Glenfield, 158. Gotham, 169.- Hackonby, 236. Halifax, 174, 188. Halsted, 176. Heptonstall, 173. Hinckley, 162-5-9, 171, 188, 238. Hipper- holm,218. Horsleydown,199. Hose, 195. Hugglescote, 162-9,171-9. Hythe, 221.— Ilkeston, 187, 194-7, 202.— Kegworth, 164-6-9, 171- 6-9, 187, 196. Kirkby Woodhouse, 164-9, 171. Kirk Hallam, 244. Knipton, 197.- Leake, 166-9, 187, 195-7. Leicester, 160-3, 186,238, 257. Lincoln, 175. Little Hallam, 169. Longford, 169, 171-6-9,188. Long Sutton, 196. Long Whatton, 169, 187. Longwood, 216. Loughborough, 164-6-9, 171-6-9, 185-7, 238. London, 176-9. Louth, 237.— Mansfield, 204. Markfield, 159, 169. Measham, 169, 238. Melbourne, 164-6-9, 171-6-9, 185-7, 196, 238-9.-Nail- stone, 159. Nottingham, 185, 197, 202, 238, 316.— Osbaston, 159, 161, 239. Okesbury-lane, 247.— Packington, 169, 187. Park, Southwark, 176, 203. Pinchbeck, 237. Portsmouth, 224.— Queens- head, 188, 197. Quorndon, 169, 187.-Ratby, 158, 169, 171. Rothley, 187.— Sawley, 169, 187. Smeeton, 255. Stamford, 235. Stanton, 169. Sutton Bonington, 187. Sutton Coldfield, 188. Swannington, 162-9. Swithland, 187.— Ticknall, 169, 187. Thur- laston,163, 188. Tydd St. Giles, 196, 213.— Wadswobth, 174-6-9. Widmerpool, 169. Wimeswould, 169, 187. Witheybrook, 188. Wolverhampton, 250. Woodhouse-eaves, 187. Wysall, 169.

Pebsons Refebbed to.— Adcock, W., 162. Aldridge, J., 159, 162ป 163-9, 296. Allsop, J., 318. Ault, 162-5. Austin, A., 188, 214- Bakewell, J., 302. Balm, J., 310. Bampton, W., 317. Beecher> G., 349. Beardsall, F., 235. Binns, J., 197, 297. Bissill, J., 197, 235. Bissill, T. H., 310; Booth, Abraham, 164-9. Boyce, G., 170, 188. Bradley, 164. Brewin, J., 187. Brittain, J.,,176- Brookes (clergyman), 168. ' Bromley, 318. Burditt, J., 187. Burgess, W., 297. Butler, W., 235. Camebon,F.197,237. Carey,

INDEX TO NEW CONNEXION. Xlll.

Dr. (India), 317. Cheatle, W., 164. Clapham, C, 159. Clark, R., 310. Collins, W., 162. Compton, R., 188. Corah, W., 187. Cotton, J., 238. Crompton, S. (mayor of Derby), 167. Deacon, S., sen., 158, 163-9, 172-6, 239, 296. Deacon, S., jun., 186, 187, 239. Deacon, J., 186-7, 311. Derry, J., 238. Dixie, Sir W., 160. Dixon, S., 158, 161-2-4. Donisthorpe,J., 159,163-4-5-9, 296. Dobson,J.,310. Dunch, T. W.,310. Earp,J., 310. Ellis, J., 188. Etches, J., 194. Exhall, vicar of, 167. Felkin, W., 197,241. Fenn,J., 176. Ferney- hough, J., 318. Folds, R , 188. Follows, S., 164. Fox, W., 185. Foxcraft (attorney), 170. French, R., 176. Freeston, J., 187, 297. Fuller, Andrew, 158, 194, 243. Grimley, J., 162-3-9, 175-6, 296. Griffiths, Mrs., 247. Goadby, J., sen., 197, 203, 234-5, 313, 316. Goabv,J.,jun., 238, 241, 307,311. Goddard, J., 187, 193. Guise, Dr., 157. * Hallam, J., 185. Harvey, J., 310. Hall, R., 223, 242, 261, 290. Heard, J., 302, 312. Heathcote, J., 235. Hickling, G., 176. Hobbs, J. 299. Hoe, T., 195-6-7. Howe, Earl, 238. Hudson, T. H.,318. Huntingdon, Lady, 158, 199. Hutchinson, T., 164. Ingham, J., 188. Ingham, R., 276, 307, 310. Jarrom, J., 197, 282, 304-5. Jarrom, W., 318. Jeffery, J., 174. Jeune, Honore' le, 203. Jones, J., 235, 318. Kendrick, W., 161-2-5-8, 221, 296. Kendrick, Mrs., 162. Knott, J., 176. Marshman, Dr. (India), 317. Mee, T., 187. Mitchell, T., 261. Newton, J., (clergyman), 158. Norton, J., 187. Orton, T., 187. Parkinson, E., 188. Parkinson, J., 187. Parkinson, W., 302. Parman, C, 176. Pegg, Mrs., 171. Peggs, J., 235-6, 317. Perkins, T., 169, 176. Pickering, N., 169, 176, 193. Pickering, T., 193-4-7. Pickering, W., 197, 202, 235, 313. Pike, J. G, 235,307-11-16-17-18-19. Pollard, B..186-7 8,316. Poole,H., 176,196. Rogers, T., 197,202. Robinson, R., 243. Rusling, 297. Sanby,K.,310. Scott, Jonathan, 188. Scott, Joseph, 196. Seals,R., 317. Serre,Hyacinthede,203. Sexton, E., 299. Shenstone, J., 299. Shuck (China), 319. Simons, A., 237. Slater, J., 174. Smedley, J., 187,193-4. Smith,A.,235. Smith, F., 162-3-4-9, 172-5-6,193-4,296. Smith, J., 310. Smith, R., 187, 196, 204. Smith, T., 238. Smith, W., 167, 176. Stanger, J., 176. Stenson, J., 187. Stevenson, J., 306-7. Stevenson, T., sen., 235, 305-6,313. Stevenson, T.,jun., 238, 241. Stocks, R., 235. Stubbins, I., 238. Summers, W., 176. Sutcliffe, J., 188. Sutton, A., 234. Taylor, Dan, 173-4-5-6, 193-4-6, 202-3, 284, 299, 302, 310. Taylor, Ab., 157. Taylor, Adam, 310. Taylor, David, 158, 161-2. Taylor, James, 178, 197. Taylor, John (Markfield), 159, 161. Taylor, John (Queenshead), 188. Tarratt, J., 169, 176, 185. Thurman, 185. Thompson, W., 174-5-6, 297. Turville, Dr., 163. Tyers, J., 238, 313. Vaughan, Dr., 266. Wallis, John, 310. Wallis, Joseph, 238, 240-1,307-11-18. Ward (Serampore), 317. Ward, B. L., 366. Watts, Dr., 157. Wesley, J., 158. Whitefield,G., 158,216. Whitaker,E.,197. Whyatt, J., 159, 162-3-4-9, 296. Wilkin, D., 176. Wilkins, W., 310. Winks, J. P., 234-5-8, 241. Wigg, S., 236. Wood, B., 238. Wright, 297.

ORIGIN, PLAN, &c.

Origin. — The compilation of the following pages was sug- gested by a want which the writer has frequently experienced ; and was commenced without any idea of publication. The design was made known and passages were read to inti- mate friends, who stated their conviction that such a work would be generally interesting and useful. The plan was then submitted to several judicious ministers, who expressed the same opinion. That the space might be fully occupied with important and interesting facts, it was resolved to abstain from writing reflections; and how great soever has been the temptation to depart from this resolution, it has been, in general, adhered to.

While it is not presumed that the contents of the volume will be new to those who have access to a good library and are well acquainted with ecclesiastical history ; yet to such they may be of service, as presenting a variety of information which can only be obtained by the perusal of many volumes. But the majority of the members of our churches have not the opportunity of consulting many books — to these, and to the young, it is hoped the compilation will be instructive and useful.

Authorities. — It will be remarked that — except in some instances — authorities are not referred to in foot-notes. Such a reference would be useless to general readers ; and to the eccle- siastical historian it will be sufficient to name the authors whose works have been consulted. Among these are — Mosheim, Milner, Jones, Bingham, Lord King, Lyman Coleman, Hume, Crosby, Ivimey, Neale, Allix, Cave, Dupin. Also Adam Taylor's History of the General Baptists, Orchard's valuable History of Foreign Baptists, Wickliflfe's Tracts, Weekly Christian Teacher, Baptist Magazine, General Baptist Repository, Minutes, Reports, Tract Magazine, Primitive Church Magazine, Taylor's Statistics, &c. The General Baptist statistical information has been ob- tained, in most cases, from the churches.

ORIGIN, PLAN, &C. XV

The Plan. — One leading object has been to present a continuous history of Baptists from primitive times ; confining the modern history chiefly to the General Baptists, for whose use the work is especially designed. Part I. consists of " Historical Sketches." The constitution and order of the primitive churches generally, are first noticed ; then the Baptists are traced in Greece and the East, Italy, France and Spain, Germany and Hollaud : bringing down the history, and proving a succession of Baptists, to the end of the sixteenth century. The Baptist records of Britain next pass under review, from the introduction of Christianity to the period when the continental history closed, and when many pious christians were driven, by the persecution of Elizabeth, to seek refuge in Holland, where an asylum had been prepared by the realization of religious liberty. Part II. is devoted to the General Baptists of the Seven- teenth Century : the formation of a church in Holland intro- duces their history. At the close of the first section of this Part, a digression is made to notice the rise of the Particular Baptist denomination in England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. Having welcomed these brethren and bidden them God speed, the General Baptist narrative is continued to the decline of the body in the former part of the eighteenth century. Part III. is appropriated exclusively to the New Connexion of General Baptists. The origin of the churches in the midland counties and Yorkshire is shewn, and their progress exhibited to the formation of the New Connexion. The subsequent history is divided into four periods, or sections ; each section has three distinct parts — First, "An historical and statistical table," including all the churches which joined the union during that period? their ministerial changes; and their progress, as indicated by the enlargement and erection of meeting-houses and the periodical number of members. Second, " Short Notes" of interesting facts, and remarks on the general progress of the body. Third, " An Obituary," or biographical notices of departed ministers. Chap. 3 is devoted to the Association and Conferences — Chap. 4 to the Institutions and Publications. A sketch of the Orissa Mission occupies Chap. 5 ; and the concluding Chapter furnishes a view of the New Connexion in 1846.

XVI. CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS.

That part of the plan which refers to the New Connexion will, on a careful examination, be found much more comprehen- sive than, at first sight, it appears to be. One page of the " Table" contains as much information as would occupy several pages if given in the form of Narrative : the " Obituary," too, is so arranged as to present historical facts in connexion with biographical notices and lessons: the "Short Notes" detail interesting incidents, and report general progress : and the Table of Associations furnishes a view of the annual progress of the whole body.

The volume is sent forth with the hope that it may subserve the interests of the Redeemer's cause ; especially that branch of it with which the Compiler esteems it his highest honour to be associated.

CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS.

Much care has been taken to procure accuracy ; and when the nature of the work is considered, the errors are as few, probably, as might have been expected. The most important that have been discovered are these—

Page 32, but shozild fee put — 76, sublety, subtlety— 105, Religious Peace, Religion's Peace— 122, goal, gaol— 172 (line 11) his life, that period— 180 (Explanation, fourth line from bottom), 1775, 1755 — 200, rage reference in Francis Smith should be 172 — 201, Quordon, Quorndon— 219, Halfax, Halifax— 239 (line 7) insert some of bpfore the first seven— 281, spiritually, scripturally— 305, John Brooks left 1834—192, a meeting- house Mas not erected at St. Ives in 1806 — W. Norton began to preach at Cauldwell in 1827.

Midland Conference.— Sheffield belongs to this Conference ; and the church in Wood- gate, Loughborough, was received in 1847. Leeds being a station of the Nottingham Circuit reports to this Conference. The September meeting of this Conference is now held on the third Tuesday.

The date of Mr. Jarrom's resignation on page 305 is correct : the students remained with him some time afte,r that period, which may account for the statement on page 265. The discrepancy apparent in this and another instance or two is owing to the variation in printed documents.

A few other typographical inaccuracies in orthography and punctuation need not be pointed out.

PART I.

CHAPTER I.

HISTOEICAL SKETCHES OF THE EAELY BAPTISTS.

SECTION I. PRIMITIVE CHURCHES.

THE STATUTE OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

After the resurrection of the Saviour from the dead, he commanded his disciples to meet him on a mountain in Gali- lee, and there he delivered to them his great commission. He had finished the work which he came into the world to accomplish ; he was about to * ascend to his Father and our Father, to his God and our God" — to reassume " the glory which he had with the Father before the world was." When the disciples were assembled where Jesus had appointed, he came and spake unto them, saying, " All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth :

Go YE, THEREFORE, AND TEACH ALL NATIONS, BAPTIZING THEM IN THE NAME OF THE FATHER, AND OF THE SON, AND OF THE HOLY GHOST : TEACHING THEM TO OBSERVE ALL THINGS WHATSOEVER I HAVE COMMANDED YOU; AND, LO, I AM WITH YOU ALWAY, EVEN UNTO THE END OF THE WORLD."

This is the statute of the Christian church : by the authority of this the disciples proceeded to their great work of organ-

B

"Z HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

ising in the world the kingdom of the Redeemer; and this statute was doubtless designed to be obligatory as long as the promise attached to it remains in force.

CHURCHES PLANTED.

In obedience to their Lord's command, the disciples went forth ; and the narrative of their proceedings, written by Luke and entitled " the Acts of the Apostles," constitutes the first book of the history of the christian church. Their labours were arduous, their excursions extensive. It is generally ad- mitted that before the destruction of Jerusalem, Scythia, India, Gaul, Egypt, and Ethiopia, had received the glad tidings of salvation. Paul himself preached the gospel both in the east and to the utmost parts of the west, planting churches in Asia and Greece, and travelling from Jerusalem to Illyricum — a tract of country which has been computed at no less than two thousand miles. In the sketch of the travels and labours of the first preachers of the gospel given by Luke, it is worthy of remark that every detailed account of conver- sion is accompanied by a statement of the baptism — a fact sufficient in itself to prove that no inconsiderable importance was attached to this divine ordinance. The first christian church was formed at Jerusalem, and was composed of such as " gladly received the word and were baptized :" and in Samaria, we are told, "they believed Philip preaching the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus, and were baptized, both men and women." Nothing can be more evident than that the churches gathered by these ministers were composed of baptized believers. With respect to their mode of baptizing, the same historian furnishes a plain example in the case of the Ethiopian eunuch : " they went down," he observes, " both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him." Great success attended the preaching of these primitive itinerants, insomuch that they were said by their enemies to " have turned the world upside down."

OFFICERS.

The government and oversight of the church were at first committed to the apostles : in process of time the office of deacon was instituted — " seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom," were selected by the church, and set apart by the apostles to attend to the distribution of

PRIMITIVE CHURCHES.

the church's bounty, in supplying the wants of the poor, &c. (Acts vi. 1 — 6). When it became necessary for the apostles to leave Jerusalem, elders were appointed to take the oversight of the church. (Acts xi. 30.) These two offices — namely, of elders and deacons — were the only offices instituted by the apostles in the church at Jerusalem : and other churches were similarly constituted — the epistle to the Philippians was addressed to the " saints, with the bishops and deacons." That elders (or piesbyters) and bishops (or overseers) are of similar import is evident from Acts xx. 17 — 28: Paul " sent to Ephesus and called the elders (or presbyters) of the church," and said unto them, " take heed unto yourselves, and to all the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers" (or bishops) : he sent for the elders (or presbyters) and ad- dressed them as overseers (or bishops). The ecclesiastical wi iters of the early ages of the christian era regarded these terms as expressive of the same office. Chrysostom says, " the elders or presbyters were formerly called bishops or deacons of Christ, the bishops were called elders."

ELECTION TO OFFICE.

These officers were chosen by the church in which they were to exercise the duties of their office. The seven deacons were " chosen" by the brethren, and set before the apostles. The only passage in the Acts of the Apostles which refers especially to the ordination of elders is chapter xiv. 23 — "when they had ordained them elders in every church." The word trans- lated ordain is cheirotonesantes, and expresses the mode as well as the fact of the appointment. It occurs but once more in the New Testament — 2 Cor. viii. 19, "who was also chosen of the churches." In the French translation of the Scriptures, the phrase reads thus — " choisi par les suffrages des eylises" (chosen by the votes of the churches). The mode of election was by the lifting up of hands, for that is the meaning of the Greek word which in one of these passages is translated "ordained," in the other "chosen." The elders were appointed in eveiy church by the lifting up of hands, or what is now termed a show of hands. Dupin, the Roman catholic historian, asserts that, "after the death of those [ministers] who were appointed by the apostles, the people chose them." This continued to be the practice of the early churches. Zonaras, in his Scholia on the first of the apostolic

b2

4 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

canons, says — "anciently, electing or voting (to the office ot the ministry) was called cheirotonia (the lifting up of hands) ; for when the rule was that the multitude in their cities should elect their priests or bishops, they assembled together, and some voted for one man, some for another ; but, that it might appear whose voting prevailed, theelectois used to lift up their hands, and according to the number of hands lifted up, they were counted, who voted for one party and who voted for another, and he was declared elected for whom there were most votes." The lifting up of hands by the people was followed by the laying on of hands by the elders or presbyters. It does not comport with our present design to enter into a discussion relative to the amount of importance attached by scripture to the laying on of hands in connection with ordination to the ministerial office ; but there appears to be satisfactory evidence that, in the periods immediately succeeding the apostolic age, the cheirotonia (lifting up of hands) of the people was accom- panied by the cheirothesia (laying on of rrnds) of the presby- ters ; and these two acts jointly recognised the individual as an accredited christian minister. The one act elected him to be a pastor of the people, the other elected him to be a brother and fellow-servant of the presbyters.

INDEPENDENCE AND UNION OF THE CHURCHES.

Each church was an independent community : no one church had control over another. The affairs of each were debated and transacted by the whole body of its members (Acts xv. 22); and when exclusion became necessary, it was the joint act of the whole church (1 Cor. v. 4 — 13). But the churches, not only of the same city, or the same district or province, but in the most remote regions, preserved union and maintained intercommunication. What was transacted in one was acknowledged as valid by the others ;• — a person under censure in one church was not admitted to communion by any oher; — and a person enjoying the fellowship of one was re- ceived to the observance of ordinances by the rest. When a member of a church had occasion to travel, he received a letter attesting him to be in communion ; and in virtue of this, he received fellowship, both in the participation of public ordi- nances and in the enjoyment of the private offices of brothetly love. To this practice the apostle probably alludes in 2 Coi. iii. 1. Tertullian, who wrote about the year 200, refers to

PRIMITIVE CHURCHES. O

this mode of attestation and calls it — "the title of brother- hood" — 'the communication of peace" — " the common mark of hospitality." Similar practices were in use among the ministers, who were as fully recognised in all their pastoral relations among distant churches as at home. Thus there existed, as regarded both the communion of the people and the public services of the ministers, strong mutual confidence and genuine union.

EXTEMPORANEOUS PRAYERS.

The use of forms of prayer was unknown in the primitive churches. There is no instance on record of any form of prayer, liturgy, or book of divine service having been dis- covered in the eaily persecutions of the church. Justin Mar- tyr, in his apology in behalf of the christian religion, which he presented to the Roman emperor, Antoninus Pius, about 138 or 139, describes the mode of their celebration of the Lord's supper ; after reading the scriptures and delivering an address, he observes — "then we all stand up together, and offer up our prayers. After our prayers, as I have said, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president, in like manner, offers prayers and thanksgivings according to his ability, and the people respond, saying Amen." Tertullian, a little later, states — "we christians pray with eyes uplifted,

with hands outspread, with head uncovered ; without

a monitor, because from the heart."

VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS.

Contributions for the support of religion continued to be made as in the days of the apostles— as freewill offerings. These were of two kinds, and were devoted to separate pur- poses. The weekly offerings were made in connexion with with the celebration of the Lord's supper, and were applied to the maintenance of that ordinance and to the relief of the temporal necessities of the poor. The monthly oblations were the con- tributions of church members for the maintenance of the ministers : during a century and a half this appears to have been the the sole source from which the support of the minis- try was derived. Dupin observes — " they had not at present any settled tithes, but the people maintained them voluntarily :" and Dr. Dealtry remarks — "in [these] earlier periods of the church the voluntary system was found abundantly effective."

O HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

CONTINUANCE IN THE APOSTLES' DOCTRINE AND PRACTICE.

Hegesippus, who flourished about the middle of the second century, wrote a history of Christianity from the time of the

death of Christ to the year 133 ; and he proves by 133 arguments and by narrations of facts, that no church

had, up to his day, departed from any fundamental doctrine of the gospel. Errors were confined to " such as were without;" and church members who embraced error were ejected from communion. Among all parties who followed the gospel, taking the scriptures alone as their rule of faith, Christianity continued pure ; while only among those called gnostics, who followed the gnosis, or heathen system of philo- sophy, and who were universally disowned by the apostolic christians, had it become corrupted. The idea of the Trinity is found at the very beginning of the primitive era, and is continually appearing in a more distinct manner. Clement, a disciple of Paul, ascribing glory to the sovereign God, said at Rome, "one God, one Christ, one Spirit of Grace." Justin Martyr, about the year 140, proclaimed the " unity in the Trinity." Theophilus, of Antioch, about the same time, professed the same doctrine in an explicit manner. Tertullian, about the year 200, exclaimed, " there is only one Divine being, in three persons intimately united." The great doctrine of Redemption is plainly declared. Barnabas says, the Son of God offered up with his body " a sacrifice for our sins." Justin Martyr says, " The law of God pronounced a curse on man, because he could not fulfil it in its whole extent. Christ has delivered us from that curse by bearing it for us." Ire- neeus, about 187, declares that " Christ reconciled us with the Father by atoning, by his perfect obedience, for the disobe- dience of the first man ;" and that "Christ, by his sufferings, paid the necessary ransom to deliver man from that captivity" [of satan]. On Justification, Clement observes, "we are justified, not by ourselves, or by our wisdom, or understand- ing, or piety, or by any works we may have done in the holi- ness of our hearts, but 'by faith,' through which the sovereign God has justified at all times." Justin Martyr describes the

manner in which members continued to be received 139 into the church — "as many as are persuaded and do

believe that those things taught and spoken by us* are true, and do promise to live according to them, are directed

PRIMITIVE CHURCHES. 7

first to pray, and ask God, with fasting, the forgiveness of their sins : we also pray and fast with them. They are then led by us to some place where there is water, and they are regenerated by the same way by which we were regenerated ; for they are washed [or bathed] in water, in the name of God, the Father of all, and of oui Saviour, Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit." On this statement Dr. Wall observes — " This is the most ancient account, next the scriptures, of the way of bap- tizing, and shews the plain and simple manner of observing it." Though but a few years had elapsed since the death of the oldest apostle, we find these illustrious teachers proclaim- ing the doctrines of the gospel. These truths were faithfully transmitted to the succeeding periods, and have been per- petuated in spite of the efforts of errorists, and of the dis- turbances and the barbarity which existed in the following centuries. *

ABSENCE OF P^DOBAPTISM.

From this rapid sketch, it will be manifest that these churches were, what, at the present day would be termed, "evangelical baptist churches." It must be conceded that, among all the prevailing denominations, there is no body that presents so close an assimilation to these primitive societies as the baptists do. During this period, there is not the slightest allusion to infant baptism : in unison with the silence of the scripture, it is not once referred to by the fathers of the first two centuries. Equally expressive is the silence of these ages respecting sprink- ling : there is not a trace of its use by any of the churches. The weight of this argument is not generally estimated. That a prac- tice, professedly based on scripture precept and apostolic example, forming the constitutive act of the christian community, should have no example, either in the precept of the Lawgiver, or in the practice of his followers so clearly laid open to us in their extant writings, for one hundred and fifty years after his ascen- sion, is indeed a marvel. No analogical or inferential reason- ing can be permitted to outweigh this simple fact. If the want of evidence can be conclusive on any subject, we have it heie. f

* See D'Aubigne's discourses. t Baptist Record, April, 1844.

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

SECTION II. GREEK AND EASTERN CHURCHES.

BAPTISM.

It has been already observed that many parts of the east were visited by the apostles and primitive disciples: Peter preached in Pontus, Galatia, and Asia; and Paul carried the gospel from Jerusalem to Illyricum.. The doctrine and dis- cipline of the churches soon awakened the enmity of the ene- mies of the gospel : Nero was the first emperor who enacted laws against the disciples of Christ, and his cruel policy was followed by Domitian and others in after periods, so that the number of martyrs in the east, during the first ages, was very great. It was in the eastern churches that almost all the dis- putes on doctrines originated. Attached to philosophical specu- lations, the preaching of the cross was to many foolishness ; and attempts were made to corrupt the simplicity of the gospel by mixing up with it the dogmas of the philosophers. But amid all the diversity of speculative opinions, all the eastern churches agreed in administering baptism by immersion. The New Testament was written in the Greek language : the Greeks have, in all ages, understood the Greek verb baptizo to mean immerse, and the testimony of the Greek church and nation is sufficient alone to overthrow the conjectures of those who sus- tain a contrary opinion.

THE MONTANISTS, OR CATAPHRYGIANS.

About thirty years before the close of the second century, Montanus, who lived in a Phrygian village called Pepaza, began a separate communion, became a successful preacher,

and had numerous followers. Many extravagant no- 171 tions are attributed to Montanus by Moshekn and

others ; but their summary charges are well replied to- in the Weekly Christian Teacher, Vol. 1. The distinguishing tenets of Montanus, according even to Bishop Kaye, were merely that fasting should be frequent, that second marriages are unlawful, and that measures of precaution or self-defence under persecution are not sanctioned by the gospel. TJie same learned author also repeatedly asserts that Montanus

EASTERN CHURCHES. 9

and his followers were orthodox in doctrine, and at the same time so rigidly correct in conduct as practically to refute every slander of their opponents. In providing with ministers the churches which he formed, Montanus simply copied the pattern of the primitive churches generally ; for he framed a regular body of ministers, whose support was derived from popular contributions, under the name of oblations. Members were admitted by examination and baptism, but such as joined the Montanists from other communities were re-baptized. The celebrated Tertullian united himself with this society. Respecting the mode of baptizing in his time, Tertullian observes — " the person is brought down to the water without pomp, and SCO dipped at the pronouncing of a few words." Ter- tullian did more, perhaps, to establish this body of Baptists than any other individual ; and he is the specimen by which their character is estimated, and by which their senti- ments are tried. They were afterwards distinguished by the name of Cataphrygians, from Phrygia, the name of the country in which Pepaza was situated, and throughout which they con- stituted for several generations a large portion of the popula- tion. Epiphanius, who wrote in the year 374, says, that in his day they were numerous in Cilicia and at Constantinople, and flourished throughout Cappadocia, Galatia, and Phrygia. They furnished many martyrs during the Dioclesian persecu- tion ; endured proscription after the era of Constantine; occu- pied an important position side by side with the Novatians in opposing the defections of the Arian age ; and with them main- tained a noble struggle against prevailing error and corruption.

FIRST RECORD OF A CHILD'S BAPTISM.

During the first three centuries christian congregations all over the east subsisted in separate, independent bodies, un- supported by government, and, consequently, without any secular power over each other. All this time they were Bap- tist churches; and though most of the Fathers of the first four ages, down to Jerome, were of Greece, Syria, and Africa, — and though they give many histories of the baptism of adults, yet there is not one record of the baptism of a child till the year 370, when Galetes, the dying son of the emperor Valens, was baptized by order of a monarch who swore that he would not be contradicted.

10 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

BAPTISTS UNDER THE DIOCLESIAN PERSECUTION.

From the year 303 till 313, raged the celebrated 303 Dioclesian persecution. Christians of all classes were

subjected to a variety of mortal tortures, which were an outrage alike on humanity and on common modesty : in one month there were, throughout the empire, seventeen thousand martyrdoms. The Novatians and Cataphrygians suffered greatly : these baptists comprised nearly the whole christian population of Phrygia ; and we are informed by Eusebius, that the inhabitants of a whole city in that province, owing to the eminent profession they made of Christianity, were surrounded by armed men and committed, in a body, to the flames. There was one feature in the Dioclesian persecution by which it was particularly characterised : this was a vigorous inquisi- tion after copies of the scriptures and burning them in the most public places. Former persecutions had been directed solely against the persons of christians, or against their secular property and their houses of worship ; but this proclaimed and prosecuted war against the word of God. All historians agree that the word of God was saved from being annihilated by the Dioclesian persecutors only through the undaunted resolution of the most select portion of the christians ; and when the cir- cumstances of the age, and the peculiar condition of the various parties in the christian community are taken into view, they all but directly concede this honour — if not wholly, at least in no small degree — to the Novatians. And God honoured their fidelity : though the Novatians lost many members by martyr- dom, yet it is certain that soon after the Dioclesian persecution

closed, Novatianism — as to the purity of its discipline, 315 the scripturalness of its doctrines, the influence of

its ministers, and the multitudinous number of its peo- ple— was found to be in a singularly flourishing condition.

EMPERORS AND NONCONFORMISTS.

In the year 331, a severe edict was issued by Con- 331 stantine, against several sects of what the church termed heretics, in. which the Novatians were included. In the Arian persecution carried on by Constantius, the Nova- tians suffered in common with the catholics. Several 356 of their places of worship were destroyed, and many members eminent for piety suffered greatly. They

EASTEPvN CHURCHES. 11

were treated more favourably by Julian : but, with 375 other sects, were cruelly persecuted by Valens. Thev

were prohibited the privilege of public worship in the city of Constantinople, their places of worship were shut up, and their pastors banished. These baptists were numerous: in the fourth century they had three, if not four, churches in the city of Constantinople; they had also churches at Nice, Tsicomedia, and Coticeus in Phrygia, all of them large and ex- tensive bodies. In the beginning of the fifth century they had several churches in the city of Alexandria.

THE PAULICIANS IN A1UIEMA.

About the year 653, there resided in the city of 653 Mananalis, in Armenia, a person by the name of Con- stantine. One day a stranger called upon him who had been a prisoner among the Saracens ; he was kindly re- ceived by Constantine, and in return for his kindness presented him with two manuscripts which he had brought out of Syria — these were the four gospels and the epistles of the apostle Paul. From the time Constantine obtained an acquaintance with the contents of these writings, it is said he would touch no other books. He became a teacher of Christianity, thiew away his Manicheean library, and from the attention he and his followers paid to the writings of Paul, they obtained the name of Pauli- cians. Constantine adopted the scriptural name of Sylvanus, and preached with great success in Pontus and Cappadocia; great numbers of disciples were made and gathered into societies. The body of christians in Armenia came over to the Paulicians ; in a little time, congregations were gathered in the provinces of Asia Minor, and their opinions were silently propagated in Rome, Milan, and France. The testimony of historians proves that they were baptists: "they were ortho- dox in the doctrine of the Trinity," says Milner, " they knew of no other mediator than the Lord Jesus Christ." "They sincerely condemned the memory and opinions of the Mani- chaean sect, and complained of the injustice which impressed that invidious name upon them."* "It is evident," observes Mosheim, "they rejected the baptism of infants." "The Paulicians or Bogmolians," asserts Robinson, " baptized and re-baptized by immersion."

12

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

PERSECUTION AND EXTENSION.

Alarmed at the progress of these baptists, and dis- 680 covering their glowing importance, the church party " engaged in the most bitter and virulent controversy with them." These efforts proving ineffectual, the Greek emperors began to persecute them with the most sanguinary severity. They were sentenced to be capitally punished; their books, whenever found, were to be committed to the flames ; and if any person was found to have secreted them, he was to be put to death, and his goods confiscated. A great number were transported into Thrace during the seventh century ; from Thrace they passed into Bulgaria and Sclavonia, where they settled in their own church order. A considerable num- ber were, however, still left in Syria and the adjoining countries, and from these a succession of teachers and congregations re- peatedly rose. The Greeks, to subdue them, made use of arguments and arms with all the terrors of penal laws — but without effect ; the weapons of these Paulicians were not carnal, but mighty through God ; the great instrument of their multi- plication was the alone use of the New Testament. At 703 the beginning of the eighth century the emperors, in conjunction with the clergy, exerted their zeal with a peculiar degree of bitterness and fury against them, yet all efforts for their suppression proved fruitless.

A CRUEL EMPRESS AND POPISH INQUISITORS.

The face of things changed towards the end of the 795 eighth century ; during this auspicious season the

Paulicians widely disseminated their opinions, and it is recorded that they became formidable to the East. But those persecuting laws which had been for some years suspended,

were renewed and enforced with redoubled fury under 811 the reigns of Michael and Leo, who made inquisition

throughout every province of the Grecian empire, and inflicted death upon such as refused to return to the bosom of the church. These decrees drove the Paulicians into desperate measures, and as oppression sometimes makes a wise man mad, they were charged with having put to death some of their clerical oppressors. The severest persecution experienced by

them was encouraged by the empress Theodora, A.D. 845 845. Her sanguinary inquisitors explored the .cities

and mountains, and the flatterers of the empress boast

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 13

of having extirpated, in nine years, one hundred thousand Paulicians. Many were scattered abroad by the persecution, particularly in Bulgaria; some fortified the cities of Tephrice and Philippopolis, from which last city they were called Philip- popolitans ; some fled to the Saracens, in conjunction wiih whom a war was maintained against the Greeks for many years.

Dining the reign of John Zimicus they gained con- 975 siderable strength, and in ihe tenth century they spread

themselves abroad throughout different provinces.

PROVIDENTIAL ARRANGEMENT.

We must now quit the Eastern churches, and trace the foot- steps of the flock in the nations of Europe. But we cannot do so without observing that a special instance of Divine Providence appears to be displayed in the rise and progress of the Paulician baptists. From this people the churches in Europe were from time to time recruited when their ranks were thinned by the enemies of the cross; numbers of Pauli- cians passed from kingdom to kingdom, and by their means the good seed was kept continually sown. From Bulgaria they removed into Italy; from Italy they sent colonies into almost all the other provinces of Europe. It is certain that about the middle of the eleventh century, a considerable number of them settled in Lombardy, Insubria, and at Milan, and that many itinerated through France, Germany, and other countries. They resolutely opposed Popery ; all Italy and the south of France weie soon, in consequence, sprinkled with their blood.

SECTION HI. BAPTISTS IN ITALY.

EARLY CHURCHES.

Christian churches were established in Italy during the lives of the apostles. Paul's epistle to the Romans is addressed to the saints that were in Rome, the capital of Italy, and he states that he had for many years desired to see them. Tacitus, the Roman histoiian, informs us that in the reign of the emperor Nero, two years after Paul was sent a prisoner to Rome, a dreadful persecution against the christians broke out there, and a vast multitude of them were discovered by the agents of

14 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

government and subjected to exquisite punishments. Many churches, in all parts of the empire, boast of having been planted by apostles. It has already been remarked that for a number of years the churches were separate independent com- munities ; the people elected their own elders, or bishops, no bishop of one church having the least controul over the affairs of another church. This was the actual state of matters for at least the first hundred and fifty years, and it is in perfect ac- cordance with the doctrine of Christ and his apostles.

BISHOP OF ROME RISE OF ANTI-CHRIST.

The apostles, writing under divine inspiration, foretold the rise of a power from among the brethren which would subvert the simple primitive order. That power soon began to develop itself. The city of Rome was the largest, the wealthiest, and the most powerful in the world, and it had long formed the central point of communication on all subjects and from all parts of the world. The bishops of the churches about Rome cultivated the strictest intimacy with the bishop of the church at Rome, and in difficult conjunctures would seek his advice. Distant bishops too, perhaps fascinated by the charm which Rome had for ages exerted over the nations, applied for counsel to their brother at the great city. This intercom se was at first conducted as between equals ; but the Roman bishop soon took advantage of the deference paid to him, and began to shape his counsel in the form of decrees. Victor, towards the close of the second century, made the first attempt at this arrogant dictation ; he was opposed, on terms of equal authority, by the eastern bishops, and Irenseus severely rebuked him for his assumption, styling him " a presbyter." Prior to this, a dis- tinction was invented between a bishop and a presbyter * — then Old Testament ideas of a particular priesthood were introduced into the church — and about the year 230, the bishop was com- pared to the high priest, the presbyters to the priests, and the deacons (and other officiators) to the levites. About 250 the title of Pope (papa, or father) was conferred on illustrious bishops, though not confined to the bishops of Rome. At this period the birthday of martyrs began to be celebrated, water for baptism to be consecrated, and oblations offered for the

* Ignatius, who wrote at the commencement of the second century, is the first author who makes separate mention of bishop and presbyters; yet he, as well as writers for nearly a century after him, describes a bishop as, in every sense, the pastor or overseer of a single congregation.

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 15

dead. These were soon followed by a train of vices which dis- honour the character and authority of those to whom the ad- ministration of the church was committed.

PURIFICATION OF THE CHURCH — THE NOVATIANS.

In the third century, church order was rapidly progressing into the new state of things, and discipline was becoming cor- rupt. Many persons had entered into christian communion, who, when persecution arose, renounced Christianity and re- sumed the practice of heathen rites, When prosperity returned, multitudes of these apostates sought to be received back to fellowship; and, in general, obtained too easy an admittance. This corrupt restoration was especially prevalent at Rome, where it was sanctioned by Cornelius, one of the presbyters. Novatian, his fellow presbyter, beheld this conduct with regret, and sighed over the growing depravity of the church. Finding himself unable to stem the tide of corruption that was so strongly setting in, Novatian and his friends — in- cluding nearly all the christians in Rome who had faithfully confessed Christ during the persecution — at last made a public

protest against the old community, withdrew, and formed a 251 separate church in the year 251. The seceders were called

Novatians, from Novatian, and Cathari or Puritans, from the strictness of their discipline. They viewed the body which they had left as in all respects a sect in the same senses as their own, and distinguished them by the name of Cornelians, from Cornelius the presbyter; the term "Catholic Church," as the distinguishing name of a party, did not come into use till many years after the separation. The example of Nova- tian was followed by great multitudes in other localities, and Novatian churches were planted all over the empire, and lor centuries they formed a grand, and at some periods, a chief bulwark of the christian faith against the inroads of superstition and error. Seldom, in any age, has a revival or propagation of pure discipline occurred in more peculiar circumstances, or been attended with more remarkable success. The views of Novatian were embraced by Marcian, of Aries, in Gaul — Fabius, of Antioch — and Maximus, of Carthage— thus these four reformers were so many central sources whence the prin- ciples of the Novatian communion emanated throughout the east and the west, the north and the south, of the Roman empire.

16 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

PRINCIPLES OF THE NOVATIANS.

There was no difference at this period, in point of doctrine, between the Novatians and Cornelians ; nor as it respects bap- tism. " Immersion," says Jones, "was the only mode of ad- ministering the ordinance." And Robinson observes of the Novatians, " they were Trinitarian baptists." The great pecu- liarity by which they were distinguished was the principle oi pure communion. They refused to re-admit to fellowship those who had apostatized or committed sins which evinced an unregenerate condition. They did not teach that such indi- viduals were incapable of salvation ; but maintained that they could not re-admit them to fellowship without giving up the securest guardian they had for the purity of their communion. The Novatians have been charged with maintaining the prin- ciple that second marriages are unlawful. This opinion was held by the Cataphrygians, but not generally by the Novatians : it has been charged on the latter only through a confounding of the two sects. In Phrygia, they became so closely identified with the Cataphrygians as to form, in junction with them, nearly one communion; and there they entertained similai views on second marriages. But in Europe, and especially in Italy, where they rose into existence and where they pos- sessed the greatest number of societies, that principle was not held by them. " The manners of the Novatians," says Dr. Clarke, "were simple and holy; and indeed their rigid dis- cipline is no mean proof of this."

Novatian was a man of extensive learning, and the author oi treatises on the doctrine of the Trinity and other subjects. He continued his labours for nine years, and about 260 sealed his testimony with the blood of martyrdom.

THE DONATISTS.

The Donatists seceded from the Catholic party in Africa in the fourth century. The Donatists and Novatians are charged by Crispin, a French historian, with holding together in the following things :— first, for purity of church members, by asserting that none ought to be admitted into the church but such as are visibly true believers and real saints — second, for purity of church discipline — third, for the independency of each church — and fourth, they baptized again those whose first baptism they had reason to doubt. They were conse- quently termed rebaptizers and anabaptists. Dupin says,

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 17

" they did not teach anything that was contrary to the creed * * * they maintained that the church ought to he made up of just and holy men, or at least of those who were such in appearance ; and that, although wicked men might lurk in the church, yet it would not harbour those who were known to be such." They were very numerous; there was, scarcely a city or town in Africa in which there was not a church of the Donatists. Osiander says, our modern anabap- tists were the same with the Donatists of old. Fuller, the church historian, asserts that the baptists in England, in his days, were the Donatists new dipped. Having just noticed the rise of che Donatists in Africa, we shall leave their history as our object is to trace, more especially, the baptists in Europe

CONSTANTINE. — CHURCH AND STATE.

The Novatian churches existed for sixty years under a pagan government : during this period they were pros- perous, and were planted all over the empire. When Con- stantine became emperor of Rome, he professed to be the enemy of persecution, and laboured to afford protection to his

subjects. About 312 he embraced Christianity, and 312 tne next vear was issued the " edict of Milan," which

decreed unconditional protection to all classes of his sub- jects in following whatever religious creed their consciences pre- ferred ; and ordered all their confiscated property and places of worship to be restored, &c. This edict was published early in 313, but did not take effect in the east till towards the close of that year ; and then, as regarded the Novatians, it was repealed. Constantine made an ostentatious display of the form of god- liness ; he performed the work, and formally assumed the title of a bishop, and arrogated to himself the supreme power over the community from which the Novatians had separated, and the right of modelling and governing it in such a manner as should, in his estimation, be most conducive to the public good. If any additional evidence were required of the corrup- tion of this community, it may be found in the fact that Con- stantine "enjoyed this [assumed] right without opposition, as none of the bishops presumed to call his authority in question !"* Christianity was now for the first time patronized by the state, and the unholy alliance was soon after distinguished by the designation of " the catholic communion." The emperor

* Mosheim.

c

18 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

soon issued an edict in which he prohibited the Novatians, the Cataphrygians, and other "schismatics," from assembling for any purpose of religion ; and ordered their places of worship to be seized, and transferred to the favoured and patronized sect. The Novatians were from this time in a new position ; they were now in the strange predicament of living under " a christian government," and yet of being proscribed and con- demned if they should dare to worship the living God, or proclaim the name of Immanuel ! Though this oppressive law was, after a time, executed with some abatement of rigour, yet the Puritans were so much oppressed that they became known by the name of the church martyrs : they obtained the name of Paterines, which means sufferers, or what is nearly synoni- mous with our word martyrs. Constantine, greatly at their expense, enriched and aggrandized the catholics : he bestowed upon the latter the property which had been taken from the Novatians during the Dioclesian persecution: he spent large sums to provide the catholics with splendid religious edifices, and obliged the Novatians, in common with some other classes of his subjects, to indemnify him for the costs : he exempted the catholic ecclesiastics from civil service, and from paying taxes; while he imposed heavy burdens upon the ministers and people of the Novatians : he bestowed on the catholic minis- ters large grants of the public money ; and required the Nova- tians, through the medium of taxation, to support other minis- ters than their own: he afforded the catholics such protection, influence, aggrandizement, and authority, as the state could furnish; while he bereft the Novatians of such sacred property, lvligious freedom, and comforts of Christianity, as the state could take away. Such were the Jirst fruits of the patronage of the church by the state !

CONSISTENT CHRISTIANS.— COUNCIL OF NICE.

From the year 320 till 323, Arianism made con- 320 siderable progress, and the tide of corruption which was setting in upon "the catholic church" bore- the pestilential error triumphantly on its billows. A general panic seized the community, and Constantine devised his memorable scheme of a universal council of the church, and the celebrated council of Nice was convoked by imperial summons. The Novatians, influenced by concern for the glory of the Saviour, maintained a strong, steady, testimony against the tenets of

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 19

Alius; when, therefore, the council of Nice was assembled, Constantine endeavoured to allure them into union with 325 ine catholics, and purchase their opposition on his own terms to the Arian heresy, by formally inviting Asecius, a Novatian bishop, to take a seat in the council. But Asecius met the advances of the council and of the emperor, only by mildly but firmly repeating the original grounds of his party's dissent from the old communion, and of their undying protest against its corrupted discipline. The council itself occupied one of its twenty canons in decreeing grounds on which the Novatians might rejoin the catholics ; it declared them to be already fit members of" the church,"* provided they would join her fellowship and acknowledge her authority. As to their pastois, the council decreed that they might continue to be ecclesiastics by receiving imposition of hands ; and that, if bishops, they should continue to be so through the catholic bishop's permission. But the same principle which led the Novatians to withstand the errors of the Aiians, necessarily opposed the corruptions of the catholics. They loved sound doctrine, and inconsequence protested against the former; but they also loved pure discipline, and no less ceitainly continued to protest against the latter.

ARIAN EMPERORS.

Constantine followed up the policy of the Nicene fathers by a civil enactment. " Won by the pure manners and the ortho- dox faith of the Novatians," he, in 326, issued a .326 particular edict in their favour. There is no record, however, that they sought to improve the court favour which they gratuitously enjoyed ; nor do they appear to have used their toleration otherwise than so faithfully to maintain their own rigid principles, and so unsparingly to denounce the rapidly increasing corruptions of the catholics, as to provoke from Constantine public and severe proscription. In 328 the Arians gained the ascendancy in his favour, and in 331 331 he issued a fresh edict against all who dissented from the catholics, making special mention of the Novatians. This law confiscated all their places of worship, prohibited their holding religious meetings, and ordered all their books to be sought for and " destroyed. The emperor Con-

* The catholic parly began, under Constantine, to call themselves " The Church."

c2

20 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

stantius embraced the Arian faith, and severely op- pressed the orthodox. In the territory of Manithim, a large district of Paphlagonia, the Novatians were 352 extremely numeions. A body of four thousand troops was sent to exterminate them with other Trinitarians ; the Novatian peasants, however, arming themselves with scythes and axes, defended themselves with so much courage that they vanquished the invaders of their homes. The emperor Julian, on ascending the throne, required the 361 Arians to rebuild and restore the places of worship which had been destroyed ; but Valens, having em- braced the Arian creed, closed the Novatian churches, 375 and banished their ministers. During this severe trial, the benevolent feelings of the Novatians became so apparent as to extort admiration even from their enemies.

COMPARATIVE NUMBERS OF THE EARLY PURITANS AND CATHOLICS.

The number of the early Puritans, as compared with the Catholics, was greater than is usually supposed. The absence of statistics renders it impossible to form a very accurate com- parison. The following calculation will perhaps give a general result not far from the truth. At the beginning of the fourth century, the Donatists and Miletians (who had then recently seceded) occupied, as to territorial division, places of worship, and the machinery of ecclesiastical government, just the place which, a few years before, they had held in the catholic com- munion ; the number of their bishops or pastors would, therefore, represent a body of members equal to that under the oversight of a similar number of catholic bishops. And as there is reason to believe that, at this period, the average num- ber of people included in a pastorate or bishopric was about the same in both sects, the number of bishops will be a fair criterion of the comparative magnitude of each body.

The Catholic party, at this period, is computed to have had about one thousand bishops in the west, and eight hundred in the east; in all eighteen hundred.

The Donatists are calculated to have had not less than fi re hundred bishops; their proportion to the catholics, therefore, would be as five to eighteen.

The Novatians were unquestionably much more.numerous than the Donatists : the number of bishops cannot be ascer-

BAPTISTS IX ITALY. 21

tained, but other facts are illustrative of their extent. The Donatists were nearly confined to twopiovinces of the Roman empire, while the Novatians were spread throughout the whole of its vast extent, and had congregations in almost every region which Christianity had entered, not excepting even the bar- barian wastes of JScythia. They might, without exaggeration, be estimated at twice the number of the Donatists — but say one and a half; their proportion to the catholics then would be as seven and a half to eighteen.

As regards the other sects of early orthodox christians, a brief remark respecting each will sufficiently serve the pur- poses of a general estimate.

The Cataphrygians were numerous in Cilicia and Con- stantinople, and flourished throughout Cappadocia, Galatia, and Phrygia ; in the last named country they constituted, for several generations, a large portion of the population.

The Miletians of Egypt commenced with a local secession of twenty-eight bishops.

The Eustathians arose in Antioch at the time when Arianism broke down the bulwarks of the catholic communion, aird carried with them the orthodox christians throughout Syria.

The Luciferians were adherents to a protest which was made against the unprincipled compromise between the Arians and the orthodox (in the catholic communion) immediately after the death of Cons'.antius ; they had followers in Gaul, Italy, and in many other places.

The Quartadecimans protested against the corruptions of the catholic communion as these corruptions were developed irr the events connected with the convocation and proceedings of the council of Nice, pointing every effort of their opposition with a special reference to the innovations which were made under the influence of the emperor Constantine.

The Adrians (not Arians) arose in Pontus; at a period of great excitement they bore testimony against catholic cor- ruptions, directing attention more especially to the absence of scripture authority for a difference in the rank of bishop and presbyter — the celebration of Easter as a festival — the ob- servance of fixed annual fasts before certain days — and prayers for the dead. These, as well as the Quartadecimans, were sufficiently numerous to provoke visitations of imperial violence.

The Apostolics had their origin in Pisidia : their distinguish- ing peculiarities were in general the same as those of the

22 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

Novatians, but construed more rigidly ; they were found in Phrygia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia.

To the above may be added the Miletians of Syria, the Jovianists, and probably the Hieracites — in all ten sects. Some of them were bodies of considerable magnitude; it would not be too much to suppose that the ten were jointly equal in number to the Novatians and Donatists. The com- parison then will stand thus —

Donatists to the Catholics as 5 to 18

Novatians 1\ to 18

Ten sects jointly \2\ to 18

Puritans to Catholics as 25 to 18; or the Puritans exceeded the Catholics in number by moie than one-fourth.

PROSCRIPTION AND AMALGAMATION.

Most of the societies above enumerated acted an important part during the dark period of Arian ascendancy; in the fifth century the most vigorous efforts were made to extirpate non- conformity ; the clergy became increasingly despotic and sanguinary, instigating the civil powers to " put a signal end to the roarings of the heretics." The condition of noncon- formists at the middle of the sixth century may be seen by glancing at the religious edicts of Justinian, which rendered them incapable of inheriting property — disqualified them from appearing as witnesses against a catholic — prohibited them, on pain of losing their right hand, from copying any document containing proscribed opinions — and by a fourth edict he required all to join the catholic communion, allowing only three months before being severely punished for non-compli- ance. Almost constantly suffering diminutions by violent death, exile, dispersion, or compelled conformity, their num- bers became greatly reduced. During the seventh century they began to rally ; but having been repeatedly deprived of their places of worship, and able to hold religious meetings only in the wilds, mountains, and valleys, or by stealth, they could scarcely fail to merge denominational dif- ferences in the union of gospel sentiment and anti-intolerant principle. They, therefore, no longer exhibit the distinctness of communion which characterised them during the fourth century, nor do they appear in history under their original designations; but we trace 'them by their principles through succeeding periods, bearing different designations, " shining as

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 23

lights in the world" when the obscurity of the catholic church sunk into the night of " the dark ages."

PERSECUTING BISHOP.

Persecution in the first ages was confined to the edicts of emperors, but in the fifth century was manifested the rising power of the man of sin. Innocent, bishop of Rome, was one of the first bishops who persecuted the dissenters and robbed them of their churches. In the fourth Lateran council, canons were made to banish the rebaptizers as heretics, and these

canons were supported by an edict in 413, issued by 413 the emperors Theodosius and Honorius, declaring

that " all persons rebaptized and the rebaptizers should be both punished with death." Accordingly, Albanus, a zealous minister, and others, were punished with death for rebaptizing. The Novatians had continued to suffer under a series of perse- cuting statutes of which the edict in 331 formed the commencing link, yet they maintained their integrity and their numbers.

Sozomen, who wrote his history in 440, assures us, that 440 while great numbers of others " were induced, out of fear,

to join themselves to the catholic church," and whole sects had "died away," "the Novatians were numerous from the beginning, and still continued to be so." A striking illus- tration of God's care for his tiuth and for his genuine people.

THE POSITION AND IMPORTANCE OF THE NOVATIAN CHURCHES.

The Novatians have been designated schismatics; but if Swift's definition of schism be correct — that it consists not so much in separating from those who profess to be the followers of Christ, as in departing from the truth which he has revealed — then the Cornelians, and not the Novatians, were the schis- matics. For it is generally admitted that unscriptural practices were gaining prevalence in the churches, that improper persons were extensively admitted to fellowship, and that the original principles of the apostolic church were departed from. Mo- sheim observes, " the most respectable writers of that age have put it out of the power of an historian to spread a veil over the enormities of ecclesiastical rulers." Cyprian, whose ministry extended from 248 to 2-58, gives an affecting account of the declension from the spirit of Christianity which had taken place before his conversion.

24

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

"Long peace," be observes, "bad corrupted tbe discipline divinely revealed to us ... . tbe pastors and deacons eacb forgot their duty; works of mercy were neglected, and discipline was at tbe lowest ebb. Even many bisbops, who ought to be guides and patterns to tbe rest, neglecting tbe peculiar duties of their station, gave themselves up to secular pursuits ; they deserted their places of residence and their flocks; they travelled through distant provinces in quest of pleasure and gain ; gave no assistance to the needy brethren, but were insatiable in their thirst of money."

One part of the church had thus departed from the original principles of the gospel, while another part retained them ; it became, therefore, the duty of all the real friends of Christ and his cause, to endeavour to apply a remedy to the growing evil. Nova- tian and his adherents were as really a part of the church of Christ as were the Cornelians ; and the attempt of the former to separate the precious from the vile, was a noble effort of the church itself to bring itself back from its departure from apostolic rule, to the original principles and primitive purity of the gospel. This was the position of the Novatians ; and instead of being charged with heresy and schism, their memory ought to be embalmed in the recollection of the church for their zealous adherence to the cause of truth and virtue. The importance of these churches in after ages can scarcely be over- estimated. The condition of " the catholic church" soon became exceedingly miserable. Hilary, its great champion in the west, draws an affecting picture of its theological profligacy — "there are now," he observes, "as many creeds as there are inclinations, and we have as many doctrines as we have fashions. .... We are driven about by a constantly shifting wind of doctrine .... we repent of our creeds and we defend them ; we defend parties and again we curse them." What, under such circumstances, but a separate communion like that of the Novatians could have preserved the institutions of Christ from ruin ? They appear indeed to have been separated by Jehovah, at a time when " truth" seemed about to " fail from the earth," that they might be his witnesses in an age of backsliding and error. Under the Dioclesian persecution they were chiefly in- strumental in saving the word of God from extermination ; and during the whole of the Arian period, they steadily maintained the doctrines of that word ; amid the rapid changes of public creed which characterised the catholic sect, the Novatians stedfastly adhered to the "original, simple, apostolical, con- fession of the gospel. They were "witnesses for God;" and

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 25

a succession of them, under various names, has continued to exist, transmitting their principles and their protest against co mptions in practice and discipline, from generation to gene- ration, through channels alike unconnected either with catholic or protestant hierarchies.

WALDENSES OF PIEDMONT — ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY.

There is a range of mountains, the highest in Europe, ex- tending from the Adriatic sea to the Mediterranean, and sepa- rating Italy from France, Switzerland, and Germany. The principality of Piedmont is situated at the foot of these moun- tains ; it is an extensive tract of fruitful valleys embosomed in hills. These valleys at an early period in the christian era became an asylum to the worshippers of the Redeemer, who at the remotest time were known by the term Ciedenti, that is, believers. Balthazar records that in the second century they practised believers' baptism by immersion. When those severe measures emanated from the emperor Honorius against rebaptizers, the baptists sought retieat in the country and the valleys of Piedmont, which latter place especially became their retreat from imperial oppression. In the sixth and seventh centuries many withdrew from the scenes of the persecution of the Romish priesthood and sought refuge in the valleys of Piedmont, where they were called Vaudois, or Vallenses, after- wards Waldenses. The antiquity of these Vaudois is asserted by their friends, and corroborated by their enemies. Claudius Seyssel, a popish archbishop, traces the rise of the Waldenses to a pastor named Leon leaving Rome in the reign of Con- stautine for the valleys. " Romanism, at this period, ceased to be Christianity, and the inhabitants of the valleys left the unholy communion."* Theodore Belvedere, a popish monk, says, that the heresy had always been in the valleys. In the preface to the first French bible, the translators observe that they (the Vallenses) have always had the full enjoyment of the heavenly truth contained in the holy scriptures ever since they were enriched with the same by the apostles ; having in fair manuscripts preserved the entire bible in their native tongue from generation to generation. Paul Perrin asserts that the Waldenses were time out of mind in Italy and Dal- matia, and were the offspring of the Novatlans who were per- secuted and driven from Rome in 413, and who, for purity of * Edgar.

26 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

communion, were called Puritans. "The Vaudois formed a

long chain oi witnesses to the truth For a succession

of ages the Vaudois, from their mountain heights, protested against the superstitions of Rome. ' They struggled for the living hope they had in God by Chiist; for the inward re- generation and renewing by faith, hope, and charity ; for the merits of Jesus Christ, and the all-sufficiency of his grace and of his righteousness.'"*

Having thus noticed the antiquity of the Waldenses, and identified them with the Novatians, we shall take a hasty glance at the general history of the baptists in Italy.

THE PATERINES.

It has been already stated that the suffering Novatians ob- tained the name of Paterines; in the sixth century the latter designation entirely superseded the former in Italy, where it became as common as that of Albigenses in the south 575 of France, and Waldenses in Piedmont. The public worship of the Paterines consisted of nothing but social prayer, reading and expounding the scriptures, baptism once, and the Lord's supper as often as was convenient. Italy was full of such christians, who bore various names from various causes. They said a church ought to consist only of good people, and had no power to frame any constitutions ; that faith alone could save a man. The catholics of those times baptized by immersion ; the Paterines, therefore, made no complaint of the mode of baptizing, but when they were examined they objected vehemently against the baptism of infants, and condemned it as an error. Dr. Allix asserts that it was by means of the Paterines that the truth was preserved in the dioceses of Milan and Turin.

These churches were strengthened by the Paulicians 600 in the seventh century ; since Gibbon remarks that the sentiments and doctrines of the Paulicians were at that time propagated at Rome and Milan. And we are informed by Bonizo that the Paterines arose, or became more 750 conspicuous, during Stephen's pontificate. At different periods, and from various causes, these baptists con- siderably increased. Atto, bishop of Vericilli, Com- 046 plains of them in the tenth century, as others of the clergy had done before. In the eleventh century, the

* D'Aubigne.

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 27

Paterines had become very prominent at Milan, 1040 which was their principal residence. Their churches were divided into sixteen compartments, such as the English baptists would call associations. One of their prin- cipal churches was that of Concorezzo, in the Milanese ; and the members of churches in this association were more than fifteen hundred. The houses where they met seem to have been hired by the people, and tenanted by one of the brethren : there ware several such houses in each city. In times of per- secution they met in small companies of eight, twenty, or thirty, as it happaned : but never in large assemblies for fear of the consequences. They had houses at Ferrara, Brescia, and many other places. Their bishops and officers were mechanics who supported themselves by their industry.

EXTENSION AND NUMBER OF THE WALDENSES.

The Waldenses settled in England about the year 1020. After this period they became exceedingly numerous, and " spread their contagion," says Ciaconius, * through almost the whole Latin world." " They infected," observes Csesarius, "a thousand cities." Theii number, according to Benedict, was prodigious in France, England, Pied- mont, Sicily, Calabria, Poland, Saxony, Pomerania, Ger- many, Livonia, Sarmatia, Philadelphia, Constantinople, and Bulgaria. " They became," says Newburgh, " like the sand of the sea, without number, in Gaul, Spain, Italy, and Germany."

POPISH IMPIETY. — ARNOLD OF BRESCIA.

In the twelfth century religion had become awfully corrupted in the catholic community. The priests were wicked, and religion was made a jest. The festivals of fools and asses were established in their churches; on days of solemnity, they created a bishop of fools, and an ass was led into the body of the church, dressed in a cape and a four-cornered cap. When the people were dismissed, it was by the priests braying three times like an ass, and the people responded in an asinine tone. During this period of popish impiety, rose Arnold 1137 of Brescia. This bold reformer resolved to visit Rome, and to direct his efforts against the very citadel of corruption. He succeeded so far as to occasion a change of government, and the clergy experienced for ten

28 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

years a reverse of fortune, and a succession of insults from the people. The pope struggled hard, hut in vain, to maintain his ascendancy ; successive pontiffs were etpially unable to check the popularity and exertions of Arnold. But the people, not being prepared for so great a change, in some instances carried their measures to a criminal extreme and burnt the property of the clergy. Arnold maintained his station above ten years, while two popes either trembled in the Vatican, or wandered in exile in the adjacent cities. At length the pope

mustered some troops, placed himself at their head, 1155 recovered his ascendancy, and in 1 155, Arnold was

seized, crucified, and burnt. The disciples of Arnold, who were numerous, obtained the name of Arnoldists, and in succeeding ages, discovered the spirit and intrepidity of their leader, as often as favourable opportunities of reforming the church were offered to their zeal. That Arnold was a baptist is proved by the Lateran council of 1139, which condemned him for rejecting infant baptism ; and his identity with the Waldenses is asserted by Dr. Allix, who affirms that from him the Waldenses were called Arnoldists.

THE PATERINES PERSECUTED.

In the beginning of the thirteenth century, pope 1215 Innocent III. held a council at the Lateran, which

denounced anathemas against heretics of every de- scription, and censured the Milanese for sheltering the Pa-

terines. In 1220, Flonorius III. procured an edict 1220 of Frederick II., which extended over all the

imperial cities, and the effects of the pontiff's anger were soon felt by the deniers of the infant rite.

This cruel edict denounced all Puritans, Paterines, Arnoldists, &c, in the following terms, " We shall not suffer these wretches to live." Many fled from the scene of persecution and spread through the European provinces; but Germany in particular afforded an asylum, where they were called Gazari. "(See Germany.) These severe measures did not extirpate the

Paterines, as we find that in the middle of this cen- 12 5 O tury they had four thousand in the perfect class, and

those called disciples were an innumerable multitude. They had public schools where their sons were educated, and these were supported by contributions from churches of the

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 29

same faith in Bohemia and Poland. Their prosperity irritated the pope, and he resolved on extiipating them. Inquisitors were sent forth armed with all imaginary power to punish those who dared to think differently from the pope and his successors. The terror of the inquisitors awed the Italians into silence; the Paterines were scattered abroad into other provinces, or retired into obscurity.

THE WALDENSES EMIGRATE FROM PIEDMONT.

The Waldensian churches in Piedmont at this I26G period enjoyed the sweets of religious liberty under

the dukes of Savoy, and it is very probable that many of the persecuted Paterines were incorporated with these churches. Allix asserts that the most part of the Paterines held the same opinions as the churches in the valleys, and, therefore, were taken for one and the same people. The Wal- denses had here multiplied to such an extent, that the place

was inadequate to their accommodation, and they I300 were under the necessity of seeking a dwelling for a

part of their families. A nobleman having acciden- tally met with some of the Waldenses, and finding they were seeking for a fresh place of settlement, made them an offer of land in Calabria, in the extremity of Italy on the east. Depu- ties were sent to survey the country, and on their return, a great number determined to remove thither. The young people married before quitting the valleys, and being recom- mended to the grace of God, took leave of their friends and proceeded to their new domains. The settlers, about fifty years after, were joined by another body of emigrants from the valleys ; hamlets and towns were built, where these Waldenses for a considerable time lived in peace, and greatly multiplied. The clergy of the church of Rome were dissatisfied with them, and determined to denounce them to the pope as heretics; but the gentry of the neighbourhood resisted this, and bore honour- able testimony to the character of the Waldenses. " They are just and honest," said they, "and have enriched all the country; even ye priests have received important advantages from their industry .... as these people fear God, are generous to the poor, just and beneficent .to all men, it is illiberal on your parts to attempt to force their consciences." Thus were they protected from the indignation of the catholic clergy.

30 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

OUTRAGE ON THE WALDENSES.

During the thirteenth century an attempt was made to introduce the inquisition into Piedmont, but the inhabitants successfully resisted its establishment among

them. About the year 1400 a violent outrage 1400 was committed upon the Waldenses who inhabited

the valley of Pragela, in Piedmont, by the catholic party resident in the neighbourhood. The attack was made in December when the mountains were covered with snow. Being taken by surprise, they had recourse to the only alter- native which remained for saving their lives— they fled, with their wives and children, to one of the highest mountains of the Alps. Their inhuman invaders pursued them and slew great numbers before they could reach the mountains. Those that escaped were overtaken by the shades of night and wan- dered up and down the snow-clad mountains, destitute of the means of shelter from the inclemency of the weather. Be- numbed with cold, they fell an easy prey to the severity of the climate, and when the morning light broke upon the mountains, there were found fourscore infants deprived of life, many of their mothers also lying dead by their sides, and others just on the point of expiring.

MILITARY ATTACK ON THE WALDENSES.

From the period just noticed until about the year

1487 1487, the Waldenses of Piedmont appear to have remained, in a great measure, unmolested in the

profession of their religion. But scenes of far more extensive cruelty were awaiting them. Innocent VIII. was raised to the popedom in 1484: he issued his bull for the extirpation of heresy, pointing it particularly against the Waldenses, and invested Albert de Capitaneis, archdeacon of Cremona, with full powers to act as his legate and commissioner. Albert pro- ceeded to the south of France, where he called to his aid the king's lieutenant, who lost no time in levying troops for his service which were soon engaged in murdering the dissenters of France. In the year 1488, Albert marched, at

1488 the head of eighteen thousand soldiers, into the valleys of Piedmont. But the Waldenses, armed

with wooden targets and crossbows, availing themselves of the advantages of their situation, defended the passes 6f their

BAFTISTS IN ITALY. 31

mountains and repulsed their invaders — the women and children on their knees, during the conflict, entreating the Lord to protect his people. When information of this affair was brought to the duke of Savoy, his heart was touched with compassion towards his subjects, and he declared his determi- nation to protect them ; but he seems to have wanted the power necessary for carrying his intention into effect. The inquisitors, who lay in ambush in a convent, issued their pro- cesses daily against the Waldenses, and as often as they could apprehend any of them they were delivered over for punish- ment. In this way they continued to harass them 1532 in that quarter until the year 1532; in that year, the Waldenses (who from fear of the inquisitors had assembled for worship in private) came to the determination no longer to conceal their meetings, but resolved that their ministers should preach the gospel openly and boldly. The duke of Savoy, instigated by the archbishop and the inquisitor of Turin, seems to have taken umbrage at this, for he sent soldiers into the valleys who plundered and laid waste whatever came in their way. The people flew to the passes of their mountains, which they secured, and then aiming themselves with slings and stones, encountered their invaders so man- fully that they compelled them to flee.

THE WALDENSES AND THE REFORMERS.

When the pastors in the valleys of Piedmont heard of the reformation that was going on in Germany and Switzerland through the efforts of Luther, Calvin, &c, they deputed per- sons to go and inquire into the work. The matter was dis- cussed by the Waldensian pastors, but for some time 1534 much diversity of opinion prevailed. At length, after much difficulty and many conferences, a great part of the Waldenses united with the reformed churches. Soon after the Waldenses united with Calvin, it was stated that the ancient Vaudois were distinguished from the later inhabitants and the reformed churches by not practising infant baptism, &c* Those who had settled in Calabria, also formed a union with the church at Geneva then under the pastoral care of Calvin and Beza. Several ministers of learning and talents settled among the churches of Calabria, and this brought the latter more prominently into notice than had

* Robinson.

32 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

hitherto been the case. But though the reformed churches embraced a great portion of the Waldenses after infinite pains had been taken to quadrate their minds to the reformers' sentiments, yet all did not thus unite ; there were some remains of the Vaudois, or poor of Lyons, in the valleys of Dauphine, who had pastois, and held their assemblies apart — they were a little independent republic. Others who were banished from the soil had never heard the name of Luther, and down to 1630, some retained their puritanical views.

EXTERMINATION OF THE WALDENSES IN CALABRIA.

When the Waldenses were thus brought into more public notice, an alarm was raised among the catholics, and measures were taken for their extermination. Troops were sent, and a dreadful carnage ensued; the people were hunted like wild beasts among the mountains and woods whither they had fled for an asylum, and great numbers were put to death in the most cruel manner. Pope Pius IV. was so resolutely bent upon ridding the country of them, that he afterwards sent the maiquis of Butiane to perfect what was left undone — with a promise that if he succeeded in clearing Calabria of the Wal- denses, he would give his son a cardinal's hat. So many had been already but to death or transported to the gallies, that not much remained for the marquis to accomplish. A Roman catholic, who was witness of the tragical scene, observes, " I can scarcely refrain from tears while I write ; nor was there any person who, after witnessing the execution of one, could stand to look on a second. The meekness and patience with which they went to death were incredible. I shudder while I think of the executioner with the bloody knife in his teeth, the dripping napkin in his hand, and his arms besmeared with gore, going to the house and taking out one after another, just

as a butcher does his sheep which he means to kill." 15 6 O The letter from which this extract is taken is dated

June 11, 1560, the day on which the last butchery took place. Such was the end of the Waldenses of Calabria, who by these brutal proceedings were wholly exterminated.

PROCEEDINGS AGAINST THE WALDENSES IN PIEDMONT.

About this time Francis L, king of France, obtained pos- session of the whole country of Piedmont, and regulated its affairs by means of its parliament at Turin. The * pope insti-

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 33

gated the parliament to proceed against the Waldenses, and

numbers were committed to the flames. In 1561, 15 6 1 they were considerably harassed by the military, in

consequence of which they sent deputies to the duchess of Savoy who was favourably disposed towards them ; an edict was issued in their favour, bearing date June 5, 1561. When peace was in some measure restored, towards the end of this year, they were reduced to extreme poverty by the murders, imprisonments, burnings, plunders, levies of ransom- money, and other acts of hostility to which they had been sub- jected. Calvin and Beza, hearing of their distresses, benevo- lently obtained a liberal supply from various sources to meet their temporary wants. The calm, however, did not last long ;

in 1565, at the importunate request of the catholic 1565 party, an edict was issued against them. The

protestant princes interposed with the duke of Savoy in their behalf, and the dreadful storm was for a time averted. For some years the aspect of affairs was varied, sometimes brightening, and then again portentous. But in January,

1655, a public document was issued against them, 1655 since known by the title of " The Order of Gastaldo."

By this order, the Waldenses were required either to become catholics, or withdraw and depart within three days on pain of death. Thousands of families were compelled to aban- don their homes in the depth of winter, in a country where the snow is visible on the tops of the mountains throughout every month of the year. No sooner had they quitted their houses, than a banditti broke into them, pillaged what they had left behind, razed their habitations to the ground, cut down the trees, and turned the whole neighbourhood into a desolate wilderness. An army of six thousand men entered the valleys, and falling suddenly upon the inhabitants of some of the villages, committed the most fiend-like atrocities : these proceedings appear to have been extended progressively throughout almost the whole country.

GENEROUS INTERPOSITION — CROMWELL AND MILTON.

The bare report of these proceedings spread amazement throughout all the protestant states of Europe. The news reached England, and it no sooner came to the ears of the Protector, Oliver Cromwell, than "he rose like a lion out of his place" and awoke the whole protestant world, exciting

D

34 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

their hearts to pity and commiseration. John Milton was secretary to Cromwell, and it devolved upon him to address the different states of Europe : the letters he wrote furnish a noble instance of a benevolent and feeling mind, and drew forth the sympathy of the European sovereigns. Cromwell himself commenced a subscription for the relief of the sufferers with a donation of two thousand pounds from his private purse. The number of Waldenses that fell in this massacre is esti- mated at more than six thousand. Sir Samuel Morland — who was sent as a deputy from the English government to the duke of Savoy — in speaking of the barbarities that were committed, observes — " The very angels are seized with horror at them ! Men are amazed ! Heaven itself seems to be astonished with the cries of dying men, and the very earth to blush, being discoloured with the gore of so many innocent persons !" In consequence, however, of the inter- ference of England and other protestant states, the residue availed themselves of the treaty of the duke of Savoy on the 9th of August, 1655, to return to their dwellings. But their enemies were not satisfied, they again came forward with fire and sword, and the Waldenses took up aims and defended themselves against them. The duke of Savoy continued to

the time of his death, which happened in 1675, to 1675 favour the Waldenses with tokens of his kindness;

and after his death a season of tranquillity was en- joyed by the churches in the valleys.

LAST ACT OF THE TRAGEDY.

The succeeding duke of Savoy issued an edict in 1686 1686 forbidding his subjects to exercise the protes- tant religion, on pain of death, &c. The duke was acting under the direction of the king of France, who sent an army to see the order of the duke properly executed. The Swiss cantons interposed in behalf of the Waldenses, but in vain. Further negociations were entered into, and some shew of concession was made. The Waldenses had taken up. arms to defend themselves : their enemies required them to disarm before they would agree to any terms; this they refused to do, being persuaded that the enemy required their arms to be given up only that they might destroy them without trouble and without resistance. .The armies entered the valleys, a multitude of the Waldenses were inhumanly butchered, more

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 35

than twelve thousand were committed to the prisons and castles of Piedmont, and two thousand of their children were dispersed among the catholics. The Swiss cantons sent deputies to the duke of Savoy asking for the release of the imprisoned Wal- denses : the duke signed a treaty, in consequence of which the prisons were set opeu, and leave was given to such as had sur- vived to depart out of the country. The miserable state of these afflicted creatures it would be difficult to describe ; many perished in the journey : those who suivived were received at Geneva with kindness and christian affection : the Swiss can- tons, whose noble behaviour throughout the whole of this distressing period is worthy of all praise, opened to them not only their country but their hearts and affections also. Thus were the valleys of Piedmont depopulated of their ancient inhabitants, and the light of the glorious gospel was almost extinguished in a country where, for many preceding centuries, it had shone with resplendent lustre.

SENTIMENTS OF THE WALDENSES.

They maintained the doctrine of the fall, and "that we be- came transgressors in and by Adam" — that Christ is " our sacrifice and priest, who died for the salvation of all who should believe, and rose again for our justification" — that " there is one God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" — that sinners are, by the Holy Spirit, "renewed in the spirit of their minds" — that a christian church is an assembly of believers, of which Jesus Christ is the head, and that " it is governed by his word and Spirit" — that ** the ministers of the church ought to be un- blameable both in life and doctrine" — that " the sacraments of the church of Christ are two, baptism and the Lord's supper;" these- are the visible emblems of invisible blessings : it is " proper and even necessary that believers use these symbols, or visible forms, when it can be done." With reference to Romanism they declared that " the church of Rome is the whore of Babylon" — " we must not obey the pope and bishops, because they are the wolves of the church of Christ" — " monkery is a filthy carcass" — " masses are impious" — " pur- gatory is the invention of men" — " the invoking and worship- ping of dead saints is idolatry" — " vows of celibacy are the inventions of men, and productive of uncleanness" — "so many orders [of the clergy] so many marks of the beast."* Con-

* From their Confessions; principally those of the t-weltth century. — See Cent. Mag.

d2

36 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

tradictory charges have been preferred against the Waldenses respecting the pastoral office : at one time they are represented as setting aside the necessity of the pastoral office altogether — at other times they are charged with holding their barbs, or pastors, in such estimation that they paid them divine honours. Dr. Allix has very satisfactorily proved the falsehood of the former accusation ; and Commenius shews that " a stated ministry was always considered as a matter of great importance among the Waldensian churches."* On the subject of wor- shipping their pastors, the Waldenses refer to their own writings, in which they have shown that God alone is the object of worship : and that, as to their pastors, regarding them as those by whom they have heard the word of recon- ciliation, they consider themselves as bound in conscience and duty to treat them with kindness, and to esteem them in love for their work's sake. They have been also charged with com- pelling their pastors to follow some trade. To this accusation they give a satisfactory reply — " We do not think it necessary that our pastors should work for bread : they might be better qualified to instruct us if we could maintain them without their own labour ; but our poverty has no remedy." From a tract on Anti-christ, published about 1 120, it is evident, as stated by D'Aubigne', "they struggled for the living hope they had in God by Christ; for the inward regeneration and renewing by faith, hope, and charity ; for the merits of Jesus Christ, and the all-sufficiency of his grace and of his righteousness."

THE WALDENSES WERE BAPTISTS.

As the opinion of the Waldenses on the article of baptism has been a subject of dispute, additional testimony is, here submitted as to their general and prevailing sentiment on this subject.

I. From their own writings. A treatise was published entitled *' What is Anti- 1120 chiist?" it bears the date 1120, and is geneially supposed to have been written by Peter de Bruys.f One feature of antichrist is thus expressed—

" He teaches to baptize children into the faith, and attributes to this the work of regeneration : thus confounding the work of the Holy Spirit

* See Section 4—" A short respite." t For a clear exposition of his opinion on baptism, see Section iv.

BAPTISTS IN ITALY. 37

in regeneration with the external rite of baptism ; and on this founda- tion bestows orders and indeed grounds all his Christianity."

In a Waldensian Confession of Faith which Sir Samuel Morland dates 1120, the twelfth article is thus expressed —

" We consider the sacraments as signs of holy things, or as the visible emblems of invisible blessings. We regard it as proper and even neces- sary that believers use these symbols or visible forms, when it can be done. Notwithstanding which, we maintain that believers may be saved without these signs when they have neither place nor opportunity of observing them."

A. tract called " The noble Lesson" was published, 1170 probably about the year 1170. Dr. Henderson calls it " one of the most venerable of the ancient Vaudois productions." This document, like the preceding, has no reference to infant-baptism: of the apostles it is observed — " They spoke, without fear, of the doctrine of Christ; they preached to Jews and Greeks, working miracles; and those that believed they baptized in the name of Jesus."

Jacob Merning says that he had in the German 1230 tongue a Confession of Faith of the baptists called Waldenses, which declared the absence of infant- baptism in the early churches of these people, and that their forefathers practised no such thing. - (Orchard.)

This year the Waldenses of the country of 1544 Provence transmitted to the king of France a Con- fession of Faith, in which they state —

" We believe that in the ordinance of baptism the water is the visible and external sign which represents to us that which by virtue of God's invisible operation is within us — namely, the renovation of our minds, and the mortification of our members through [the faith of] Jesus Christ. And by this ordinance we are received into the holy congregation of God's people, previously professing and declaring our faith and change of life."

None of these documents countenances infant baptism : the principal authority adduced to prove its practice among the Waldensian churches is a manuscript called the " Spiritual Almanack." But the antiquity of this manuscript is very doubtful : it has no date — is not mentioned by any ancient writer — and there is, we believe, no satisfactory proof of its having been in existence prior to the time of George Morel (1530). Jt is, of course, of little value as evidence of the practice of the ancient Waldenses, unless its own antiquity can be established. There were, however, some bearing the name who baptized their children ; and some who were even

38 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

induced " to suffer their children to be baptized by the priests of the church of Rome." The latter class were certainly an exception from the great mass, who, " time out of mind have opposed the abuses of the church of Rome,"* and whose senti- ments on the ordinance are indicated by the following testimony.

II. From enemies, contemporaries, and others.

- rte When bishop Gerard charged the Waldenses with

abhorring [catholic] baptism, they said — "Baptism added nothing to justification, and a strange will, a strange faith, a strange confession, do not seem to belong to, or be of any use to a little child, who neither wills nor runs, who knows nothing of faith, and is altogether ignorant of his own good or salvation, in whom there is no desire of regeneration, and from whom no confession of faith can be expected."

ttqq Twisk, upon the year 1100, asserts that the Wal-

denses did practise believers' baptism.

The Lateran council enforced infant-baptism by 113 9 severe measures, and successive councils condemned the Waldenses for rejecting it. _ _ Bernard, abbot of Clairval, says, the Waldenses

administer baptism only to adults.

Alexander III., in council, condemned the Wal- II / ป densian or Puritan heresy for denying infant-baptism. Tg _ n Reinerius Saccho published a catalogue of the

errors of the Waldenses, in which he observes — " They say that a man is first baptized when he is received into their community. Some of them hold that baptism is of no advantage to in- fants because they cannot actually believe."

Montanus, in his impress the second, says, the

15 21 Waldenses, in the public declaration of their faith

to the French king in the year 1521, assert in the

strongest terms the baptism of believers, and deny that of

infants.

Cardinal Hossius declares that the Waldenses 15 60 rejected infant baptism, and re-baptized all who em- braced their sentiments.

Bellarmine, a catholic writer of repute, acknow-

15 90 ledged the Waldenses to have held that only adults

ought to be baptized.

Here is unexceptionable evidence that the rejection of psedo-

baptism was one characteristic of the Waldenses as a body. And

* Theodore Beza.

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 39

soon after the union of some of the Waldensian churches with Calvin, a statement was made " that the ancient Vaudois are distinguished from the later inhabitants and the reformed churches by not using- any liturgy .... by not practising infant baptism. "f It is an unquestionable fact that they were, for ages, charged with denying infant baptism : if the charge was not true, it seems unaccountable that they should submit to sufferings on account of a false accusation without any attempt to clear themselves from the charge !

1 1 is worthy of remark, too, that the reformers who rose in Italy and France — to whom the Waldenses adhered, and after whose names they were called — denied infant baptism. This was the case with Arnold of Brescia, Bruno, Berengarius, Peter de Bruys, Henry of Toulouse, and Peter Waldo : oppo- sition to it is noticed by their catholic opponents as one of their prominent characteristics ; and we are told that from Arnold the Waldenses w r ere called Arnoldists, that Berengarians and Vaudois or Waldenses were convertible terms, &c. : this, in itself, is no inconsiderable proof that the Waldenses were baptists.

SECTION IV. BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN.

EARLY EXISTENCE OF CHRISTIANITY.

Whether the apostles preached in Gaul (France), is not certain : but in the second century, Photinus, a man of exem- plary piety, set out from Asia and laboured in the christian cause among the Gauls. From his efforts churches were established at Lyons and Vienne, of which Photinus was the first pastor. These churches experienced a severe persecution under the Roman emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and nobly witnessed aud suffered in defence of Christianity. Mezeray, a French historian, states that various churches existed in the second century, in Narbonne, Gaul ; and Sismondi says that " Toulouse had scarcely ever been free from heresy from its

t Robmson.

40 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

iirst foundation ; which the fathers transmitted to their children from generation to generation, almost from the origin of Christianity." There is no reason to believe that these churches differed from others, as it regards either the subjects or mode of baptism. Bingham observes, immersion universally pre- vailed, since all the ancients thought that burying under water did more lively represent the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ.

IRENiEUS — CLERICAL ASSUMPTION REBUKED.

Irenseus succeeded Photinus in the pastorate of 17 7 Lyons, about the year 177. He wrote a treatise against the Gnostic heresy, in which he reviews the condition of Christianity from the days of Christ to the time at which he wrote, and communicates valuable information as to the univer- sal prevalence of orthodoxy, not only among those churches which had been founded in the apostolic age, but even among barbaiian converts whose christian knowledge had all been attained through the oral teaching of recent missionaries. He also repelled from the churches in the east an attempted aggression upon their christian liberty. Victor, bishop of Rome — assuming in embryo, and for the first time, the un- scriptural power which was afterwards wielded by his successors — endeavoured to dictate to the eastern churches on the mode of keeping Easter, arrogantly requiring them to adopt the practice as it prevailed in the west: Ireneeus — though not an eastern pastor, yet zealous for the liberty of the churches — calmly, but firmly, confronted him, and was enabled to adminis- ter to him so judicious a reprimand, and to offer him such an effective opposition, as made the newly constructed fabric of his pride crumble into dust. Irenaeus and many of his people passed thiongh a long fiery trial, unmoved from the faith. He suffered martyrdom in the year 202. It is said that the blood of twenty thousand martyrs has been shed in the city of Lyons !

EARLIEST ALLUSION TO POURING.

The spiritual instructors of Irenseus were Papias and Polycarp, both of whom had been disciples of the apostle John. Irenasus retained through life deep impressions from Polycarp 's teaching; and has recorded," in a feeling manner, how Polycarp delighted to repeat conversations of the apostle John. "I can

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 41

describe," he says, " the very spot on which Polycarp sat and expounded . . . how he related to us his converse with John and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord, how he mentioned their particular expressions, and what things he had heard from them concerning the Lord, and concerning his miracles and his doctrine. As Polycarp had received from the eye-witnesses of the Word of Life, he told us all things agreeably to the scripture. These things, then, through the mercy of God visiting me, I heard with seriousness; I wrote them not on paper, but on my heart ; and ever since, through the grace of God, I have sincerely remembered them." It has been already observed that Irenseus wrote against the errors of the Gnostics : he also mentions, with expressions of regret, the conduct of some in his time "who thought it need- less to bring the person (for baptism) to the water at all; but mixing oil and water together, they pour it on the candidates head."* How interesting is this fact ! The adoption of pouring, instead of conducting the candidate to the water, is alluded to as a matter of regret by one who had heard from Polycarp what he had received immediately " from the eye- witnesses of the Word of Life ... all things agreeably to the scripture." This fact, and Justin Martyr's description of "the manner of dedicating ourselves to God, through Christ, upon oui conversion," f clearly prove what was not, and what was the " manner" of baptizing among the churches, in the age next to the apostolic era,

NOVAT1ANS IN FRANCE.

The churches in France appear to have partaken in some measure of the corruptions which became so prevalent in the third century ; though it is probable they retained more of the

apostolic spirit than either Italy, Africa, or the East. 251 In 251, the deputies of Novatianism visited the south

of France, and Marcian, bishop of Aries, with the whole body of his people, withdrew from the old communion and cordially adopted the reformed discipline of the Novatians. Marcian was as zealous to propagate the Novatian discipline, as he had been prompt to embrace it ; and very soon had the happiness to see it triumphing throughout his neighbourhood. This early spread of Puritanism identifies the south-east of France with the consecutive struggles which have been made

* Wall's History. t See p. 6.

42 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

on behalf of divine truth from the time when corruption first entered the christian church.

WALDENSES AND ALBIGENSES — ANTIQUITY AND IDENTITY.

The south of France is separated from Spain by the Pyrenean mountains, which extend from the Mediterranean sea to the Atlantic — about two hundred miles in length, and in some places more than one hundred miles in breadth. On the south-side of these mountains is Spain, and on the north- side is France. At an early period the valleys on both sides of these mountains were peopled with christians : those on the north, or French side, were afterwards called Albigenses, from their residence near Albi, a city about forty-two miles north- east of Toulouse : those on the south, or Spanish side, were called Navarri, a term having the same meaning as Waldenses — that is, dwelling in valleys. According to Robinson, some of the inhabitants of these mountains and valleys were the true, original, Waldenses : he assures us that the province of Catalonia, which lies at the foot of the Pyrenean mountains, on the Spanish side, was filled with dissenters from the church of Rome at an early period. These christians living on each side of the mountains were undoubtedly one and the same people. Dr. Allix states that the churches of the north of Spain were at an early period always united with those of the south of France. We have no means of ascertaining whether the term Albigenses originated with the early churches, or with a body of emigrants from Bulgaria, or Italy, settling at Albi.*

THEIR SENTIMENTS.

They held the catholic community not to be a church of Christ, they therefore rebaptized such as had been baptized in that community, before they received them into their fellow- ship : for this conduct they were called anabaptists. They quoted abundance of scripture to prove that a New Testament church consisted only of virtuous persons born of water and the Holy Spirit : they separated from the catholics on account of the impurity of their church ; and took tli3 New Testament for their rule of faith and practice. There was no difference in the mode of baptizing; the catholics in France, at this period and during several succeeding centuries, administering the ordinance by immersion.

* See section 6— Identification.

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 43

SPANISH CHURCHES.

There is no regular history o~f Spain until 324, at which time primitive discipline was in a measure maintained and the independency of the churches not greatly interrupted. In the third century several denominations prevailed in Spain : in the fourth century the Donatists visited it. The mode of baptizing

in the Spanish churches in 409 was by immersion ; 409 nor does it appear that they baptized any but believers, f

About the year 520, persons holding believers' baptism were spread all over Spain. One class of these (as observed

above) inhabiting Catalonia at the foot of the moun- 520 tains, were called Navarri. These, at after periods,

left Spain for France and other provinces. In a council held at Lerida, in Spain, in 524, it was decreed that such as had fallen into the prevarication of anabaptism, as the Nova- tians, with others, if they should return to the catholic church, should be received, provided they had been baptized in the name of the Trinity. Thus proving the existence of orthodox baptists at that period.

INVASION OF THE MOORS.

In 714, the Moors entered Spain and conquered 714 that kingdom ; the descendants of the baptists still

inhabited Catalonia in great numbers, retaining the principles of their ancestors. The spirit of liberty was care- fully cherished by the Catalonians, and though religious freedom might have been procured of the Moors for a small sum, these baptists disdained to purchase a native right ; con- sequently they fled to the mountains which separate Catalonia from Narbonensian Gaul. France was alike subject to the

Moors from 721 to 732: at the latter date, Charles 732 Martel was successful in recovering his kingdom from

the Moors, and when tranquillity was restored, the Spanish refugees emigrated and settled in the French provinces at the foot of the Pyrenees. Near the middle of the eighth century, many thousands of these people, with their wives and children and servants, removed from the Spanish to the French side of the mountains. It was the usual policy of the dissenters who chose local settlements, to inhabit the bor- ders of kingdoms, that when they were persecuted in one city they might flee to another.

t Robinson.

44 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

SPREAD OF BAPTISM.

It is recorded of Hinchmar, bishop of Laudan, in France,

that he renounced infant baptism, and that his diocese 850 were accused in the synod of Accinicus of not baptizing

children. While the Paterines in Italy were zealously advocating the cause of truth, the same class of christians, under the names of Bulgarians, Publicans, Boni homines, Albigenses, and several other titles, openly avowed in France the same doctrine and discipline. In the tenth century, the

Paulicians emigrated from Bulgaria, and spread them- 90O selves abroad through every province of Europe. Many

came into France: "It was in the country of the Albigeois, in the southern provinces of France," remarks Gibbon, " where the Paulicians mostly took root." One of the earliest names, as a reformer in France, is Leutard, who preached to the people in the bishopric of Chalons. lOOO The labours of the Paulician Albigenses, with Leutard, are noticed by Gerbertus, who became a disciple, and died in 1003. We cease, however, soon after this period, to trace them in the west as Paulicians, and henceforth read of them in the history of the Albigenses.

LIGHT IN DARKNESS.

During the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries, the catholic com- munity was in a state of awful darkness and vice : clergy kept concubines ; and deacons, four or five at a time : bishops were enjoined to learn and understand the Lord's prayer : even a woman, named Joan, filled the office of pope. But the baptists were not inactive : those resident in France were joined by the Paulicians from Bulgaiia, who were of the same order as the Albigenses. "Many efforts were made," says Mosheim, "by Protestants, the witnesses of the truth, by whom are meant such pious and judicious christians as adhered to the pure religion of the gospel and remained uncorrupted amidst super- stitions. It was principally in Italy and France that this heroic piety was exhibited." These "witnesses of the truth" were the baptists; — the Paterines in Italy, with the same class of christians in France under the names of Bulgarians, Publi- cans, Albigenses, &c. Their united efforts were directed to the restoration of Christianity to her original purity, and to her legitimate and exalted claims. The boon which such a peo- ple proved to the nations sitting in darkness will be made evident only in the day of decision.

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 45

THE BAPTISTS PERSECUTED AND RECRUITED.

A church of Paulicians was discovered at Orleans IOI7 in the beginning of the eleventh century; a council was held to devise the best methods that could be employed "to bring these people to abetter mind:" but all endeavours were unavailing; they adhered tenaciously to their principles, and were condemned to be burnt alive. Others coming into France from Bulgaria, were murdered without mercy. A synod was held at Toulouse, to rid the province of the Albigenses; but though the whole sect was, in 1022, said to have been burnt, the emigrants from Bulgaria coming in colonies into France, kept the seed sown and the churches recruited.

BRUNO AND BERENGARIUS.

In 103-3, Bruno and Berenger, or Berengarius, 1035 appeared as reformers in France. Some men of learning united themselves with Berengarius, and spread his doctrines and views through France, Italy, Germany, and other kingdoms. The catholics became alarmed : one of their prelates, Deodvvin, bishop of Liege, states " there is a report come out of France and gone through Germany, that Bruno, bishop of Angiers, and Berengarius, archdeacon of the same church, maintain that the host is not the Lord's body ; and as' far as in them lies, overthrow the baptism of infants." The preaching of these reformers not only raised new converts, but gave encouragement to the dissenters to come more promi- nently into society, and they readily adhered to Berengarius. His followers were called Berengarians and Gospellers; many of them suffered death for their opinions, and for opposing infant baptism. Bellarmine says •' the Berengarians admitted only adults to baptism." The Berengarians were called Albigenses, from the identity of doctrines ; and Berengarians and Vaudois or Waldenses were equivalent terms.

PETER DE BRUYS AND HENRY OF TOULOUSE.

In the twelfth century (1110) appeared Peter de lllO Bruys, preaching the gospel in the provinces of Languedoc and Provence, in France. He is said to have been a priest of Toulouse ; but after his conversion and union with the Albigenses, he became one of their chief minis- ters. He opposed the corruptions of the church of Rome, and

46 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

asserted that the ordinance of baptism was to be administered only to adults. His followers were called Petrobrussians, and from him the Albigenses were called by that name. Peter continued his labours during twenty years, when he was called to seal his testimony with his blood.

Henry of Toulouse. — Within five years after 1135 the martyrdom of Peter de Bruys, Henry of Toulouse, who had been a disciple of his, appeared as a reformer. He travelled through different provinces, and declaimed with great fervour against the vices of the clergy and the super- stitions they had introduced into the church. The manner of his death is unknown, though it is said he was a martyr at Toulouse. Peter de Bruys and Henry denied baptism to children, and administered the ordinance only on a profession of faith. Dr. Wall says, " Peter and Henry were two anti- psedobaptist ministers." From Henry, the Albigenses were called Henricians : they declared themselves to be the true successors of the apostles, and the faithful preservers and fol- lowers of their doctrine. The followers of these reformers, and of Arnold in Italy, were numerous: they were in different kingdoms known by different names, and are supposed in 1160 to have amounted to eight hundred thousand.

PETER OF LYONS, OR PETER WALDO,

Whilst anarchy and confusion awfully prevailed in the Roman community, and strife, rebellion, and conflict raged between popes and emperors, cardinals and clergy, a

person was called by divine grace to advocate the II60 cause of truth. In the year 1160, Peter Waldo,

an opulent merchant of Lyons, adopted the senti- ments of the Waldenses; and in 1165 assumed the character of a public teacher in the city of Lyons. Dr. Maclean affirms that he was called, in Latin, Valdus (Waldo), because he had adopted the doctrine of the Waldenses. Peter and his followers renounced all worldly property and interest, making common stock with the poor of the church : f:om this circum- stance they were termed by their enemies, " the poor of Lyons;" and from the name of the city they were called Lionists : but, in general, they were mingled with the Waldenses— their doctrines being the same — and were generally known by that name. Their views of baptism were, that " the washing (im- mersion) given to children does no good." Waldo maintained

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 47

several persons, who were employed to recite and expound the translation of the scriptures which he had made. Jacob de Riberia, secretary to the king of France, has the following words respecting these baptists : u the Waldenses, or Lug- denses, lived first in the diocese of Albi : they disputed more subtlely than others ; were afterwards admitted by the priests to teach publicly, not for that they approved their opinions, but because they were not comparable to them in wit. A man would not hurt his enemy if he should meet him upon the way accompanied with one of these heretics — insomuch that the safety of men seemed to consist in their protection." The pope, on being made acquainted with the proceedings of the Lionists and the inadecpiacy of the clergy's influence, anathematized Waldo and his followers: the severity of the measures adopted, compelled Waldo to retire. On being driven from Fiance, especially Dauphine and Picardy, in which places he had been very successful, he first retired into Germany with many of his followers, who were there called

Picards; at length he settled in Bohemia. In 1131 1181, pope Lucius III. issued a decree stating,

" We declare all Puritans, Paterines, Poor of Lyons, &c, to be under a perpetual curse for teaching baptism and the Lord's supper otherwise than the church of Rome." In furtherance of the pope's object, Philip II. of France is said to have razed three hundred mansions and destroyed several walled towns, to stop the growth of these reforming opinions. Numbers fled for an asylum into the valleys of Piedmont, taking with them the new translation of the bible : others re- moved into Germany, and their doctrines were carried into Flanders, Poland, Spain, Calabria, and even into the dominions of the grand Sultan.

POPE INNOCENT III

These baptists became so numerous that the papal jurisdic- tion seemed to be menaced with a fatal overthrow : they were especially conspicuous in the south of France, where they were received and protected by Raymond VI., earl of Toulouse ; that part of France being then subject to the counts of Toulouse. Innocent III. became pope of Rome in 1198: many popes did badly, but this exceeded all in cruel turpitude and execu- tive mischief. He judged that the church ought to keep no measures with heretics ; and that if it did not extirpate their

48 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

race, Europe would soon be filled with them. In 1 193 1193, Guy and Reinier, twojegates, were sent into

France, with instructions of the most sanguinary description ; their orders were to burn the leaders of the here- tics, confiscate their goods, and disperse their flocks. The measures employed were found to be partly paralysed by many lords and barons who had adopted Waldensian opinions. Find- ing his influence not sufficient in this locality, the pope addressed letters to the king of France, reminding him that it was his duty to take up arms against heretics. As an additional stimulus, he offered the whole territory of the heretics, and exhorted others of his own community to take possession of all the Albigenses held. Those who resided on the Spanish side of the mountains were also disturbed. Ilfonsus, king of Arragon, published an edict in 1194, commanding all "Wal- denses, Poor of Lyons, &c, to depart out of his dominions," and " whosoever received them, or afforded them any favour, were to be punished for high treason." Yet, notwithstanding

these inhuman proceedings, in the year 1200 the 1200 provinces of Languedoc and Provence, in France,

and Catalonia, in Spain, were filled with Waldenses and Albigenses.

THE CRUSADERS.

The work of persecution went on but slowly at the begin- ning : inquisitors were sent, but their labours were not at- tended with that success which had been anticipated; the pope consequently solicited Philip, king of France, with the leading men of that nation, to extirpate heresy with fire and sword. The count of Toulouse was terrified at the fulmina- tions of the pope, and engaged to exterminate the heretics from his territories: but having quarrelled with the papal legate, he was publicly anathematized. The legates and monks received powers from Rome to publish a crusade, offering to those who should engage in this war of plunder and extirpation against the Albigenses, the utmost extent of in- dulgence. The people from all parts of Europe hastened to

enrol themselves. In the year 1209, the army of 1 209 crusaders, which was destined to destroy all heretics,

was put in motion : it is said to have consisted of from 300,000 to 500,000 men, and at its head, as chief com- mander, was Simon de Montford, earl of Leicester. The

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 49

cruelties of these crusaders appear scarcely to have had a parallel ; in a few months there were sacrificed about two hun- dred thousand lives. Two large cities, Bezieis and Car- cassone, were reduced to ashes, and thousands of victims perished by the sword ; while thousands of others, driven from their burning houses, wandered through the woods and moun- tains, sinking daily under the pressure of want.

SPECIMENS OF CRUELTY.

The next year, another army was raised, and with it a renewal of last year's cruelties commenced. Towns were assaulted and the inhabitants hung on gibbets. A hundred of the inhabitants of Brom had their eyes plucked out and their noses cut off, and were then sent, under the guidance of a man

with one eye spared, to inform the garrisons of other 1 2 1 tฐ wns what fate awaited them. On the 22nd of July,

the crusaders took possession of the castle of Minerva : the Albigensian christians were in the mean time assembled, the men in one house the women in another ; and there, on their knees, resigned themselves to the awaiting circumstances. A learned abbot preached to them, but they unanimously cried, " We have renounced the church of Rome — we will have none of your faith ; your labour is in vain, for neither death nor life will make us renounce the opinions we have embraced." An enormous pile of dry wood was prepared, and the abbot thus addressed the Albigenses, " Be converted to the catholic faith or ascend this pile ;" but none of them were shaken. The wood was set on fire, the Albigenses were precipitated into the flame — which thus consumed more than one hundred and forty victims, commending their souls to God. For several years army succeeded army ; in hundreds of villages all the

inhabitants were massacred with a blind fury. In 1215 the year 1215 the fourth council of Lateran was

held, which was chiefly occupied in devising means to extirpate the Albigenses. The Albigensian churches were drowned in blood, or everywhere broken up and scattered : almost every pastor or elder had perished in a frightful manner ; and the very small number of those who had suc- ceeded in escaping the edge of the sword, now sought an asvlum in distant countries.

50

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

THE INQUISITION.

Of all the institutions devised for the exercise of cruelty, none can be compared with the popish inquisition. It was established especially for the purpose of destroying the Albi- genses, or Waldenses. Roving inquisitors were at first insti- tuted by pope Innocent III.: but these not proving so efficient as had been anticipated, organised courts of inquisi- tion were established. The Jesuit Morery states — "after count Raymond, the principal protector of the Albigenses, had been constrained to abandon them, the Roman cardinal of St. Ange, legate of pope Gregory IX., held a celebrated council at Toulouse ; where, amongst other things, seven decrees, as to the most effectual methods of discovering and punishing heresy, were made. This is the true commence- ment of the inquisition, which was intrusted solely to the bishops as the proper judges of doctrines. However, Gregory, who was extremely zealous, not finding that the bishops acted with sufficient vigour to his taste, delivered the inquisition, three years after, [ 1233,] to the exclusive management of the religious order of Dominicans." One of the first inquisitors was Dominic : " to impose privations and pain was the plea- sure of his unnatural heart ; and cruelty was in him an appe- tite and a passion."* In one day fourscore persons were beheaded and four hundred burnt alive, by this monster's order, and in his sight! Courts of inquisition were erected in several countries, but the Spanish inquisition became the most powerful and the most dreaded of any. Even the kings of Spain themselves, though arbitrary in all other respects, were taught to dread the power of the lords of the inquisition. To record the atrocities of this horrible tiibunal would require volumes: authors of undoubted credit affirm that millions of persons have been ruined by it. Heretics of all ranks and of various denominations were imprisoned and burnt, or fled into other countries : the gloom of despotism overshadowed all Spain. One hundred and fifty thousand christians were destroyed in thirty years by this satanic court. Jones remarks —

" Nothing ever displayed so fully to the eyes of mankind, the spirit

and temper of the papal religion There is something in the very

constitution of this tribunal so monstrously unjust, so exorbitantly cruel,

that it must ever excite one's astonishment that the people of any country

should have permitted its existence among them. How they coukl have

• Dr. Southey.

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 51

the inconsistency to acknowledge a power to be from God, which ha3 found it necessary to recur to expedients so manifestly from hell, so subversive of every principle of sound morality and religion, can be regarded only as one of those contradictions for which human characters, both in individuals and nations, are often so remarkable. The wisdom that is from above is pure, peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality and without hypocrisy. But the policy of Rome, as displayed in the inquisition, is so strikingly characterised by that wisdom which is earthly, sensual, and devilish, that the person who needs to be convinced of it seems to be altogether beyond tbe power of argument. Never were two systems more diametri- cally opposed in their spirit, their maxims, and effects, than primitive Christianity and the religion of modern Eome ; nor do heaven and hell, Christ and Belial, exhibit to our view a more glaring contrast."

A SHORT RESPITE.

Count Raymond, whose conduct during the crusades had been vacillating, at length began to act with vigour : he re- gained all the strong places of Albigeois, and his son began to establish himself in the government of which he had gained possession. The scattered Albigenses had taken refuge in distant countries, and some in other provinces of France. The pope addressed the different bishops of France, and particularly the archbishops of Sens, of Rheims, and of Bourges, engaging them to inquire after, to seize, and commit to the flames, such of the Albigensian heretics as had sought a refuge in their provinces. This severity obliged a great number of these dispersed people to return to the south, in the hope that they

should be protected by those who had now on every 1222 side risen up against the catholic party. In the year

1222, they found themselves sufficiently numerous in the places where their fathers had suffered, to animate them with the hope of renewing their instructions and reorganizing their churches. According to the registers of the inquisitors of Toulouse, about a hundred of the principal Albigenses held a meeting at Pieussan, at which one of their oldest preachers presided, who had escaped the researches of the fanatics. This assembly provided pastors or teachers for the destitute churches whose office-bearers had perished in the flames.

A SOLITARY VICTIM.

In 1222 Raymond expired, and was succeeded by his son, Raymond VII.: the next year, Philip, king of France, died and bequeathed twenty thousand livres to be employed in the ex- tirpation of the Albigenses. His son Louis VIII. was no

e2

52 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

sooner raised to the throne than he determined to signalize himself by the conquest of the country of the Albigenses. Negociations respecting the destruction of this people took place between him and the pope, and a bull was published against count Raymond. The king took the field at the head of an army of fifty thousand horse to annihilate Raymond and heresy. The army of crusaders laid siege to Avignon,

June 6, 1226: the citizens consented to a capitu- 1226 lation, September 12. During the three months'

siege, according to Matthew Paris, the invading army lost by assaults, by disease, and famine, not less than twenty thousand men. The king, the legate, and bishop Fouquet, earnestly desired to find, in the country where they had made war, some of those enemies of popery for whose extirpation the whole of France had been put in motion. But it was difficult to do this : terrified with the apprehension of a renewal of former scenes of slaughter, those who had any conscience of religion would naturally seek an asylum in neigh- bouring countries. After great exertions, they at last dis- covered at Cannes, in the diocese of Narbonne, an old preacher of the Albigenses, named Peter Isarn, who, being prevented by age and infirmity from quitting the country, had concealed himself from time to time in secret places. Being detected, he was condemned by the archbishop of Narbonne, and com- mitted to the flames with great ceremony. After this execution, to accomplish which at least twenty thousand lives had been sacrificed and an incalculable expense incurred, the king pre- pared to return home. On his journey thither, he was attacked by the malady which had destroyed so many lives at the siege of Avignon : the attack was fatal, and Louis expired on the 8th of November, 1226.

A* POPISH HOLOCAUST.

It might have been expected, that when the belligeienttrio had traversed the whole province and found only one surviving object of their pursuit on whom to wreak their vengeance, they would have been satisfied and have abstained from further

hostile proceedings against either count Raymond or 1 227 his subjects. But their cruelty was not yet satiated :

in the year 1227, a fresh crusade was determined on, and the next year Raymond, took the field with the hope of recovering his possessions. His trials appear to have reBuced

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 63

him almost to a state of frenzy : he treated the captives who fell into his hands with barbarous cruelty. From this time the tide of affairs set in strongly against Raymond : the French troops ravaged the country : Raymond seems to have been so overwhelmed with terror, as well as his subjects, that he no longer preserved any hope of defending himself. In 1229, he abandoned to the king all his French possessions, and to the pope's legate all that he possessed in the district of Aries. He himself submitted to the most humiliating penance. But the heretics were not exterminated : a section

of the Albigenses had found an asylum in the pro- 1235 vince of Gascony, where they defended themselves

in the strong castles. In 1235, a council was held at Narbonne, in the south of France, w T hen a circular was ad- dressed to the inquisitors, declaring that heresy had broken out afresh in the three provinces of Narbonne, Arles ; and Aix. Not only did the agents of the inquisition hunt after the living, but daily was presented at Toulouse, the appalling spectacle of inquisitors digging up the half putrified bodies of those against whom information had been laid, and after the mockery of a trial, dragging them on a hut die to the flames, through all the principal streets of the city. In 1239, a hundred and eighty heretics were burnt to death in Champagne, in the same fire, in the presence of eighteen bishops ! A monk who witnessed the execution, exclaimed, "It is a holocaust agree- able to God."

A MILLION LIVES SACRIFICED.

It is a fact not easily accounted for, that from the year 1237 to 1241, the inquisition in Languedoc remained in a state of inactivity, in consequence of an order from the court of Rome. This was an interval of repose ; and Raymond, having cultivated the friendship of the emperor of Germany, succeeded in assembling an army in 1240, with the view of recovering his lost territories in Provence. But he was again compelled to humble himself to the court of Rome. In 1242, he made one more struggle to free himself and his country from slavery ; several ecclesiastics connected with the inquisi- tion were surprised and cut to pieces. Raymond finally sub- mitted unconditionally to the king of France, and, in 1243 1243, abandoned the whole territory of the Albigenses to the will of the pope and the king. Thus terminated

54 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

this popish tragedy after the sacrifice of a million of inoffen- sive lives. Many of the Albigenses had, during the persecu- tion, been dispersed over a great part of Europe ; and in the cottages of the peasant or the poor artizan they taught their hosts to read the gospel of salvation, and, through the blessing of God on their instructions, to understand and believe it.

A REMNANT PRESERVED.

Although the popes and the French monarchs joined their councils and respective forces to destroy these faithful witnesses, and laid waste the southern provinces of Fiance; yet M. de Voltaire informs us that "numbers of persons, holding the principles of the Albigenses, retired into the interior of the country, where they lived a long time in obscurity, busied in the culture of barren lands, which, with indefatigable industry,

they rendered fit for corn and pasture Jn the space of

two hundred and fifty years their number increased to eighteen thousand, who were dispersed in thirty small towns, besides hamlets. All this was the fruit of their industry. There were no pj'iestsf among them — no quarrels about religious wor- ship — no law-suits : they determined their differences among themselves. None but those who had occasion to go to the neighbouring cities knew that there existed such things as mass and bishops. They prayed to God in their own provincial dialect, and, being continually employed, they had the happi- ness to know no vice."

MARTYRDOM OF WALDENSES.

While the war of extermination was being carried on in the south, the capital of France was also the scene of bloodshed. In the year 1210, twenty-four persons of the sect of the Wal- denses were seized in the city of Paris, some of whom were imprisoned, and others committed to the flames. In 1334 the year 1334, the monks of the inquisition appre- hended one hundred and fourteen of them at Paris, who were burnt alive, sustaining their torture with admirable fortitude. It is also related by the author of " The Sea of Histories," that in the year 1378, the persecution of 1378 the Waldenses then going forward, a vast number of them were committed to the flames, in the Place de Greve, Paris. These sanguinary proceedings, however, did

t No priests— but pastore. See page 35.

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 55

not eradicate the heresy, for, two years after this, we find Francis Borelli, an inquisitorial monk, armed with a papal bull, un del taking the persecution of the Waldenses in the same quarter. In the space of thirteen years, he delivered into the hands of the civil magistrates of Grenoble, one hundred and fifty persons to be burned as heretics; and in the valley of Fraissiniere, he apprehended eighty more, who were also committed to the flames. The valleys of Fraissiniere, Argentiere, and Loyse, still continued to abound 1460 with Waldenses: in the year 1460, a Franciscan monk, aimed with inquisitorial power by the arch- bishop of Ambrun, was sent on a mission of persecution, and to drive them from the neighbourhood. Albert de Capitanei^, archdeacon of Cremona, previously to his sanguinary proceed- ings in Piedmont, f proceeded to the south of France, and marched into the valleys. The inhabitants of the valley of Loyse fled at his approach, into the caves at the tops of the mountains. He discovered their retreats, and causing quan- tities of wood to be placed at their entrances, ordered them to be set on fire. Four hundred children were suffocated in their cradles: "it is held as unquestionably true," says Perrin, "among the Waldenses dwelling in the adjacent valleys, that more than three thousand persons, men and women, belonging to the valley of Loyse, perished on this occasion." The pre- sence of Albeit and his army being found necessary 1488 in Piedmont, he appointed a Franciscan monk as his substitute in the French valleys. The persecution which ensued is said to have been exceedingly severe : for the Waldenses being condemned as heretics by the inquisitor, Ponce, the counsellor, and Oronce, the judge, committed them to the flames as fast as they were apprehended, without per- mitting them to make any appeal.

IMPORTANT TESTIMONY TO CHARACTER.

What were the crimes, it may be asked, or what was the character of these victims of popish cruelty ? Let papists themselves reply. Louis XII., king of France, being in- formed by the enemies of the Waldenses inhabiting part of the province of Provence, that several heinous crimes were laid to their charge, sent the Master of Requests, and a certain doc-

t See page 30.

56 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

tor of Sorbonne, who was confessor to his majesty, 1498 to make inquiry into the matter: on their return

they reported that they visited all the parishes where the Waldenses dwelt, had inspected their places of worship, but could observe no traces of the ceremonies of the church of Rome : much less could they discover any traces of those crimes with which they were charged, On the contrary, they kept the sabbath-day, observed the ordinance of baptism ac- cording to the primitive church, instructed their children in the articles of the christian faith and the commandments of God. The king, after he had heard the report of his commis- sioners, said with an oath, that they were better men than himself or his people. The same monarch, having been told that in the valley of Fraissiniere, there was a class of peo- ple who lived like beasts, without religion, &c, deputed one of his confessors and the official of Orleans to visit the valley. They accordingly repaired thither and examined the Walden- ses : after their return, the king's confessor publicly declared in the presence of a number of his friends, that he wished he was as good a christian as the worst of the valley of Fraissinieie. The eminent historian, Thuanus, also a catholic, says of the inhabitants of the same valley — " poor as they are, they are content, and live in a state of seclusion from mankind. One thing is very remarkable, that persons externally so savage and rude, should have so much moral cultivation. They can all read and write. They know French sufficiently for the understanding of the bible and the singing of psalms. You can scarcely find a boy among them who cannot give you an intelligible account of the faith which they profess. In this, indeed, they resemble their brethren of the other valleys. They pay tribute with a good conscience, and the obligation of this duty is peculiarly noted in their confession of faith."

DEVASTATION AND SLAUGHTER.

From the year 1489 to about 1540, the Waldenses in France remained tolerably free from molestation. The German refor- mation had at this time made considerable progress, and a catho- lic writer observes — "religious discussions excited

1540 already in France a dangerous fermentation

Cabrieres, a small town of the Comtat, and Merin- dol, a large town of Provence, preserved the errors of the

BAPTISTS IN FRANCE AND SPAIN. 57

ancient Vaudois : Luther had sent ministers there, and the Vaudois no longer concealed their sentiments."* In the year 1540, the parliament of Aix passed a law that " they should all be destroyed, that their houses should be pulled down, the town of Merindol levelled with the ground, all the trees cut down, and the country adjacent converted into a desert." At the intercession of the learned cardinal Sadole- tus, the execution of the sentence was for a season suspended. In the mean time (1544,) the Waldenses transmitted to the king, in writing, a confession of their faith. In this docu- ment they assert all the great doctrines of the church of Christ : of baptism they state — "by this ordinance we areieceived into the holy congregation of God's people, previously professing and declaring our faith and change of life." This was of no avail : the first president, Oppede, having represented them as seditious, the cardinal Tournon instigated the 1545 king to order the execution of the decree : " In con- junction with the baron de la Garde, who had brought troops from Italy, they fell on the unhappy victims. Three thousand persons, without distinction of age or sex, were massacred for the honour of the christian [catholic] faith ! Merindol, Cabrieres, twenty-two towns or villages were re- duced to ashes."f The French Waldenses weie subsequently involved in the same calamities as their brethren in Piedmont : the king of France being the instigator and assistant of the duke of Savoy, in his sanguinary proceedings. ( See page 30 and following.)

WHY WERE THEY PERSECUTED ?

One reason was — the constant and faithful testimony they bore against the abominations of the church of Rome ; their own purity of doctrine and holiness of life giving power to their testimony, and standing out in striking contrast to the errors of popery and the wickedness of its adherents. Reine- rius Saceho, a popish inquisitor, says — " Of all the sects that have risen up against the church of Rome, the Waldenses have been the most prejudicial, inasmuch as their opposition has been of very long continuance. Add to which, that this sect is become very general, for there is scarcely a country to be found in which this heresy is not planted. And, in the third place, because, while all other sects beget in people a dread

* Histoire de France, by l'abbe Millot. t L'abbe Millot.

5S HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

and horror of them on account of their blasphemy against God ; this, on the contrary, hath a great appearance of godliness ; for they live righteously before men, believe rightly concern- ing God in every particular, holding all the articles contained in the [apostles] creed, but hating and reviling the church of Rome, and on this subject they are readily believed by the peo- ple." Another motive which prompted the murderers of these holy men is revealed by the following fact : — when the con- fessor, alluded to above, sent by the French king to examine the Waldenses, returned, the archbishop of Ambrun, well knowing that the goods of the Waldenses were liable to con- Jiscation J or the crime of heresy, and that they would be an- nexed to the domains of the archbishopric, strongly pressed the commissioners to condemn them as heretics ! To their honour, however, they not only resisted the application of the archbishop, but even expressed their admiration of the Wal- denses.

SECTION V. BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND.

EARLY EXISTENCE.

That vast tract of land called by the Romans Germania or Germany, extended one way from the north sea to the banks of the Danube, and on the other from Gaul or France to the Mceotick lake. From this immense territory, the inhabitants, as from a hive, swarmed and colonized and overspread half the world. We have no means of knowing whether the Novatians in their itinerancy visited the German territories or not : it is certain that the people professed Christianity in its first ages and for several centuries before their kings became catholics ; during

which they were called by the catholics, anabaptists 200 and heretics. In the third century, the gospel was

preached and churches existed at Cologne, Treves, Metz, and in other places. Though the German tribes were divided into various denominations, they all agreed in one

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 59

point : they baptized none without previous instruction, and re-baptized all who had been baptized among catholics, before they could be received into their churches. These views on the ordinance of baptism regulated their conduct in their reli- gious societies wherever they formed colonies among other people, as may be traced in Spain, Lombardy, Africa, Italy, and France. Mezeray, the French historian, says, the Bur- gundians, a people of Germany who had received the 43 O christian faith, visited France so early as 430, and ob- tained a settlement at Vienne and Lyons.

INFANT BAPTISM.

In 789 Charles the Great resolved to subdue the Saxons, or destroy them unless they accepted life on the condition 789 of professing the christian religion agreeably to the Roman ritual. On pain of death the Saxons, with their infant offspring, were to receive baptism. Germany was at length subdued and religious liberty destroyed. In this way Germany was converted to the catholic faith.

NUMBER OF BAPTISTS.

The wilds and forests of Germany would prove asylums to dissidents during the assumptions and persecutions of the catholic party : and that Germany was inhabited by persons of this description is evident, as well as their activity in disseminating the truth ; since it is recorded

that the baptist itinerant preachers could pass during 850 tne ninth century through the whole German empire

and lodge every night at the house of one of their friends. It is probable that these travelling preachers were Paulicians from Bulgaria, or Paterines from Italy. Their views on bap- tism are proved from their confession of faith which asserts, " In the beginning of Christianity there was no baptizing of children, and their forefathers practised no such thing:" " We do from our hearts believe that baptism is a washing which is performed with water, and doth hold out the washing of the soul from sin." In the eleventh century a company 1024 ฐf men out ฐf Italy visited and travelled through whole provinces of Germany, and were exceedingly successful in enlightening many and drawing them from the catholic faith. They obtained the name of Gazari, which means Puritans.

60 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

HERESY !

Evervimus, bishop of Stainfield in Germany, wrote a letter to Bernard, abbot of Clairval, dated 1140, wherein 1 1 40 he speaks to the following effect : there have been some heretics lately discovered here which, after conference and not being able to recover them, we have committed to the flames, which they bore with astonish- ing patience and even joy. Their heresy is this : they say the church is among them because they only follow the steps of Christ and continue in the true imitation of the true apostolic life, not seeking the things of the world, possessing neither house, lands, nor any property, nor did he give his disciples leave

to possess any They call themselves elect and say,

every elect hath power to baptize others whom they find worthy, but they contemn our baptism and give their ordi- nance to those only who are of age, as they do not believe in

infant baptism those of them who have returned to

our church tell us that they had great numbers of their per- suasion scattered almost everywhere ; and as for those who were burnt, they, in the defence they made of themselves, told us that this heresy had been concealed from the time of the martyrs, and that it existed in Greece (among the Paulicians) and in other countries. Bernard was exceedingly offended with these baptists because they derided the catholics for bap- tizing infants, &c.

PETER WALDO IN GERMANY.

We have noticed the exit of Peter Waldo and a number of his followers from France, in consequence of the severity of the measures of the pope. After leaving Lyons, he published

the gospel with success through Dauphine and 1170 Picardy: and coming from Picardy into Germany,

his followers obtained the name of Picards. Wherever they went they sowed the seed of the kingdom : in Alsace and along the Rhine the doctrines spread extensively. Persecu- tion ensued ; thirty-five citizens of Mentz were consumed to

ashes. in one fire in the city of Bingen, and eighteen 1180 m Mentz itself: at Strasburg eighty persons were

committed to the flames. Multitudes died praising God and in the confident hope of a blessed resurrectiori. The losses thus sustained by persecution, were repaired by a

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 61

1210 corresponding class coming into Germany out of Italy in the early part of the thirteenth century. Jacob Merning says that he had in the German tongue, a confession of faith of the baptists called Waldenses ; which de- clared the absence of infant baptism in the early churches of these people, that their forefathers practised no such thing, and that people of this faith and practice made a prodigious spread through Poland, Lombardy, Germany, and Holland. These dissenting communities had their respective schools at which many of the nobility were educated.

BAPTISTS IN BOHEMIA.

The baptists were protected by some powerful I140 families in Bohemia. They kept a school for young

ladies, and the mode of education and the purity of their manners were in such high repute, that the daughters of a very great part of the nobility of Bohemia were sent thither to be educated. Lady Boskovicz, the patroness, with other women, expounded the scriptures to the pupils, and performed all religious offices among them. Lord William, the chan- cellor of the kingdom of Bohemia, was educated in one of the baptist schools until twenty years of age. Uladislaus was prevailed upon in 1 140 to sign an edict against the Vaudois or Picards, but the influence of the nobles rose above the sovereign's, and rendered the law void. Peter Waldo settled in Bohemia. He and his followers obtained permission to reside at Saltz and Lun, just on the borders of the kingdom, which afforded an asylum to those Albigenses who, in the en- suing century, were constrained to leave France by the cruel

measures adopted against them. Waldo's labours in 117 9 Bohemia were crowned with remarkable success: he

died here in 1 1 79. All Bohemian writers state that the Picards or Waldenses settled early in this kingdom, and that they baptized and rebaptized such persons as joined their churches and that they had always done so. They are said in the fourteenth century to have numbered eighty thousand in this kingdom.

PERSECUTION IN GERMANY.

In 1210, the dissidents had become so numerous

1 210 in Germany that Otho IV., at the entreaty of the

catholic clergy, granted an edict against them which

62 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

extended over all the imperial cities in 1 220 ; and in 1220 the hands of the inquisitors entailed misery on the

people, and in some instances evoked a spirit of retaliation. While the pope was using his efforts to rid France of the Albigenses, he and his conclave were suddenly alarmed with the news that the spirit of reform was operating in Ger- many ; and that the city of Stettin was infected by the same heretics, who, as he fondly hoped, had been extinguished in Languedoc. He lost no time in addressing bulls to the bishops to induce them to preach up a crusade against the heretics. The fanatics took up arms in crowds under the

conduct of the German bishops; and in the year 1233 1233, " an innumerable multitude of heretics were

burned alive through German}' ; a still greater num- ber were converted." But such was the nature of the pestilence, as the court called it, that, like water dammed up in one place by inadequate mounds, it broke out in another. A quarrel

ensued between the pope and the emperor, during 1300 which the heretics increased, and in the beginning

of the fourteenth century it is recorded, they existed in thousands.

WALTER LOLLARD.

In 1315, a bold and intrepid teacher was raised 1315 up among the Picards in the person of Walter

Lollard. He stirred up the Albigenses by his power- ful preaching, and defended their faith : he was, in unity of views, in doctrine and practice, with the Waldenses, and was in great reputation among them for having conveyed their doctrines into England, where they prevailed all over the king- dom. From him the Waldenses were called Lollards, and the Lollards are said to have rejected infant baptism as a needless

ceremony. He was a laborious and zealous preacher 1320 among the baptists who resided on the Rhine : in

1320, he was aj3prehended and burnt.

JOHN HUSS.

In 1407 John Huss became a bold champion in the

1 4b07 cailse of truth in Bohemia. He, with J erome, travelled

and laboured for the interests of the Redeemer, and

dissidents were multiplied in the empire by conversions

and by accessions from other kingdoms. Huss and 'Jerome

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 63

were both tried by the council of Constance and 1415 afterwards burnt by its order: the former in 1415,

the latter in the following year. Their followers were called Hu-sites, and Erasmus in a letter states, " the Hussites renounce all rites and ceremonies of the catholic church, they ridicule our doctrine and practice in both the sacraments, they admit none until they are dipped in water ; and they reckon one another without distinctions of rank to be called brothers and sisters." These Hussites prevailed in Hungary, Silicia, and Poland; but were most numerous in those cities of Germany that lay on the Rhine, especially at Cologne. They were indiscriminately called Waldenses or Picards ; and they all, says Robinson, rebaptized, but enter- tained different views on other subjects.

MARTYRDOM OF JOHN HUSS.

It was on the 6th of July that he appeared before the council for the last time, to hear his sentence pronounced. The car- dinal de Viviers presided : the emperor and all the princes of the empire were present; and an immense crowd had assem- bled from all quarters to view the sad spectacle. Mass was celebrated, and a sermon was preached by the bishop of Lodi from Romans vi. 6, towards the conclusion of which, addressing the emperor, he said — " Destroy heresies and errors, and above all," pointing to John Huss, " this obstinate heretic." After the sermon, a bishop read the decree, by which the council en- forced silence : the proctor of the council then rose and de- manded in its name the condemnation of John Huss and his writings. Sixty articles from Wycliffe's books were read aloud and condemned, then a number from his own works, to which he requested to reply separately: this being refused, he kneeled down, and, raising his hands and eyes to heaven, committed his cause to the Judge Supreme. At the conclusion of the reading, witnesses were examined, and Huss briefly replied. His refusal to abjure having been repeated aloud, two sentences were pronounced, one against his writings, the other against himself: after hearing them read, he fell on his knees, and said " Lord Jesus, paidon my enemies !" Then commenced the ceremony of degradation : the bishops clothed him in sacerdotal garments and put the communion cup into his hand. He was ordered to descend from his seat, the cup was taken out of his hand, his garments were taken off oue by

64 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

one, and on each of them the bishops pronounced some male- dictions. They placed on his head a sort of crown or pyramidal mitre, on which were painted frightful figures of demons, with this inscription — " The Arch-heretic." When he was thus arrayed the prelates devoted his soul to the devils : " I wear with joy," leplied the martyr, "this crown of opprobrium, for the love of Him who bore a crown of thorns."

He walked between four town-sergeants to the place of exe- cution : the princes followed, with an escort of eight hundred armed men, and a prodigious concourse of people. The place of punishment was a meadow adjoining the gardens of the city, outside the gate of Gotleben : on arriving there, Huss kneeled down, and recited in prayer some of the penitential psalms : " we are ignorant of this man's crime," said aloud several of the people, " but he offers up to God most excellent prayers." When he wished to address the crowd in German, the elector palatine opposed it, and ordered him to be forth- with burned. " Lord Jesus !" cried John Huss. " I shall en- deavour to endure, with humility, this frightful death, which I am awarded for thy Holy Gospel. Pardon all my enemies !"

His body was bound with thongs, with which he was firmly tied to a stake driven deep into the ground: faggots were arranged about and under his feet, and around him was piled a quantity of w r ood and straw. The elector palatine, accom- panied by the marshal of the empire, came up to him, and for the last time recommended him to retract : the holy man re- mained firm — the elector and the marshal withdrew — and fire was set to the pile I " Jesus, son of the living God," ex- claimed the martyr, " have pity on me !" In the midst of his torments he prayed and sung a hymn — the wind arose and his voice was drowned by the roaring of the flames — his head and lips continued to move for a short time longer — and then his spirit departed. His executioners tore in pieces the remains of his body and threw them back again into the funeral pile, until the fire had absolutely consumed everything: the ashes were then collected together and thrown into the river Rhine.

the united brethren. The affairs of the kingdom of Bohemia remained in an un- settled state to the middle of the fifteenth century : at this period the reformers were advised to retire to the lordship of Latitz, about twenty miles from Prague, where they might es-

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 65

tablish their own mode of worship. Numbers adopted the suggestion, and in 1457 formed themselves into a 1457 society. This body being made up of persons hold- ing different religious views, they chose the name of "United Brethren." These brethren re-baptized all such as joined their congregation. Benj. La Trobe, in his " Exposi- tion of the christian doctrine of the United Brethren," savs, " the dipping or overstreaming with water cannot of itself pro- cure us salvation, but the participation of the death of Jesus, which faith lays hold of is that upon which all depends in baptism." These brethren soon became numerous; many persons who had previously held infant baptism, renounced that opinion, and the ministers baptized them before they re- ceived them into church communion. Many of the Walden- ses, who had wandered about in dens and caves of the eaith as well as upon the mountains, now came forward and joined these brethren. Their increase alanned the catholic priest- hood ; three years had scarcely elapsed when a fearful perse- cution was raised, and the brethren were declared by the state unworthy of the common rights of subjects. By this persecu- tion almost every society in the kingdom became scattered. In the ensuing reign, they were suffered to leturn from the woods and caves in which they had sought refuge. They now spread more extensively than ever : in 1500, there 15 OO were two hundred congregations in Bohemia and Moravia ; many counts, barons, and noblemen, joined their churches, and built them meeting-houses in their cities and villages. The catholic clergy obtained of the king an edict for their suppression, and the brethren were called to endure the most severe sufferings : some emigrated, others re- tired into the forests and caves, those who were detected in their devotions were arrested and burnt. So wearied were the United Brethren of suffering, that they had been 15 16 meditating a compromise with the catholic church ; and when Luther appeared, they wrote to him on the subject. Luther's admonitions induced them to submit their creed to him : he revised it, and under his protection, they agreed to leave off re-baptizing, which practice 1522 should in future be called ana-baptism. Yet, not- withstanding this compromise, the consistent bap- tists were so numerous that the emperor expressed his astonish-

66 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

ment at their numbers ; and their views of christian 1526 liberty so excited his displeasure, that he banished all anabaptists from his dominions on pain of death. The Moravians claim descent from these United Brethren.

THE SPIRIT OF ANTICHRIST.

In 1457, a great number of Waldenses were dis- 1^5 7 covered and put to death by inquisitors in the diocese

of Eiston, in Germany : the sufferers confessed that they had among them twelve barbs or pastors who laboured in the work of the ministry. The baptists in itinerating had been successful in bringing persons of all classes over to their views and community from the catholic church. Their con- duct in rebaptizing awakened the anger of the catholic priest- hood ; for " this rebaptizing," said bishop Bossuet, " is an open declaration that in the opinion of the brethren the catholic church has lost baptism." Measures were accordingly adopted

to stay the growing evil: in 1510, the clergy and 1510 bishops prevailed on the sovereign to use means

equal to the danger ; whereupon an edict was made that all Picards without distinction of sex, age, or quality, should be slain. But the influence of some noblemen obtained its suspension for eighteen months, when it was revived : yet the interpositions of Providence prevented its full execution. The threatening aspect of affairs in G ermany suggested to the Picards the necessity of emigrating, and Mosheim asserts that " the German baptists passed in shoals into Holland and the Netherlands."

RETRIBUTION.

Numbers of Picards were executed in Bohemia after the publication of the above edict : some were committed to the flames — many were tortured to death upon the rack — some were hanged — others were drowned. Many of the noblemen and senators who had signed the edict, met with fatal acci- dents and untimely deaths ; these occurrences at length, by their frequency, became so particularly remarked, that they o-ave rise to a proverb which still subsists, not only in Bohemia but in most other parts of Germany, and implies,

" If some evil you'd know, To the Picards turn foe.*'

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 67

BAPTISTS AT THE REFORMATION.

We have now arrived at the period when Martin Luther began the reformation, and it is evident that baptists were numerous prior to his secession from Rome. This is allowed by Mosheim, who has the following descriptive remarks on their principles: "before the rise of Luther or Calvin, there lay concealed in almost all the countries of Europe, particularly in Bohemia, Moravia, Switzerland, and Germany, many per- sons who adhered tenaciously to the doctrines of the Dutch Baptists, which the Waldenses, Wickliffites, and Hussites had maintained, some in a more disguised, and others in a more open and public manner; viz. that the kingdom of Christ, or the visible church he had established upon earth, was an assembly of true and real saints, and ought therefore to be inaccessible to the wicked and unrighteous, and also exempt from those institutions which human prudence suggested to oppose the progress of iniquity, or to correct and reform transgressors. This is the maxim of all the peculiar- ities that are to be found in the religious doctrine and dis- cipline of the baptists. It is evident that these views were approved by many before the dawn of the reformation."

LUTHER AND THE BAPTISTS.

The baptists perceiving that the attempts of Luther, 1518 seconded by several persons of eminent piety, proved very successful, hoped the happy period had arrived in which the restoration of the church to purity was to be ac- complished, under the divine protection, by the labours and counsels of pious and eminent men. In his early efforts Luther had no great objection to the baptists : he translated the whole of the New Testament agreeably to their views; Matthew iii. 1. was rendered, " In those days came John the dipper." Other parts of his writings were in accordance with this sentiment : he declared, " it cannot be proved by the scrip- tures that infant baptism was instituted by Christ, or begun by the first christians after the apostles." Nearly all the reformers expressed themselves in similar language about baptism. But however valuable the changes effected by Luther, the true principles of reformation were not carried out by him ; he taught that a christian church should include whole parishes — baptized infants, notwithstanding his previously declared opinions — and held the doctrine of consubstantiation, namely,

f2

68- HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

that the body and blood of Christ are really present and co-exist in, or with, the bread and wine of the Lord's supper. Thus the baptists continued the only body of professing chris- tians who maintained accurate views of the Lord's supper as well as of baptism. Their consistent advocacy of these views, in opposition to the reformers as well as the catholics, rendered them obnoxious to both : in the very edict in which Charles V. and the Roman catholic princes proposed to the Lutherans a council for the correction of abuses, they also enjoined them to unite in suppressing the anabaptists and sacramentarians. The Lutherans, it is well known, were too teady to obey this injunction. Just emerging from papal darkness, the true prin- ciples of christian liberty were not fully understood ; and while the devout mind traces the work of God, in the amazing efforts and the glorious success of the reformers in removing the veil of ignorance, breaking the fetters of superstition, and promoting a revival of true godliness, it cannot but regret their retention of a degree of that spirit of persecution, which, by whomsoever encouraged, is a flagrant outrage on christian principle.

THE BAPTISTS SCATTERED.

The baptists were now harrassed both by the 1522 catholics and the reformers. At Zurich, in 1522, an

edict was published against anabaptism : this being insufficient to check immersion, the senate decreed that all persons who professed anabaptism or harboured the professors of the doctrine, should be punished with death by drowning. Many were drowned or burnt; and wherever the baptists settled to enjoy liberty, Luther wrote to princes and senates to engage them to expel such dangerous men. The views which the baptists held on civil and religious liberty caused the atten- tion and displeasure of princes to be constantly directed towards them. The influence of the reformers and the hatred of the

catholics rendered their situation very critical. " They 1534 were so closely watched, in 1534, by the magistrates

as to find it necessary to emigrate to other quarters." After a long negociation, many of the old baptists were incorporated with the reformed churches : the bells were rung — the reproach of Picardism or Ana-baptism was pro- fessedly rolled away — but " the pious wept." Multitudes, however, were not comprehended in this union.

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 69

THE AFFRAY AT MUNSTER.

In the year 1532 an occurrence took place at Munster which has often been repeated and dwelt on to blacken the character of the baptists. We shall simply state the facts of the case. One Bernard Rotman, a psedobaptist minister of the Lutheran persuasion, assisted by others of the reformation, began the disturbances in opposing the papists. Spanheim and Osiander say, that the first stir in this city of Munster was about the piotestant religion, when the synod and ministers opposed the papists with arms before any anabaptist came. While things were in this confused state many persons of a fanatical charac- ter came into Munster. These misguided individuals had nothing in common with the baptists but the denial of infant baptism : there is therefore no more propriety in confounding the baptists with them, than there would be in confounding the baptists of the United States with the Mor- mons of Nauvoo. Confusion and uproar immediately pre- vailed : they began to erect a new republic, calling it the New Jerusalem. The bishop of Munster, assisted by 1535 German princes, besieged the city in 1535, when the enthusiasts were all subdued, taken, and put to death in the most terrible and ignominious manner. This disorderly and outrageous conduct of a few fanatics drew upon the whole body of baptists heavy marks of displeasure from the greatest part of the European princes: though Cassander, a papist, declares that many anabaptists in Germany did resist and oppose the opinions and practices of those at Munster, and taught the contrary doctrine. But as the baptists were known to be the assertors of civil and religious liberty, the severest laws were enacted against them a second time, and pro- digious numbers were devoted to death in the most dreadful forms.

BAPTISTS IN HOLLAND — MENNO BAPTIZED.

While the baptists thus saw their hopes blasted by the ravages of Munster, and numbers of their friends daily executed, an individual was raised up, from whose counsels and zeal they derived comfort and assistance. Menno Simon was educated as a priest, and entered the Romish church in the character of a minister in 1524. But by reading the New Testament and the writings of Luther, he saw the errors of popery. He was generally respected ; and all at once became a gospel preacher.

70 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

Among the great numbers who suffered death for anabaptism was one Sicke Snyden, who was beheaded at Lewarden. The constancy of this man to his views of believers' baptism, pre- ferring death to renouncing his sentiments, led Menno to inquire into the subject of baptism. " I examined the scrip- tures," he states, "with diligence, and meditated on them earnestly, but could find in them no authority for infant bap- tism." After consulting his pastor (or superior) , he referred to Luther, then to Bucer, then to Bullinger. The result of his inquiries is thus stated by himself : — " As I now on every side observed that the writers stood on grounds so very different, and each followed his own reason, I saw clearly that we were deceived with infant baptism." He became convinced that the baptists were suffering for truth's sake, was buried with Christ by baptism, and joined the martyr church.

A GREAT REFORMER.

Menno was now thirty years old. With a heart subdued and simple as a child at the feet of his Saviour, he had a manly understanding, enriched by study and ripened by reflection. For a considerable time after his baptism he declined all public engagements, and devoted himself to the study of the scrip- tures, meditation, and prayer. He saw a great work to be accom- plished, but it seemed beyond his power. He observed many able men attempting to lay anew the foundations of the church; but he saw one fatal error — the fruitful source of many more — laid in the very corner-stone of the new foundations. This error was the union of the church with the state — the incorpo- ration of one with the other by means of infant baptism and adult confirmation — the supremacy of the state conceded by the reformers. Waiting for indications of the divine will, he received an unexpected call to the ministry from a small but faithful band of baptists : becoming convinced of his duty, he gave himself to the work, body and soul. Perhaps there is not to be found a more glorious example of moral courage than that presented by Menno in his entrance on the 1536 labours of a baptist minister. It was in the year 1536, just after the city of Munster was retaken by its military bishop, and the bodies of the miserable leaders in the insurrection were hung up in iron cages on the tower of the cathedral — when popular ignorance and learned prejudice were confounding the baptists with the fanatics of Munster in

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 71

one overwhelming torrent of odium, proscription, and mas- sacre — when every baptist, as such, was an outlaw in even- state of Europe — when the terrors of death in the most dread- ful forms were presented to view — these were the appalling circumstances under which Menno publicly appeared as a baptist minister. From this period to the end of his life — that is, for a space of twenty-five years — Menno travelled from one country to another, under every conceivable difficulty, danger, and hardship, preaching the kingdom of God and winning souls to Christ He laboured in East and West Friesland, Groningen, Holland, Guelderland, Brabant, West- phalia, through the German provinces, on the coast of the Baltic sea, and even as far as Livonia. " In all these places his ministerial labours were attended with remarkable success, and added to his sect a prodigious number of proselytes. " x If the character of a religious reformer is to be estimated by the nobleness and purity of his principles — by the freedom of mind with which he examines and embraces them, as well as the firmness of spirit with which he avows and maintains them — by the consistency with which he carries them out in his own practice, and the zeal and prudence with which he seeks to spread them through society — by the nature and degree of the resistance he encounters, and by the measure and means of his success — by personal purity, meekness, and self-sacrifice — then, of all the illustrious names recorded in church history for the last six hundred years, there is none superior to that of Menno.

ANTIQUITY OF THE DUTCH BAPTISTS.

The Mennonites consider themselves as the real successors of the Waldenses. In 1161 the persecuted Waldenses sought refuge in the Netherlands, bringing with them Waldo's transla- tion of the New Testament. Mosheim observes — "When the Mennonites assert that they are descended from the Waldenses, Petrobrussians, and other ancient sects, who are usually con- sidered as witnesses of the truth, they are not entirely mistaken." The same writer remarks, " Many of these ancient anabaptists abstained religiously from all acts of violence and sedition, fol- lowed the pious examples of the ancient Waldenses, Henri- cians, Petrobrussians, Hussites, and Wickliffites, and adopted the doctrine and discipline of Menno as soon as that new parent arose to reform and patronise the sect."f

* Mosheim. f See page 66.

72 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

SOCIETIES FORMED.

In 1536 Menno formed the scattered communities of the baptists into a regular body. As soon as he had formed his society, multitudes of the ancient baptists united themselves

with him, and the increase of the society awakened 1543 the displeasure of the state parties. In 1543, the

emperor of Germany offered a reward for the appre- hension of Menno, but Providence always opened a way of escape. He found a refuge and patron in the lord of Fresen- berg and Lubeck, to whose territories great numbers of the baptists repaired : churches were formed and pastors settled over them. In 1552, a contest was excited among the Men- nonites on the subject of discipline ; some of the old baptists, who had retained the strict puritanical views of the early churches, exercising the discipline of exclusion with a strict- ness that was not approved of by the modern churches. The Dutch Baptists consequently divided into two sections, dis- tinguished by the terms rigid and moderate. In 1555, all the members of the different sects agreed to draw the whole system of their religious doctrine immediately from the scriptures, and confessions were framed in which their views were ex- pressed in scripture phrases. " These confessions," observes Mosheim, "prove as great a uniformity among the Mennonites in i elation to the great and fundamental doctrines of religion, as can be pretended to by any other christian community."

BAPTIST DROWNED IN A BARREL.

About 1555 a severe decree was issued against the 1555 baptists : in this instrument it was forbidden to unite with them. In 1560 this prohibition was put in force in Hamburgh with this further injunction, that "no re- baptized person should be taken into employment or exercise any profession." The steadfast piety and consistent conversa- tion of this persecuted people created respect among the strict Lutheran clergy, who made a public declaration of " their most heartfelt regard for the baptists, and of their affection for them as their much loved brethren."

George Wippe, a burgomaster at Menin, fled to Dort on account of persecution ; he there suffered martyrdom. The following remarkable sentence was passed upon him : "Where- as George Wippe, born in Menin in Flanders, has presumed to be baptized, and has entertained ill opinions, according to

BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 73

the evidence that has been given against him before the magis- trates, and his own confession, he is therefore condemned, to the honour of God and for an example to the public, to be drowned in a barrel, and aftei that his body is to be carried to the common place of execution, and there fastened to the gallows, and his estate forfeited and to be brought into the town's trea- sury. Done and declared the 4th of August, in the year 1 558." The person who should have executed this sentence, refused to do so, saying he would rather lay down his office than be guilty of the death of so good a man. The prisoner was, con- sequently, remanded and afterwards drowned privately in the night.

SPIRIT AND CHARACTER OF THE MARTYRS.

Brandt, the Dutch historian, gives an account of more than -five hundred and seventy baptists, who were put to death in and about the Low Countries, solely for their religious princi- ples. Their firmness, piety, and peace of mind, have not been surpassed by the martyrs of any age or country. As Ellert Janson was being led to execution at Amsterdam, he exclaimed, " This is the most joyful day of my whole life." Jerome Segerts, who was burnt at Antwerp, in 1551, wrote from his dungeon, " I have so much comfort through God's promises, that I do not so much as think of my sufferings. I feel so much joy and pleasure that I can neither express it by speech or writing. I did not imagine that a man could be sensible of so much gladness in a prison : it is so great that it will hardly suffer me to sleep day or night." A baptist at Amsterdam having learned that one of his brethren was to be burnt, hastened to an eminence ; and when he saw the martyr ascending the scaffold, he exclaimed, " brother, fight man- fully !" Attempts were made to seize him, but another per- son was apprehended by mistake. Seeing an innocent person exposed to danger, he came forward, saying, " I am the man." On this noble act of heroism, he was committed, condemned, and executed. An eminent catholic has borne the following important testimony to the baptists of this period: "If you behold their cheerfulness in suffering persecutions, the anabaptists run before all other heretics. If you will have re- gard to their number, it is like that in multitude they would swarm above all others, if they were not grievously plagued and cut off with the knife of the persecutois. If you have an

74 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

eye to the outward appearance of godliness, both the Lutherans and the Zuinglians must needs grant that they far pass thern. If you will be moved by the boasting of the word of God, these be no less bold than Calvin to preach, and their

DOCTRINE MUST STAND ALOFT ABOVE ALL THE GLORY OF THE WORLD, MUST STAND INVINCIBLE ABOVE ALL POWER, BECAUSE IT IS NOT THEIR WORD, BUT THE WORD OF THE LIVING God."*

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY REALIZED.

The baptists increased considerably in the middle of the sixteenth century, but the severity of the enemy's measures compelled many to migrate, and it is probable that some visited

England about this time. Those who continued in 1590 tne Netherlands became very numerous, and realized

at length liberty for religious worship. At this point we quit the continent of Europe to pass through the chequered scenes of British history ; admiring as we retire, the providential arrangements of the Great Head of the Church, in thus pro- viding an asylum in Holland for the nonconformists of Eng- land, at the very juncture when a shelter was rendered needful by the persecution of Elizabeth.

SECTION VI. ON EXTENSION AND IDENTITY.

CAUSE AND MEANS OF EXTENSION.

We are certainly presented with a remarkable fact in the wide extension, continuance, and propagation of the sentiments of the baptists whose footsteps have been traced. Every effort that ingenious cruelty could devise was employed for their extermination, but every effort was fruitless ; they lived, and grew, and multiplied. The fact may suggest the inquiry, how they maintained their position and augmented their num- bers, in periods of superstitious darkness and in the face of all opposing powers. Undoubtedly " the hand of the Lord was with them ;" but still it is by the use of appropriate means that the designs of God are accomplished. We do not intend

* Hatchet of Heresies.

EXTENSION AND IDENTITY. 75

to indulge in speculation, two or three obvious causes only of their success will be presented.

Purity of Church Discipline and Members. — The first Novatians formed themselves into a separate community in consequence of the corruption that manifested itself in the third centuiy. The strictness of the discipline of the Nova- tians obtained for them the name of Puritans, and in different countries an equivalent term was applied to them from the same cause. This feature in their churches may be traced through successive generations and various countries : one prominent article of their belief was, that a church of Christ should consist only of virtuous persons, such as regulated their conduct according to the rules of Christ and his apostles. This principle was acted out in their lives : they were separate from the world, and the simplicity and purity of their manners are represented by their enemies as one of the means of winning over many to their side.

Itinerancy. — It is very evident that the early dissidents, both in the east and the west, adopted the system of itinerating through kingdoms. Such as were at all qualified were sent through various provinces to disseminate the truth. One rule among them was, that every christian was in a certain measure qualified and authorised to instruct, to exhort, and confirm the brethren in their christian course. This arrangement educed every talent among the brotherhood, and would operate as a stimulus to spiritual acquirements. Thus qualified, they travelled through whole kingdoms, and became known by the name of the wandering anabaptists. To effect their object they sometimes carried with them a basket of portable wares as our pedlars do, which often gained them access to persons of great respectability ; if after a purchase, it was asked, " have you anything more ?" " O yes," was the reply, " I have commodities far more valuable. . . . the inestimable jewel, the word of God," &c.

Individual Effort and Co-operation. — Every individual was taught to do something for the cause of truth. Their great object was the promotion of undefiled religion; and the united efforts of the whole body were attended with incalculable good. From their combined endeavours to promote the know- ledge of Christ, says Mosheim, " the sects of the Catharists, Waldenses, Petrobrussians, and others gathered strength from

76 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

day to day and spread imperceptibly throughout all Europe." Reinerius, in the thirteenth century, testifies that the progress of these baptists in his time was both rapid and extensive, in- somuch that there was no country free from them : and one cause he assigns of their increase is, " their great zeal, since all of them, men and women, by night and by day, never cease teaching and learning."

Religious Instruction and Training. — The attention paid by these christians to the cultivation of the mind in the word of God and spiritual things, was undoubtedly one cause of their prosperity. The department of teaching devolving on all be- lievers, made the church an efficient resource of all moral means for the necessary instruction of every class within and without the community. Jacob de Riberia, who assisted in persecuting the Waldenses, acknowledges that they were so well instructed in the holy scriptures that he had seen a peasant who could recite the book of Job verbatim, and several others who could perfectly repeat all the New Testament. In the time of a great persecution of the Waldenses, a certain monk was deputed by the bishop to hold a conference with them that they might be convinced of their errors : but the monk returned in con- fusion, owning that in all his life he had never known so much of the scriptures as he had learned during those few days he had been conversing with the heretics.

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN.

Their children were carefully instructed in the doctrines of the gospel. — The bishop just referred to, sent among the Waldenses a number of doctors, young men, who had lately come from the Sorbonne, which at that time was the very centre of theological sublety at Paris. One of these learned doctors publicly owned, that he had understood more of the doctrine of salvation from the answers of the little children in their catechism than by all the disputations which he had ever before heard. These baptists were not frightened by the term sectarian with which they were abundantly reproached :" but being fully convinced of the truth of their opinions, they sedulously instilled them into the minds of their children. A catholic who exercised the office of inquisitor against the Waldenses observes, "You can scarcely find a boy amongst them who cannot give you an intelligible account of the faith which they profess."

EXTENSION AND IDENTITY. 77

THE MONK REFUTED BY A BOY.

Thus were their youth prepared to give a reason for the hope that was in them and to vindicate their peculiarities by a direct appeal to the source of all authority ; and their minds were for- tified against the attacks of error. A monk was one day preaching at Imola, and told the people that it behoved them to purchase heaven by the merit of their good works. A boy who was present exclaimed " that's blasphemy ! for the bible tells us that Christ purchased heaven by his sufferings and death and bestows it on us freely by his mercy." A dispute of considerable length ensued between the youth and the preacher. Provoked at the pertinent replies of his juvenile opponent and at the favourable reception which the audience gave them, the monk exclaimed, " get you gone, you young rascal! you are just come from the cradle, and will you take it upon you to judge of sacred things which the most learned cannot explain ?" " Did you never read these words," rejoined the youth, " ' Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings God perfects praise ?' " upon which the preacher quitted the pulpit in wrathful confusion, breathing out threatenings against the poor boy who was instantly thrown into prison.

Other causes might be referred to ; but these will account for the fact of these christians maintaining their influence and extending their numbers, in the face of all opposition.

IDENTIFICATION.

From reading Mosheim, Dupin, and other writers, persons might be led to think of the Paulicians, Waldenses, &c, as so many conflicting sects, maintaining contradictory sentiments, and waging a controversial war with each other — but nothing can be more contrary to truth and fact ; and nothing has tended so much to mystify and bewilder the reader of ecclesiastical his- tory as the want of proper attention to this. Though distin- guished by different names, rising up and flourishing at differ- ent periods, they possessed one family likeness, were animated by one and the same spirit, pursued the same object, and were as rivulets feeding and swelling one purifying stream. The various appellations arose from various causes — some from a conspicuous leading individual among them, as Novatians, Donatists, Berengarians, Petrobrussians, Henricians, Arnold- 'sts, Lollards, Hussites: — others from certain features in their discipline, or practice, or position, as Puritans, Cathari,

78 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

Gazari, terms expressing strictness of discipline ; Paulicians, from attachment to the writings of Paul ; Paterines, from their sufferings : — others from the country or locality of their habi- tation, as Cataphrygians, Vaudois or Waldenses (dwelling in valleys), Albigenses, from the city of Albi; Lionists, from the city of Lyons ; Picards, from the province of Picardy ; Bul- garians, from Bulgaria. Dr. Allix asserts their identity: "Dissenters were called by various names" (quoting the above appellations) "different names expressive of one and the same class of christians." "However various their names," says Mezeray " they may be reduced to two, that is the Albi- genses and the Vaudois." Paul Perrin asserts that "the Wal- denses were the offspring of the Novatians." From the Pauli- cians, the churches in Europe were from time to time recruited when their ranks were thinned by the enemies of the cross. And catholic writers agree as to several great leading particu- lars, which identify the Paulicians on the one hand with the Novatians and others of the epoch of Constantine ; and on the other hand with those who were witnesses to the truth in the period preceding the Lutheran reformation. They concur in such remarkable points as the following : — that the Paulicians were no new secession from the church of Rome, but a revived and reorganized body of one or more ancient sects — that, as to many leading or essential doctrines of revelation, they assimi- lated in a remarkable degree to the general christian belief during the period before Constantine — that, unlike both Manichseans and catholics they had no hierarchy or episcopa- lian government — that, as to both their ecclesiastical discipline and the manners of their religious teachers, they approached or rivalled the simplicity of the early centuries — that they did not practise the baptism of infants. And Mosheim asserts that " the Paulicians first settled in Sicily, Lombardy, Liguria, and the Milanese, and sent from thence their doctors and missionaries into France." " That the Paulicians were called Albigenses in France, appears evident from the Codex Inqui- sitionis Tolosanse." The identity of the Albigenses and Wal- denses requires no proof. Who then can doubt the existence of a succession of churches perpetuating the most important principles of the primitive societies ?

We will now present a table of succession in which they are unequivocally identified as baptists.

A TABLE OF SUCCESSION,

79

NAME.

TESTIMONY.

AUTHORITY.

Church at Jerusalem

Believers. At Samaria

Christians

Montanists

or Cataphrygians

Novatians Donatists ,

Paulicians Paterines .

Vaixdois,

or Waldenses

Albigeois,

or Albigenses . Berengarians

Petrobrussians .

29 They that gladly received

I his word were baptized

32 When they believed Philip

... they were baptized

I both men and women. .

139 As many as are persuaded

and do believe that the

things spoken by us are

true, &c, we bring them

to some place where

there is water . . . they

are washed [or bathed]

in water, in the name, &c.

170 They admitted members

to by examination and bap

500 tism, but all such as

joined them from other

communities were re

baptized ,

251] They were Trinitarian bap

6001 tists

311iThe Donatists did not only to rebaptize adults that 750 came over to them ; but they refused to baptize

children

653 It is evident they rejected

1100 infant baptism . ,

660 They objected vehemently

to against infant baptism

1250, and condemned it as an

error

714 The Waldenses adminis-

to tered baptism only to

1514 the adults ; they do not

believe in infant baptism

The Albigeois do esteem

1000, the baptizing of infants

j superstitious

1049 As far as in them lies they overthrow the baptism

of infants

1110 All those baptized in their infancy were rebaptized before they could enter their churches .

Luke Acts ii. 41.

| Luke Acts viii. 12.

Justin Martyr.

Robinson.

Robinson.

Long, preben- dary of Nor- wich.

Mosheim.

Robinson.

} Bernard, abbot of Clairval.

SFavin, a French historian.

(Deodwin, bishop of Liege.

Dr. Wall.

* See page 25.

80

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

NAME.

H < P

TESTIMONY.

AUTHOKITY.

Henricians

Arnoldists

1135 1140 1200

1315

1420 1450

1536

Henry rejected the baptism

Mosheim. Dr. Wall.

Danvers. | Thos. Walden, V against J Wickliffe.

Erasmus.

Robinson. Mosheim.

They do not believe in in- fant baptism

The Lionists, for practising baptism otherwise than the church of Eome, were called anabaptists

Denying infant baptism, that heresie of the Lol-

Lollards

The Hussites . . . admit none until they are dipped in water ....

They were indiscriminate- ly called Picards or Waldenses, and they all rebaptized

Picards

Mennonites, ") or Dutch baptists . . )

They rebaptize such per- sons as had that rite in

We adduce one more authority on the continued denomina- tional existence and witnessing of the baptists through succes- sive generations : —

" If the truth of religion were to be judged of by the readiness and cheerfulness which a man of any sect shews in suffering, then the opin- ions and persuasions of no sect can be truer or surer than those of the Anabaptists ; since there have been none for these twelve hundred years past that have been more grievously punished."

This is the testimony of cardinal Hosius, who wrote a his- tory of heresies, and whose acquaintance with ecclesiastical history is unquestionable. He wrote about the year 1570; and twelve hundred years carry us back to 370, the year in which we have the first record of a child's baptism.* So that from that period the baptists have been witnesses against the rite, and have suffered for their testimony.

* Page 9.

CHAPTER II.

BAPTISTS IN BKITAIN.

SECTION I.

FROM THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE TIME OF LOLLARD.

EARLY BRITISH CHURCHES.

Christianity was introduced into Britain at a very early period. Bishop Newton declares "there is absolute certainty that Christianity was planted here in the times of the apostles, before the destruction of Jerusalem." The south-eastern parts of Britain were formed into a Roman province in the year 43. During the reign of Nero, when vast multitudes of christians in Italy fled from those feaiful persecutions which were mur- dering their brethren by thousands, Britain could hardly iail to be regarded by some of the persecuted preachers of the cross, as both a providential asylum and a delightfully opportune

sphere of labour ; Britain, at that time, being in a state 64 of tranquillity, and favoured with mild and tolerant

governors. Perhaps the most unexceptionable testi- mony is that of Tertullian, written in 209, which has been supposed to refer to Wales and Scotland — " Those parts of Britain into which the Roman arms never penetrated have yielded subjection to Christ." Mosheim observes with respect to the churches generally at this period — "No persons were admitted to baptism but such as had been previously instructed in the principal points of Christianity, and had also given satis- factory proofs of pious dispositions and upright intentions." It is evident that the early British communities held, in com- mon with the primitive churches, the distinctive principles of the baptists, and that these principles were maintained by the christians of this land for several hundred years. This is manifest from two historical facts — namely, that the immeision of christians, and not of children, was practised till the intro-

G

82 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

duction of popery, and that even after the extension of the rite to children, immersion itself was retained till the reformation.*

PERSECUTION. — NUMBER AND ORDER OF THE CHURCHES.

The christians in Britain enjoyed peace and tranquillity during the greater part of the first three centuries : towards

the close of the third century, an irruption was made upon 287 their peace by the Dioclesian persecution. Alban, a na- tive of St. Albans, was the first martyr : Aaron and Julius, inhabitants of Caerleon, in Monmouthshire, with many others in various parts of the country, suffered death under the same visitation. The general body of christians, however, sought shelter from the first burst of the storm in concealment ; but soon emerged from their seclusion, rebuilt their places of wor- ship, and resumed the observance of public ordinances. Their churches, at this time, were numerous and properly organized. When Constantine summoned a council of pastors or bishops

at Aries, in 314, three of the bishops who sat in the 314 council were from Britain: the whole number of

bishops in the assembly was only thirty-three ; if, there- fore, the three English pastors represented the numerical pro- portion which the churches of their country bore to those of other lands enlightened by Christianity and subject to the Roman sway, the number of disciples in this island must have been gieat. It is worthy of remark that at the universal council

of Nice, summoned by Constantine eleven years after, 325 and attended by upwards of three hundred pastors,

Britain was utterly unrepresented ! How is this to be accounted for ? The probability is, that after the holding of the council of Aries, or during the proscriptions which soon followed against those who adhered to the primitive purity of the gospel, the British christians discovered the tendency of Constantine's policy, and resolved to stand aloof from his ecclesiastical proceedings. As to the external appearance of the churches in the fourth century, they are said by Stilling- fleet to have differed considerably, in their public services, from those of Gaul, and still more from those of Italy ; and had not as yet departed so far from the genuine simplicity of

Christianity. They had their appointed office-bearers 400 — elders and deacons — had of course no ecclesiastical

connection with the state — were remarkably indigent :

* See Bede and Ency. Metrop.

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 83

and Jerome and Chrysostom make frequent mention, even at the corrupt period when these authors wrote, of the orthodoxy, the learning, and the good order of the British churches.*

CHRISTIANITY IN SCOTLAND.

The only certain information we have respecting the intro- duction of Christianity into Scotland is indefinite as to time, but still proves that the gospel was very early planted : the testimony of Tertullian, quoted above, is supposed to refer to Scotland. During the persecution of Dioclesian, many of the christians of South Britain sought and found refuge in Scot- land. They are generally known there by the name of Culdees, from the places, or rather cells which they inhabited. But little is known of their doctrines, yet there is reason to believe that they held the truth as it is in Jesus, and taught theii followers to take the scriptures alone for their guide. The invasion of Scotland by the Picts and Britons drove the Culdees from their spheres of usefulness, and many of them were scattered in other countries. About the middle of the sixth century, their number and influence increased; and though the Roman bishop had begun to exercise his unscrip- tural power in Scotland, the Culdees retained their former in- stitutions and practices. By degrees, however, as in other countries, darkness covered the land, and gross darkness the people.

CHURCHES IN WALES.

From the beginning of the fifth century to the arrival of the

Saxons — an interval of about half a century — the 410 Britons were involved in a series of national calamities

which seemed to threaten their total ruin and extirpa- tion. Nor was this all ; they were distracted by religious con- tentions, occasioned by the introduction of the opinions of Pelagius. Two bishops from the continent succeeded in con- founding and silencing Pelagius by scripture arguments ; many wanderers were reclaimed and rebaptized in the river Allen, near

Chester. In 449, the Saxons entered Britain, and soon 4:49 committed fearful devastation among the churches; the

professors of religion generally, either fell victims to the fury of their enemies, or were driven into exile. Some retired into Cornwall, but the greater part sought refuge in Wales. Sheltered by its mountains, they dwelt in security ; and se-

* Jones.

g2

84 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

eluded from the world, they maintained the purity and inde- pendence of their churches, happily ignorant of the contests which ecclesiastical domination was waging in Italy, to con- solidate the great spiritual tyrrany and build up the throne of the man of sin.

IRELAND. WAS (ST.) PATRICK A BAPTIST ?

The sound of the gospel was heard in Ireland at a very early- date : we have the testimony of Chrysostom that in his days religion nourished in the British isles, and that their inhabi- tants were to be heard " discoursing matte rs out of the scrip- tures." In the year 430, Paladins was sent by Celestine, bishop of Rome, to the Scots* who believed, as their first bishop. But it does not appear that the Irish christians ac- cepted him as their bishop, 01 that he met with much success, for his stay in the country did not exceed a year. In 432, Patrick landed on the coast of Munster, where he " baptized Sinell, the son of Finchad, who believed on Almighty God through his preaching." Meeting with much opposition in that part, he removed, and landed on the coast of Ulster : there his labours were rewarded by the conversion and baptism of Dichen and all his house. Dichen placed at his disposal ground on which to build a house for God, which Patrick at once accepted. The next year he and his followers held a discussion with the most learned of the druids, on the merits of Christianity and druidism ; this discussion was maintained in the presence of the king and the states-general, and resulted in the granting of permission to Patrick to preach throughout the neighbouring country : many were converted to the Lord. He continued to labour with indefatigable zeal, his move- ments exhibiting great wisdom and prudence, until his 465 death, A. D. 465. He is regarded by papists as the patron [catholic] saint of Ireland; but there is no reason to suppose that he was a catholic at all. There are no proofs of his entertaining any reverence for tradition, of his praving for the dead, of his worshipping saints or images, or acknowledging the supremacy of the bishop of Rome : while, on the other hand, both his Confession and his letter to Coro- ticus (the only two works which are regarded by the learned as authentic) exhibit the profoundest reverence for the scriptures and most enlarged acquaintance with their contents, a recogni-

* The ancient Irish were called Scots.

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 85

tion of the need of sanctification on earth that at death we may at once enter into paradise, and the necessary connexion which exists between faith in Christ and holiness of life. He baptized those who believed the word which he preached, and we are not aware of any evidence to show that he baptized any others. During the following century the pleaching of the

gospel was continued, and before its close nearly the 580 whole of the island had submitted to the truth. Several

eminent men arose in Ireland at this time, one of whom was Col umba; his labours were signally blessed, and he founded many societies. The Irish churches did not, at this period, symbolize with the church of Rome : Bede observes — " Being so far distant from the rest of the world, no one had brought to them the synodal decrees for the observance of Easter. They diligently observed only those works of piety and chastity which they could learn in the prophetical, evangelical, and apostolical writings." In the seventh century, Ireland was celebrated for learning and piety, and sent forth missionaries to various parts of Europe : but during this period, the customs of the western churches were gradually introduced, and thus the way was prepared for the admission of their doctrines.

BAPTISM OF THE ANGLO-SAXONS.

About the middle of the fifth century Britain fell wholly under the power of the idolatrous Saxons, and from that period to the arrival of Augustin, the churches seem 597 to have been confined chiefly to Cornwall and Wales. In the year 597, pope Gregory sent Augustin and forty other monks to convert the Anglo-Saxons. They were cour- teously received by Ethelbert, the king, who allowed them to preach as they pleased. Their efforts were very successful : in a short time the king and great multitudes of his subjects were converted, of whom Augustin is said to have baptized thousands on Chiistmas day. These converts were baptized by immersion : for, according to Camden, in the first baptisms of Augustin, the multitude was with faith to go into the water, and in the name of the Trinity to dip one another.

INFANT BAPTISM INTRODUCED AND ENFORCED.

In the year fiOO, baptism in the Romish church had

descended from adults to minors of seven years of

600 age : minors were then termed infants. The ancient

British churches did not piactise the immersion of

86 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

minors;* nor is there any proof from Gildas or Bede of infant baptism during the first six centuries. Augustin, who had been created by the pope the first archbishop of Canter- bury, became a zealous advocate for the baptism of minors ; and he had not been long invested with archi-episcopal power, before he formed the design of bringing under his autho- rity the native British churches, which had considerably in- creased in Wales. He procured a conference with the pastors and exhorted them to conform to the church of Rome ; but the Britons refused to comply. Another conference was held, at which he made three demands of them, one of which was to give baptism to children. These ancient baptists, however, refused to yield at all to the papal archbishop : Augustin's anger was kindled, and he told them that "if they would not take peace with their friends, they should receive war of their enemies." A crusade was aftei wards undertaken against them — whether at his instigation or not is uncertain — so many were massacred that " thereupon that faith," says Fabian, " which had endured in Britain for near four hundred years became nearly extinct throughout the land." A controversy followed between the remaining British churches and Augustin's fol- lowers, which lasted nearly a century. The debate was not on the mode of baptism — for the church of Rome, as well as other churches at this period, immeised — but as to the subjects. A Saxon prince, named Ina, towards the close of the seventh

century endeavoured to bring the controversy to a ter- 692 mination, not by an appeal to the word of God, but

by making a law requiring children within thirty days after birth to be baptized, under a penalty of 30s. (equal to ฃ30. now), and if the child died unbaptized, the personal estate was to be forfeited. Of this first law in England for infant baptism, and other ecclesiastical enactments passed at the same time — one of which required that " the first-fruits of seeds should be paid to the church on the feast of St. Martin on the penalty of forty shillings, besides the payment of the said first-fruits twelve times over" — Fuller observes, " these constitutions were concluded on by king Ina, through the per- suasion of Kenred, his father, Hedda and Erkenwald, his bishops, and all the aldermen and wise senators of the people ; the pope having not as yet entrenched on their just preroga- tive." Such was the way in which infant baptism was-intro-

* Encyc. Metropol.

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 87

duced and established in this country, and the severity of the penalty shews the difficulty of its establishment. The church of Christ was now confined, chiefly, to Cornwall. These christians accounted the Saxon Christianity no better than paganism, and, therefore held no communion with its pro- fessors.* In order to reduce these nonconformists, a bishop

and seven priests were invested with power to effect 702 conformity: but arguments being ineffectual, the

swords of the Saxons were employed. To this argu- ment the British christians could make no reply, and after this the controversy disappears from the pages of history.

THE WALDENSES IN ENGLAND.

The eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries present a dreary period in English history : the kingdom was incessantly harrassed by the Danes ; gross ignorance prevailed ; " the means of greater knowledge had been so studiously hidden from the people, and the ignorance of the laity was so advan- tageous to the interest of the clergy, that the true spirit of Christianity seemed to be wholly lost : . . . the greater and more necessary articles of faith, and all rational knowledge of religion, had generally given place to fabulous legends and romantic stories."f The friars had thrown " such a dark mist over the universal world that superstition could not be known for super - stition, nor idolatry for idolatry."! During this interval of awful darkness we lose sight of the English baptists : in the eleventh century they again emerged from obscurity, when they were revived and strengthened by the arrival of Albigenses and

Waldenses. These were charged with propagating 1020 the views of Berengarius, and were very successful

in enlightening the people, both rich and poor. Danvers asserts that not only the meaner sort in the country, but the nobility and gentry in the chief towns were infected with their sentiments. Archbishop Usher, in his book on the succession and state of christian churches, says — " The Beren- garian or Waldensian heresy, had, about the year 1120, generally infested all France, Italy, and England." The ruling powers were alarmed at their success, and William the Conqueror enacted that " those who denied the pope should not trade with his subjects." To check the progress of their doctrines, Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, wrote a treatise

* Milton, t "Wharton. t Bishop Bale.

88 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

against Berenger's views, in which he asserts that 1141 "by denying infant baptism, they opposed the general doctrine and universal consent of the church." About the year 1 150, another colony of baptists came into the country : Usher calls them Waldenses from Aquitain : Spelman designates them Publicans (Publicani or Paulicians) but says they were the same as the Waldenses. They rejected all the Roman ceremonies, refused to baptize children, and preached against the pope. In 1159, Henry II. 1 159 summoned a council at Oxford, to examine the doc- trines of certain heretics who had taken up their residence near that city. They were thirty in number, and are said to have been disciples of Arnold of Brescia. On their examination, they asserted, as credible historians affirm, that infants are not be baptized till they come to years of under- standing. The king was disposed to treat them mildly, but the power of the clevgv triumphed over his humanity : an order was passed which sentenced them to be branded on the forehead with a hot iron, to be whipped through the streets of Oxford, and, having their clothes cut short by the girdles, to be turned into the open fields. A proclamation was published, prohibiting any persons from giving them food or shelter: priests watched them to enforce the prohibition, and as the sentence was executed in the depth of winter, in about a month the victimsperished from cold and hunger. He after wards became more favourable to this people: sometime between the years 1182 and 1197, a company of Waldenses were allowed to settle in peace as tenants of the manor of Darenth, in Kent.

HERESY PUNISHED WITH DEATH.

It appears that at this period there was no law in England for punishing heretics with death : Camden states that it was in the succeeding reign of John that they "began to persecute christians by the flames." "It appeareth by Bracton, Briton, Fleta, Stanford, and all our books, that he who is duly con- vict of heresy shall be burnt to death." (Coke.) "Heresy was then the same with renouncing baptism, or turning Jew or Turk, or using sorcery; but after WicklifTe's time the ordi- narys enlarged the notion of heresy, and took upon themselves to be sole judges of it." (Stillingfleet.) A chronicle of London records that one of the Albigenses was burnt 1210 in the year 1210. It was in the year 1215, that

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 89

pope Innocent held the celebrated council of Lateran, which decreed that all persons convicted of heresy should be delivered up for capital punishment to the secular power, or civil magistrates, who were required, under pain of excommu- nication, to make oath that they would exterminate such here- tics. As John had recently ignominiously submitted to the pope, and the interdict* on England was removed in 1214, it is most probable that the decrees of the council of Lateran would be ratified by that unprincipled monarch. A few years after (1222) Cardinal Langton, in a synod held at Oxford, condemned three persons, who were delivered up to the secular power and put to death.

MORAL INFLUENCE OF THE WALDENSES AND THE CLERGY.

The bloody persecution that was raging in France against the Waldenses and Albigenses, induced many to seek refuge in England. The purity of character maintained by the Wal- denses, presenting so striking a contrast to the immorality of the established clergy, would doubtless tend to recommend their doctrines to the people. Jacob de Riberia, secretary to the king of France, says of the French Waldenses in the twelfth century — " a man would not hurt his enemy if he should meet him upon the way accompanied with one of these heretics, insomuch that the safety of men seemed to consist in their protection." Peter de Blois, dean of Wolverhampton, speaking of the clergy in his neighbour- hood, observes — "such a dissoluteness of life had crept in among them, that their vices tended to produce contempt for God, destruction of souls, infamy to the clergy, and derision and mockery in the people." So successful were the efforts of the baptists, and so extensively did their sentiments

prevail, that the pope sent friars from Rome to 1237 preach down the Waldensian heresy : but instead

of converting the heretics, they disgusted the peo- ple with their conduct.

* England remained under the papal intei-dict six years and a half: according to the church of Rome, all who died during that period, were eternally damned.' Matthew Paris, who lived during the interdict, says, "the dead bodies were carried out of the towns, and, as if they had been the bodies of dogs, they were buried by the highways and in ditches, without prayers and without service of priests."

90

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

SECTION II.

FROM THE TIME OF LOLLARD TO THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.

THE LOLLARDS.

We have mentioned Walter Lollard as being in great repu- tation among the Waldensian baptists for having conveyed their doctrines into England. He visited this country about the year 1315, and was so successful in his efforts, that his name was given as a distinctive appellation to the believers in this

land. About 1338, colonies of Waldenses came into 1338 the county of Norfolk : though the same in religious

views as the Paterines, Picards, Waldenses, they were now called Lollards.*

About 1350, a treatise was published, entitled "The Prayer and Complaint of the Plowman :" it enjoined baptism after teaching, condemned vices, forbade retaliation, and was severe against the priests. The plan was adopted by these professors of dropping their written sentiments against popery in the way of members of the parliament. In

1368, the people in the neighbourhood of Canter- 1368 bury were charged with thirty errors in matters of

religion : one of which was, that children could be saved without water baptism. Thus the soil was becoming prepared for the labours of after teachers. Wickliffe now appeared as a reformer, and made a vigorous attack on the church of Rome. He inveighed against the errors of the papacy, represented the pope as antichrist, and was conse- quently denounced as a heretic. Three bulls were sent from Rome, ordering the seizure and imprisonment of Wickliffe, and requiring the king and government, if necessary, to assist in extirpating the errors he had propagated. Subsequently, a

royal letter directed the expulsion from the university 1382 and town of Oxford, all who should harbour Wickliffe

or his followers, or hold any communication with them. He was, however, allowed to retire to Lutterworth, where he completed his translation of the scriptures. AUhough

* Hallain.

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 91

he escaped the papal flames while living, his bones were taken up forty-one years after his death, and .burnt as those of a heietic. After his death, the doctrines of the Lollards were still propagated with zeal and success. A contemporary historian says half the nation became Lollards.

THEIR SENTIMENTS.

Reinier, a popish inquisitor, says — " The disciples of WicklifTe aie men of a serious, modest deportment . . . they follow no traffic, because it is attended with so much lying, swearing, and cheating . . . they are chaste and tem- perate, are never seen in taverns, or amused by the trifling gaities of life . . . they are concise and devout in their prayers . . . they explain the scriptures in a different way from the holy doctors and church of Rome." They denied the autho- rity of the pope, protested against the Romish doctrines, and affirmed that the gospel of Christ is a sufficient rule for the life of every christian. WicklifTe, in his Trialogus, observes — "How necessary this sacrament [baptism] is to the believer may be seen by the words of Christ to Nicodemus, John iii., 4 Unless,' &c. . . . And such, accordingly, is the authority from scripture, on which believers are customarily baptized." While he thus speaks of the baptism of believers as an impor- tant scripture doctrine, and as one with which he had become familiar, he alludes to infant baptism in such a way as shews that his mind was still somewhat obscured by popery : he asserts "that infants duly baptized with water aie baptized with the third kind of baptism, inasmuch as they are ma.de partakers of baptismal grace ;" and with regard to a child dying unbap- tized, he observes, " I hold my peace as one dumb . . . because it doth not seem clear to me whether such an infant would be saved or lost." It is not unlikely that as he obtained more scriptural views of the design of baptism, rfe would see less necessity for the baptism of infants. The author of a " History of Religions," published in 1764, says, " It is clear from many authors that WicklifTe rejected infant baptism, and that on this doctrine his followers agreed with modern baptists." From the testimony of their enemies it is evident that baptism had considerable prominence in the belief of the Lollards : W'alsing- ham declares that in his time it was " that most damnable heretic, John WicklifTe, reassumed the cursed opinions of Berengarius, which was, as you have heard, to deny infant

92 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

baptism and transubstantiation." And Thomas Walden, who wrote against Wickliffe, terms him "one of the seven heads that rose up out of the bottomless pit, for denying infant bap- tism, that heresie of the Lollards, of whom he is so great a ring-leader."

WALDENSES AND LOLLARDS IN SCOTLAND.

Though but little information is to be found respecting the flock of Christ in Scotland during the middle ages, yet there were some who cherished the purity and simplicity of gospel doctrine. In the bull of pope John for the anointing of Bruce as king of Scotland, the pontiff complained that there were many heretics in the kingdom ; and popish writers, in their accounts of the Waldenses, relate that individuals of that sect were found in Scotland as well as in England. The records of Glasgow mention John Risby, an Englishman, who taught the doctrines of Wickliffe from the year 1407 to 1422, when he was burnt at St. Andrews, as a heretic. In the year 1432, another victim was sacrificed on the altar of spiritual despotism. He was a Bohemian, named Paul Craw, and a follower of John tiuss. The ecclesiastical powers found him guilty of heresy, and being delivered over to the secular authority, he was committed to the flames at St. Andrews. The romantic mountains and vallies of Scotland still afforded shelter to a remnant of God's heritage ; and in her glens, as well as in the vallies of Piedmont, small assemblies of true believers were found. In 1494, at a council held in Glasgow, the archbishop summoned to appear, on charges of heresy, thirty persons, called " the Lollards of Kyle," some of them members of the most distinguished families and chiefs of a numerous party holding the same faith. None of them suffered : the boldness of their defence, their extensive influence, the gentleness of the king's disposition, and his desire to lessen rather than increase the authority of the church, frustrated the design of the prelate, and the Lollards escaped punishment.

POWER AND CRUELTY OF THE POPISH CLERGY.

In 1389, it is said, the Lollards had separate and

1389 independent societies ; and as they allowed no offices

in their churces that are not sanctioned by scripture,

they obtained the honourable appellation of Bible-men. They

held Berenger's opinion on infant baptism, and would not take

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 93

their children to church to be baptized, calling the infant rite "the key to hell." They were very numerous at Amersharn, Bucks, where they acquired the provincial names of Just-fast- men and Known-men, on account of their fidelity to each other during their severe persecutions. The bishops were zealous in their efforts for the suppression of the heresy : but though they were the judges of heresy, and the common law punished heretics with death,* yet the bishops had not the power to imprison for it; consequently, many who were convicted, ab- sconded before the king's writ could be obtained ; and thus the sentence of the bishops was ineffectual. To remedy this defect in their power, an ordinance was granted by the king (Richard II.) and the lords. As soon as this ordinance was obtained, the reputed heretics were everywhere summoned be- fore the bishops, and many suffered. As the ordinance was passed without the assent of the commons, it was repealed the next year on a spirited remonstrance by that house. But still the king continued to issue commissions for imprisonment; the convocations of the clergy petitioned the archbishops 1395 for a speedy and effectual punishment and suppres- sion of Lollardism ; and inquisitors were constituted by the king's letters patent to examine the books and take cognizance of its abettors. Henry IV. and the lords (in com- pliance with a petition from the clergy) granted an 1 40 1 ordinance by which it was enacted " that every bishop in his diocese may convict a man of heresy, and abjure him, &c, and afterwards convict him anew thereof and condemn him, and warn the sheriff or other officer to apprehend him and burn him, &c. And that the sheiiff, or other officer ought to do the same by the precept of the bishop, and without any writ from the king to do the same."-\ This ordinance was passed without the consent of the commons: but as there were twenty-six mitred abbots in parliament, besides the bishops, and the king had committed himself to the clergy, it was acted upon as law. The first of its numerous victims was William Sawtree, who was burnt at a stake in Smithfield. But the severeties with which this ordinance was attended, did not pioduce the designed effect: history informs us that the persecuted Lollards daily increased. In the second year of the reign of Henry V. (1415) it was enacted 1415 by parliament that, in addition to the punishment of

* Chief Justice Fitz-IIerbert. t Ibid.

94 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

death, the lands and goods of the sufferers should be forfeited to the king; and that all officers and chief magistrates in every city and borough, should take an oath to use their utmost endeavours to extirpate Lollardism. The persecution became more fierce : about this time, thirty persons, denomi- nated Lollards, suffered death in St. Giles' for no other reason than professing their attachment to the doctrines of John Wickliffe. They were hanged on gibbets, and faggots being placed under them as soon as they were suspended, fire was set to them so that they were burnt while hanging. Sir John Oldcastle, or Lord Cobham, whose family estate was in Kent, was a zealous opponent of popery, and a leading patron of the Lollards. He declared — " 1 most faithfully believe that the sacraments of Christ's church are necessary to all christian believers ; this always seen to, that they be truly administered according to Christ's first instruction and ordinance." (Bale.) He was accused of heresy — of denying image- worship, &c, and condemned to be hung in chains as a traitor, and at the same time slowly consumed to ashes as a heretic: he suffered according to this sentence in 1418.

NUMBER, CONTINUED PERSECUTION, AND CHARACTER.

Notwithstanding every effort, the Lollards increased so that Knyghton states you could not meet two persons on the road

without one of them being a follower of Wickliffe. 1457 In 1457, a congregation of baptists was discovered

at Chesterton, near Cambridge, who had teachers, and assembled privately for divine worship. Six of them were accused of heresy before the bishop of Ely, and condemned to abjure and do penance half naked, with a faggot in their hands, in the market places of Ely and S waff ham. They were charged with saying " the pope is antichrist, the priests are his disciples, and all persons in holy orders are devils incarnate; that extreme unction is useless, and children neither have need of baptism nor ought they to be baptized." During the short and stormy period of Edward V. and Richard 111., these- wit- nesses for the truth were Jess noticed : some, however, were

burnt from time to time. In the reign o f H enry VII. 23:85 (1485 to 1509), more were committed to the flames

than during the whole period from the passing of the ordinance to his accession to the throne. The most barbarous cruelty was practised: even children were compelled to light

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 95

the fire that was to consume their parents. Arthur Young observes* — '* I am inclined to think that the like 1 512 barbarities were more frequent in the reign of his son, Henry VIII.; I mean that part before he had the difference with the see of Rome . . . there were so many suffered in Buckinghamshire, that 'tis said of that county that it produced more martyrs and confessors before the time of Luther than all the kingdom besides." " And let it be re- membered," the same writer observes, " to the honour of these suffering Lollards, that they bore patiently the distresses to which they were exposed . . . without casting any black or odious colours upon the government, without any moving of sedition, or exciting their fellow- subjects to arms or violence . . . spectators inquired into the foundation of those principles in behalf of which they saw persons cheerfully suffer ; and when truth was presented to them, they could not but be charmed with it." Both in the ordinance of Richard II. and that of Henry IV. they are charged with a pretended sanctity and feigned holiness.

ZEAL AND LOVE FOR THE TRUTH.

Knyghton mentions several active preachers among the Lollards in the fourteenth century : one was William Svvin- deiby. "He preached at Leicester, and so captivated the affections of the people that they said they never had seen or heard any one who so well explained the truth." Being ex- communicated and forbidden to preach in any church or church-yard, he made a pulpit of two mill-stones in the high- street of Leicester, and there preached " in contempt of the bishop." "There," says Knyghton, "you. might see throngs of people from every part, as well from the town as the country, double the number there used to be when they might hear him lawfully." He was cited to appear before the bishop of Lincoln, and convicted of heresy and errors, for which it is said, " he deserved to he made fuel for fire." He, however, escaped, and afterwards settled at Coventry, where he preached and taught with greater success than before. Thomas Mann was another pious Lollard who went from place to place secretly teaching the truth. He laboured in Norfolk, Essex, Suffolk, Middlesex, Berks, and Buckinghamshire, and resided 1513 for a time at Amersham. He was burned in 1518;

* On idolatrous corruptions

96 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

the bishop's register states — he "confesses he hath turned seven hundred people to his religion, for which he thankelh God." Although the preaching of the word was prohibited, the number of disciples was very great and their desire for religious knowledge -abundantly evident: they sat up all night, leading and hearing the word; and, although com- paratively poor, they purchased books at high prices, giving a sum equal to eight or ten pounds of our money for small treatises which may now be bought for a shilling. One gave a load of hay for a few chapters of the epistles of Paul. Fox observes — " To see their travails, their earnest seeking, their ardent zeal, their reading, their watching, their swtet assem- blies, their love and concord, their godly living, their faithful marrying with the faithful, may make us now, in these our days of free profession, to blush foi shame."

AWFUL SPECIMENS OF POPISH ACCUSATIONS.

Five persons were accused of reading certain heretical books. These heretical books were the gospels ! The words of their accusation are as follow — "also we object to you, that divers times, and especially upon a certain night about the space of three years last past, you erroneously and damnably read in a great book of heresy of the said Robert Durdant's, all that same night, certain chapters of the evangelists in English, containing in them divers erroneous and damnable opinions and conclusions of heresy" &c. Seven individuals were accused of teaching their children and servants the Lord's prayer and ten commandments in English : for this crime they

were condemned, and were burnt to death in one fire 1 5 19 at Coventry, in 1519. As soon as they were put to

death, the sheriff went to their houses and seized all the property he found, leaving their wives and children entirely destitute. How fearfully wicked must that system be which sanctions such proceedings as these !

HENRY VIII. AND THE BAPTISTS.

The barbarities above referred to, were committed under the influence of popish zeal : but having quarrelled with the pope, Henry adopted measures for extinguishing the pontiff's power in England. At length the papal supremacy was entirely renounced : and it is cause for deep lamentation, that while the authority of Rome was subverted, her dominant and persecut-

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 97

ing spirit was retained. In 1534, the parliament 1534 conferred on the king the title of "The only supreme head on earth of the church of England ;" at the same time acknowledging his inherent power to "repress, reform, and restrain, all errors, heresies, abuses, &c, which iell under any spiritual authority or jurisdiction." The power thus trans- ferred from the head of the chuich at Rome to the head of the church in England, was not suffered to lie dormant. The baptists in Holland and Germany were at this period severely persecuted, and many fled to England. The power to re- press heresy was called into exercise ; in 1535, twenty- two were executed as anabaptists, and the reproach of Lollardism was now supplanted by that of anabap- tism. Some of the flagrant errors of popery being retained by Henry in the constitution of his church, caused the baptists to ridicule his measures of reformation. Strype says, the baptists " pestered the church and would openly dispute their prin- ciples in the public places :" they consequently became the peculiar objects of civil and ecclesiastical enmity. 1538 The year 1538 is distinguished for the zealous efforts made to exterminate the baptists. A proclamation was issued in October to Cranmer and others, to proceed inquisitorially against them, to search for their books, and par- ticirlaiy to scrutinize their letters. The commissioners had the power of committing to the flames those who refused to renounce their principles. The Dutch baptists still flocked to England ; in November, four of them, three men and a woman, had faggots tied to theii backs at Paul's cross, and were burned in that manner ; two others were executed in the same way at Smithfield. The next month a royal letter was issued to the justices of the peace enjoining increased rigour against the baptists. Some fled to Holland, but there persecution still raged. In January " there were put to death at Delft, one and thirty anabaptists that fled from England ; the men beheaded and the women drowned." Twenty-seven other refugees had, but a few months before, laid down their lives on the same spot. This cruelty failing in its object, the king found it needful to adopt milder measures; in Feb- 1539 ruary, 1539, he issued a royal proclamation of mercy, in which the baptists appear to be the particular objects of the sovereign's anxiety. But neither gentleness nor severity could hinder the progress of the truth : the king's care

H

98 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

about religion failed to prevent " divers great and real errors and anabaptistical opinions from creeping about the 15 40 realm." In 1540, he again issued his threatenings, and the baptists were specially excluded from the general pardon proclaimed at the rising of parliament in July. The persecution became so violent that the prisons in London were filled with victims. Although the king had granted general liberty to read the bible, some were imprisoned and otheis burnt at the instigation of bishops, for perusing the sacred volume : it is said that the last martyr who was executed during this sanguinary reign, was burnt at Smithfield with the bible hanging about his neck! It has been computed that during the last seven years of Henry's life, seventy-two thousand persons were fined, burnt, or banished.

ARCHBISHOP CRANMER AND THE BAPTISTS.

Edward VI. came to the throne in 1547. His 1 547 first parliament repealed some of the most rigorous laws that disgraced the statute book : but heresy still remained a capital crime, and was subjected to the penalty of burning. Though the reformation was rapidly advancing towards that system which constitutes the present church of England, its promoters were contaminated by the principles of the Roman hierarchy under which they had been educated : the toleration of heresy was deemed to be as unreasonable as the impunity of murder ; and the open exercise of any wor- ship, except that established by law, was considered as a mutinous disregard of lawful authority, in which perseverance was accounted a very culpable contumacy. Congregations were discovered at Feversham in Kent, and Bocking, Essex, and in other towns and villages. Four of their teachers, with a considerable number of the people, were seized. Mr. Humphrey Middleton was the most eminent of these ministers : he appears to have been in prison until the last year of Edward's reign. Yet the baptists became very nume- rous ; five hundred were said to have resided in one town. . The clergy endeavoured to check their progress by publications on baptism ; but the baptists replied that " children are of Christ's kingdom without baptism," Luke xviii. 16. As books did not silence them, a commission was issued, and a protestant in- quisition established under the especial direction of Cranmer. Joan of Kent, supposed to have been a member of a' General

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 99

1 549 Baptist church at Canterbury or Eythorne, fell a vic- tim to the misguided zeal of the clergy. The young king was averse to their sanguinary measures ; and when at the earnest solicitation of Cranmer, he signed the warrant for the execution of the unprotected female, tears stood in his eyes, and he told the prelate that if he did wrong, since it was in submission to his authority, he should answer for it to God. The general pardon in 1550 again excepted the baptists : in the same year, Ridley, bishop of London, enjoined on his clergy to see whether any anabaptists or others held private conventicles.

MARY.

Mary assumed the regal authority in 1553, as an 1553 avowed papist: all the statutes of king Edward in

favour of the protestant religion were repealed by one vote of the parliament. For three years persecution raged in its most horrible forms; persons were seized merely on suspicion, and articles being offered them to subscribe, they were immediately, on a refusal, condemned to the names. Repeated orders were sent from the council to quicken the diligence of the magistrates in searching out heretics : a pro- clamation was issued against books of heresy, treason, and sedition, which declared " that whosoever had any of these books, and did not burn them without reading them or shewing them to any other person, should be esteemed rebels, and without any further delay be executed by martial law." The baptists, notwithstanding, boldly declared that infant baptism was unscriptural, that it originated with popery, and that Christ commanded teaching to go before baptism. In 1554, Mr. Middleton and Mr. Henry Hart, two of the minis- ters of the baptist congregations at Faversham and Bocking

referred to above, were again thrown into prison. 1555 On the 12th of July, 1555, Mr. Middleton and three

other persons were burnt to death at Canterbury. Mr. Hart was very conspicuous for his rejection of the predts- tinarian views of some of the martyrs. As the doctrine of the real presence was the great test — " the common net at that time for catching of protestants," the crime for which almost all were condemned — other distinctions are generally un- noticed. It is computed that during three years, two hundred and seventy- seven persons were burnt at the stake, besides those who were punished by imprisonments, fines, and confiscation.

h2

100 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

QUEEN ELIZABETH AND THE BAPTISTS.

The commencement of Elizabeth's reign gave 1558 promise of liberty; her education as well as her interest led her to favour the reformation. She encouraged exiles to return, and gave liberty to the prisoners who were confined on account of religion. But she took care to have a law for uniformity enacted, rigidly exacted an ob- servance of the established laws respecting religious worship, and neglected no opportunity of depressing those who advocated the doctrine of civil and religious liberty. The Dutch baptists continued to arrive in England, strengthening the existing churches and forming new societies in many places. Elizabeth had issued a proclamation, but not accomplishing 1560 her object, all anabaptists were commanded to de- part out of the kingdom within twenty-one days. Many remained and concealed their sentiments. In 1575 a congregation of Dutch baptists was discovered in London and two were condemned to be burnt. John Fox, the martyrologist, wrote a pathetic letter to the queen to dissuade her from imitating the papists in thus " roasting alive the bodies of poor wretches that offended rather through blind- ness of judgment than perverseness of will ;" but though Eliza- beth used to call this venerable divine her father Fox, she gave him a positive denial, and the two baptists were burnt at Smithfield.

SENTIMENTS OF THE BAPTISTS FROM A CLERICAL OPPONENT.

In 1589, a treatise was published by Dr. Some, a violent churchman, against " certaine gross and anabaptisticall fancies given out and holden by the anabaptisticall recusants." In

this work he attempts to shew what agreement there 1589 was between the English anabaptists and some of

the puritans who had now separated from the epis- copal church, being unable conscientiously to comply with the directions of the liturgy, respecting clerical vestments and other usages regarded' by them as superstitious. In a dedication to Sir Christopher Hatton and Sir William Cecil], "baron of Burleygh," the writer observes —

" The auabaptistical sort, right honourable, were very bold of late . . . the way to cure them, if God will, is to teache and punish thenr ... if they will not be wonne they may and ought to be repressed ... it id

BAPTISTS IN BRITAIN. 101

high time, my lords, to looke unto and to meete this mischiefe. It is out of the swadling cloutes."

The sentiments ascribed to the baptists are dressed up in the ■writers own terms, but through his disguise several important facts are apparent. 1. They were holy and zealous, and had among them men of learning — "These men pretende great knowledge, great zeale, great holinesse." 2. They protested against the unscriptural ceremonies of the church of England, and the assumptions of the priest- hood, and suffered for their testimony — " The anabaptisticall sort give out that the Church of Englande doth not onely joyne, but subject the gospell to many Jewish ceremonies, and to an infinite heape of anti- christian traditioos. That God's faithfull servants have always bene judged and bound (as Barrow, Greenwood, &c, are now) by proude priestes and false prophets, upholden and assisted by the civil sworde." 3. That religion should be supported by the voluntary principle — " That the ministers of the gospell must live ex mera eleemosyna, that is, of mere almes." 4. They denied the authority of the civil power in the church of Christ — " That a christian prince hath no authority to make godly ecclesiasticall lawes in his dominions." 5. They protested against persecution for religion— 11 That the high commission in England is antichristian." 6. Against prescribed forms of prayer — " A prescript forme of prayer may not be imposed upon the church." 7. That believers only ought to be baptized. The ivriter evidently anticipates this when he observes — "If it be said that Philip did not baptize the Samaritans before they believed," &c. 8. That the baptists held meetings for worship both in London and the country — " The anabaptisticall conventicles in London and other places are sufficient proofe," &c.

" Barrow and Greenwood," says Jones, " were antipsedo- baptists." They were both condemned to die, and were executed in the year 1593.

AN EXPATRIATING EDICT.

The number of baptists still increasing, a proclama- 1600 was issued in 1600, by which all anabaptists and other heretics were ordered to leave the kingdom on pain of imprisonment and loss of goods. Many noncon- formists withdrew into Holland where the persecution had been stayed, and an asylum prepared by the granting of religious liberty to the baptists in that kingdom.

CHARACTER AND NUMBER OF THE BAPTISTS.

From the severity exercised towards the baptists in different countries it might be imagined that they were persons whose lives were stained with vice, and whose characters were such as to render them dangerous to society. But happily many testimonies to their character are recorded in the writings of

102 HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

those who were opposed to their sentiments. A great number might be quoted, but two will suffice as examples of the rest : the first is from Erasmus, the last from Bullinger —

" The anabaptists, though very numerous, have no churches in their possession. These people are worthy of greater commendation than others, on account of the harmlessness of their lives. But they are oppressed by all other sects." — " Let others say what they will of the anabaptists, I see nothing in them but gravity; I hear nothing from them but that we must not swear, must not do any injury ; that all ought to be pious and live holy lives; therefore I see nothing of evil in them." " Though driven from England," says Brandt, " the anabaptists consisted'' in his day, " of such a number of sects, that scarce anybody can reckon the number of them."

INTRODUCTION OF SPRINKLING.

Sprinkling was not substituted for immersion, either in England or Scotland, until after the reformation. In a Cate- chismus published by the archbishop of Canterbury in 1548, it is stated "baptisme and the dyppinge into the water doth betoken that the olde Adam with all his sinne and evel lustes, ought to be drowned and killed by daily contrition and repent- ance." The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia thus describes the intro- duction of sprinkling into Scotland — " In this country, how- ever, sprinkling was never used in ordinary cases till after the reformation. During the persecution of Mary, many persons, most of whom were Scotsmen, fled from England to Geneva, and there greedily imbibed the opinions of that church . . . These Scottish exiles, who had renounced the authority of the pope, implicitly acknowledged the authority of Calvin ; and, returning to their own country with Knox at their head, established sprinkling in Scotland." Edward VI. and queen Elizabeth were both immersed : " divers gentlemen with aprons, and towels about their necks, guarded the font." The suc- cessor of Elizabeth (James I.) was from Scotland, and had been initiated into sprinkling by the Scotch divines who had imported it from Geneva, and he favoured its practice in England.

PART II.

ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

SECTION I. FROM 1607 TO 1640.

JOHN SMYTH.

The nonconformists, or separatists as they were then called, were numerous in Lincolnshire at the commencement of the seventeenth century. Mr. John Smyth, a clergyman of the established church at Gainsborough, published a work to con- fute some of the positions maintained by them. Controversy led him to investigate more closely the points in debate, and he began to disapprove of several things in the doctrine and discipline of the episcopal church : a further examina- nation confirmed his former doubts, and in compliance with the dictates of conscience, he resigned his bene- fice, and was soon called to be pastor of a church of non- conformists. But being harassed by the High Commission Court, he and his church passed over to Holland in 1606, and joined a society formed by those who were driven from their country by the harsh measures of Elizabeth, referred to in the last chapter.

JOHN SMYTH BECOMES A BAPTIST.

In reviewing the subject of separation from the church of England, Mr. Smyth discovered that he and his friends acted inconsistently in rejecting the ordination of that church be- cause they esteemed it an unscriptural church, and yet retain- ing its baptism as true baptism. He examined the nature

104 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

and ground of baptism, and perceived that neither infant baptism nor sprinkling had any foundation in scripture. He was no sooner convinced of this important truth than he openly professed and defended it ; urging on his friends the incon- sistency of their practice. This he did so clearly and forcibly, that bishop Hall told Mr. Robinson (one of the leading mem- bers of the society) "there is no remedy; you must either go forward to auabaptism or come back to us : all your rabbins cannot answer the charge of your rebaptized brother, Mr. Smyth." This alarmed those with whom Mr. Smyth held communion, and he was expelled from the church.

GENERAL BAPTIST CHURCH FORMED.

Mr. Smyth wrote several treatises in defence of his opinions, and boldly preached what he thought to be the doctrines of inspiration. In a short time several were converted to his sentiments, and their numbers rapidly increasing, he formed

them into a distinct church in 1607 or 1608. This 1607 appears to have been the first baptist church composed

of Englishmen, that was formed in this century. The sentiments professed by these General Baptists approached very nearly to the principles on which the New Connexion was afterwards formed. They maintained the divinity and atonement of the Saviour, and rejected the doctrine of personal, unconditional election and reprobation. Mr. Smyth laboured with diligence and success : a cotemporary writer affirms that "Mr. Smyth and his party do at once as it were swallow up all the separa- tion besides."

CONFESSION OF FAITH.

Soon after the death of Mr. Smyth, his followers — to vindi- cate themselves from extravagant charges made 1611 against them — thought it necessary to publish a con- fession of faith ; which was supposed to have been chiefly drawn up by Mr. Smyth himself. It was published at Amsterdam in 1611 : from this document a few extracts are presented.

The Scriptures. — " The scriptures of the Old and New Testament are written for our instruction, and we ought to search them, for they testify of Christ. They are, therefore, to be used with all reverence, as con- taining the holy woid of God which only is our direction in all things whatsoever."

Doctrines. — " There are three which bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Spirit; and these three are one God in all equality :

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 105

by whom all tilings are created and preserved in heaven and in earth." — "JesusChrist, the Sou of God, the second person orsubsistence in theTrin- ity, was manifested in the flesh .... one person in two distinct natures, true God and true man." — " God before the foundation of the world hath predestinated that all that believe on him shall be saved, and that all that believe not shall be damned: all which he knew before And this is the election and reprobation spoken of in the scriptures : not that God hath predestinated men to be wicked, and so to be damned ; but that men, being wicked, shall be damued. For God would have all men to be saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth, and would have no man to perish." — " Man is justified only by the righteousness of Christ appre- hended by faith ; yet faith without works is dead."

d Church. — "A church of Christ is a company of faithful people separated from the world by the word and Spirit of God ; being knit unto the Lord and to on^ another by baptism upon their confession of faith and sins."

Church Officers. — "The officers of every church are either elders, who by their office do especially feed the flock concerning their souls ; or deacons, men and women, who by their office relieve the necessities of poor and impotent brethren concerning their bodies." " These officers are to be chosen, when they are qualified, according to the rules of the New Testament, by the election of the church or congregation whereof they are members."

EARLIEST TREATISE ON LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE.

In 1614 was published a treatise entitled " Religious Peace : or a plea for liberty of conscience," by Leonard Busher. It is said that this able pamphlet is the earliest treatise known to be extant on this great theme. The author was a citizen of London, and had been in exile ; from some of his remarks he appears to have been a General Baptist, but it is not ascer- tained whether he was a member of Mr. Smyth's church.

THE CHARACTER OF THE BEAST.

The decided and uncompromising testimony of Mr. Smyth and his friends against infant baptism, aroused the animosity of the paedobaptists ; and, to justify their practice, the latter accused the baptists of having " proclaimed open war against God's everlasting covenant, and of murdering the souls of babes and sucklings by denying them of the visible seals of salvation." To this Mr. Smyth replied in a work entitled "The character of the beast," in which he thus expresses his reasons for separating from the paedobaptists — " Be it known, there- fore, to all the separation, that we account them, in respect of their constitution, to be as very a harlot as either her mother of England or her grandmother of Rome is, out of

106 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

whose loins she came. The true constitution of a church is of a new creature baptized into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost : the false constitution is of infants baptized," &c. Both these quotations may sound somewhat harshly ; but it was the custom of that age to use strong language and to in- dulge in a satirical strain, which the politeness of modern polemics might perhaps condemn.

RETURN TO ENGLAND.

The date of Mr. Smyth's death is not known : he was suc- ceeded in the charge of the church in Holland by

1614 Mr. Helwisse, who had been his associate and fel- low-labourer in its formation. Att\)ut 1614, Mr.

Helwisse and his friends left Holland and returned to Eng- land : they continued their church-state, and held public assem- blies as regularly as the intolerant spirit of the times would permit. The nonconformists who continued in exile were dis- pleased with this decided conduct : they ascribed it to natural confidence rather than spiritual courage, and represented it as openly defying the government and courting persecution. To remove these objections, the General Baptists took occasion, in a book which they published the following year, to explaiu the motives of their proceedings. " Fleeing on account of persecution," they observe in that work, "hath been the over- throw of religion in this island : the best, able, and greater part being gone, and leaving behind them some few, who, by the others' departure have had their afflictions and their con- tempt increased, hath been the cause of many falling back and of their adversaries rejoicing. . . . Great help and en- couragement would it be to God's people in affliction, im- prisonment, and the like, to have their brethren's presence to administer to their souls and bodies ; and for which Christ will say, ' I was in prison and ye visited me; in distress and ye comforted me.' " That the work from which this extract and the following ones are made, was published by the General Baptists, is evident from the reference they make to their con- fession of faith of 1611.

PERSECUTION JUDGED AND CONDEMNED.

This open avowal of their sentiments and a steady continu- ance at the post of duty, exposed the General Bap-

1615 tists to great sufferings. " It was not uncommon,"

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 107

to use their own words, " to lie many years in filthy prisons, in hunger, cold, and idleness; divided from wife, family, and calling; left in continual miseries and temptations, so that death itself would be to many less punishment. Many of them were exposed to want, lost their estates, and were confined in noisome dungeons till death released them." These severeties induced them to appeal to their rulers and fellow-subjects: in 1615, they published a pamphlet, entitled "Persecution for Religion judged and condemned:" from which the extract in the preceding paragraph is quoted. In this work they inveigh against the pride, luxury, and oppres- sion of the bishops ; declare their respect for magistrates ; pro- test against the political errors of the papists ; and condemn those who, through fear, comply with any external worship, contrary to their own conscience.

PRINCIPLES OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY.

An important feature in this pamphlet is the manly and explicit avowal which the authors make of the true principles of christian liberty, at a time when these principles were un- known, or opposed by almost every other party. They preserve a just distinction between civil and religious concerns; and while they fully allow the magistrate his proper authority in the former, they boldly maintain every man's right to judge and act for himself in the latter; contending that the right of man to examine and judge the principles of religion for him- self, was antecedent to all magisterial authority or even to human society. " All men," they assert, " must let God alone with his right, who is to be Lord and Lawgiver of the soul; and not command obedience for God when he commandeth none. If I take any authority from the king's majesty let me be judged worthy of my desert; but, if I defend the authority of Christ Jesus over men's souls, which appertained to no mortal man whatsoever, then know you, that whosoever would rob him of that honour which is not of this world, he will tread them under foot. . . . Earthly authority belongs to earthly kings, but spiritual authority belongeth to that spiritual king who is King of Kings." This is noble lan- guage : and it is well known that the baptists have ever been the firm supporters of liberty* Bailey, the intolerant Presby- terian, declared that the baptists " were very fond of religious liberty, and very unwilling to be brought under the bondage

108 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

of the judgment of any." Butler, a catholic writer, says, " It is observable that the Baptist Denomination first propagated the principles of religious liberty."

APPEAL TO THE KING.

The baptists still groaned under persecution, and in 1620 they presented an address to James I. and the 16 20 parliament for redress. In this address they main- tained the same dignified sentiments, and shewed themselves the same undaunted supporters of the rights of con- science, as when they published the former pamphlet. They challenge their enemies to convict them of disloyalty to the king or injury to their neighbours; and assert their readiness to obey the law in all civil and temporal things : " but further than that," they say, "we cannot go; because God is the Lord of men's consciences, and only Lawgiver in matters of religion." They suggested to government that, supposing them in error, the cruelties which they suffered were inconsistent with Christianity, the marks of antichrist, and adapted to make hypocrites. " The learned clergy of this land," they tell his majesty, " procure your temporal sword to persecute us, by cast- ing us into prisons where many of us have remained divers years, in lingering imprisonments, &c, till our God — for the practice of whose commandments we are thus persecuted — persuade the heait of your majesty to take pity on us, our poor wives and children; or his heavenly Majesty to release us by death."

TESTIMONY OF AN EPISCOPALIAN.

Notwithstanding these severe persecutions, the Geneial Baptists increased. In 1623, a warm advocate of 1623 the church of England published a book under the title of "Anabaptism's mystery of iniquity unmasked." This writer states that the baptists wrote many books in defence of their opinions, and were in the habit of producing great numbers of scriptures to prove their doctrines; and that they maintained an appearance of more holiness than the members of the established church, whose books and conversation they avoided. He likewise informs us, that besides the denial of infant baptism, thev also denied the doctrine of election, repro- bation, and final perseverance : and that their sentiments, both respecting baptism and predestination, gained multitudes of

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. J 09

disciples — in other words, the General Baptists increased rapidly in numbers.

GENERAL BAPTISTS IMPRISONED AT YARMOUTH.

General Baptists had an early existence at Yar-

1624 mouth and shared in the general sufferings; as

appears from the following entry in the old church

book at that place — " In the year 1624, an order was made

out by a great prelate who called himself the B of Norwich,

to the bailiffs of Yarmouth, to hunt out and take by force all that ungodly people, and to bring those anabaptists befoie him : this on the next sabbath-day. Accordingly, they entered the minister's house in the time of divine service, and took them by force; and these defenceless, honest people were conveyed to prison as an ungodly people. The names of some of them which were imprisoned were — Thomas Cayme, minister, John Unn, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Jackson, the wife of Thomas Ladd, &c. Some of them continued in Yarmouth prison until 1626, and then were removed to London."

ARCHBISHOP LAUD AND THE BAPTISTS.

In the early part of the reign of Charles I., a General Bap- tist church had been formed in London under the care of Mr. Thomas Lamb, which met in Bell-alley, Coleman-street. Mr. Lamb zealously exerted himself in promoting the spread of their doctrines when Archbishop Laud presided over the affairs of the established church. At the instigation of this tyrannical prelate, Mr. Lamb was seized at Colchester, his native city, and dragged in chains to London, for dissenting from the national church and preaching to a separate congregation. He was arraigned before the Star Chamber and thence remanded to prison. His wife solicited the archbishop to take pity on a mother and eight children, and to release their husband and father ; but the unfeeling priest was unmoved by her afflictions, and roughly ordered his servants to " take away that trouble- some woman." After some time Mr. Lamb obtained his liberty and resumed his labours, which brought him into new difficulties : but he pursued the path of duty, until he had been confined in almost every prison in London and its vicinity. He frequently observed that that man was not fit to preach who would not preach for God's sake, though he was sure to die for it as soon as he had finished.

110 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

THE STATUE OF GOLD.

The assertion and maintenance of great principles in the time of ignorance and persecution, confer a title to the grati- tude of posterity. Those persons who propagated the princi- ples of religious liberty at the commencement of the period under review, are regarded by independents and bap- tists as being worthy of all honour. So great is their claim in the estimation of Messrs. Bogue and Bennett that, in their history of dissenters, they observe —

"Were Britain to erect a statue of gold to the memory of the first patrons of this sentiment, she would but imperfectly discharge the debt she owes to those who have been the sources of her wealth, her strength, and her glory."

But while these gentlemen foim a correct estimate of the service rendered, they aie in error as to the parties entitled to the award. " It is the distinguished glory of the Independents," they state, " to have first recommended a principle so noble as religious liberty to the esteem of the world." But ihejirat Independent church was not founded until the year 1616, the year after the pamphlet, entitled " Persecution for religion judged and condemned," was published by the General Bap- tists — a work, Mr. Ivimey declares, " well deserving immor- tality ... a monument more valuable and durable than even one of pure gold." The same writer candidly acknowledges, the honour claimed for the Independents " I do not hesitate to say, belongs to a General Baptist church in London, who, when all the world wondered after the beast," proclaimed, at the expense of liberty, and even of life, the noble sentiment which was afterwards re-echoed by the excellent Roger Williams, and embodied in the institutions of Rhode Island. May we not claim then

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TO THE MEMORY OF

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WHO,

IN THE PROSPECT OF IMPRISONMENT AND DEATH,

NOBLY STOOD FORTH AS

THE ASSERTORS AND DEFENDERS OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY, When "the world wondered after the Beast."

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. Ill

AN INTERMEDIATE SECTION.

RISE OF THE PARTICULAR BAPTIST DENOMINATION.

CHURCHES FORMED.

We make here a short digression to notice the rise of the Particular Baptist denomination. Mr. Crosby states that " the baptists who had hitherto been intermixed with other nonconformists, began to form themselves into separate socie- ties in 1633." But this can refer only to the Particular Bap- tists, as the General Baptists formed distinct societies twenty- five years prior to this date; and Crosby affirms that the church formed in Holland by John Smyth returned to England about 1614, and there continued their church-state and pub- lic assemblies as regularly as the intolerant spirit of the times would permit. It is not intended to attach undue importance to the question of priority of existence ; but as the English baptists form distinct denominations, and as historians gene- rally have not distinguished the early General Baptist churches as such, there is au obvious propriety in noticing the distinction here. The origin of the church at Eythorne, in Kent, may per- haps be referred to an earlier period than any other existing bap- tist church : tradition dates its formation about the year 1590. This was for a long period a General Baptist church : its pastor, John Knott, assisted at the formation of the New Con- nexion in 1770. During the subsequent part of his ministry, calvinistic sentiments were introduced, and the congregation united with the Particular Baptist denomination.* There is reason to believe that the church at Shrewsbury has subsisted from the year 1627; and it is said that the society at Hatch, near Taunton, has a clear tradition of its assemblies having been held so early as 1630, in the woods and other places of concealment, on account of the severity exercised towards non- conformists. The secession alluded to above by Mr. Crosby, was that of part of the independent congregation which had been gathered in London in 1616: the first minister of the separate baptist society was Mr. John Spilsbury. In the year

* Bacheller's History of Dover.

112 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

1640, this society had become so numerous that they could not meet together in one place without being discovered : the people were consequently divided into two congregations.

CONFESSION OF FAITH.

In 1643, the Particular Baptists published "a confession of faith of seven congregations or churches of Christ in London, which are commonly, but unjustly, called anabaptists." This confession contained fifty-two articles, and passed through several editions in 1644 and 1646: the doctrines distinguished by the teim calvinistic are clearly stated, subjection to the lawful commands of magistrates is acknowledged, while liberty of conscience is firmly maintained.

" As we cannot," the authors say, " do anything contrary to our under- standings and consciences, so neither can we forbear the doing of that

which our understandings and consciences bind us to do But in

case we find not the magistrate to favour us herein ; yet we dare not sus- pend our practice, because we believe we ought to go in obedience to Christ in professing the faith which was once delivered to the saints, which faith is declared in the Holy Scriptures, and this our confession of faith a part of them, and that we are to witness to the truth of the Old and New Testament unto the death, if necessity require, in the midst of all trials and afflictions, as his saints of old have done; not accounting our goods, lands, wives, children, fathers, mothers, brethren, sisters, yea, and our own lives, dear to us, so we may finish our course with joy; remembering always that we ought to obey God rather than men."

BAPTISTS IN WALES.

The first baptist church in modern times, in Wales, was formed in the year 1633, at a place called Olchon. In 1649, Mr. Vavasor Powell formed a church at llston, near Swansea. The labours of this eminent man were aiduous and extensive : there was scarcely a neighbourhood, a parish, or a village, in the country, which was not visited by him for the purpose of making known the cheering invitations of the gospel. The churches formed by Mr. Powell and Mr. Walter Cradock (an independent) numbered in 1654, 20,000 members, having been formed on the principle of mixed communion. The ap- pointment of messengers to meet together and deliberate in the name of the churches was adopted in Wales at an early period. In 1650, members were sent from the churches at Hay and Llanafan to consult with the church at llston : in 1653, the Abergavenny church-book states that "a. general meeting of the elders and others, messengers of the several

Or THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 113

churches," was held at Abergavenny. Mr. Powell suffered much persecution, having passed eleven years in prison. In the year 1700, after a long season of difficulty and persecu- tion, the association was revived and consisted of nine churches. The number of Welsh baptist churches had increased in 1731, to fifteen.

BAPTISTS IN IRELAND.

, So early as 1642, two baptist preachers of the names of Cornwall and Verner, denounced infant baptism at Antrim, where it is probable that some baptists had settled in 1630. When Cromwell passed over into Ireland in 1649, there were baptists in his army : a baptist minister, Thomas Patient, accompanied them : in 1650 he had stationed himself in Kil- kenny. In 1652, he removed to Dublin and became chaplain to Colonel Jones, a baptist, one of the commissioners. Fleetwood, Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law, lord deputy of Ireland, was also a baptist. In 1653, a baptist meeting-house (the first in Ireland) was built in Swift's Alley, Dublin. Christo- pher Blackwood accompanied Fleetwood to Ireland in 1652, and was very successful in the ministry, presiding over the church in Dublin for several years, after his removal from Kilkenny in 1655 where it is probable he founded a church. Other baptist churches were in existence about 1652-3 in Waterford, Wex- ford, Clonmel, Cork, near Carrickfergus, in Kerry, Limerick, Portumna, Bandon, and Galloway (Galway ?), piobably one at C lough- Keating, and one at Rahue. A large number of bap- tist ministers were employed in various parts of the country, and so great was their success in the ministry, and in the pro- pagation of their peculiar opinions, that independent ministers were sent over " to counteract tli3 influence of Patient and the baptist ministers." Dr. Harrison, one of the most eminent of these independent ministers, furnishes us with an idea of the influence of the baptists in Ireland : " How is this land shared out amongst persons of [this] persuasion : governors of towns and cities, twelve at least; colonels, ten; lieutenant-colonels, three or four; majors, ten; captains, nineteen or twenty; preachers in salary [i. e. to the army], two; officers in the civil list, twenty-three ; and many of whom I never heard." Soon after Cromwell's assumption of the Protectorate, Fleet- wood was recalled: "he was too much an anabaptist (says Adair, a contemporary presbyterian minister) to carry on

i

114 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

Cromwell's designs, now when he was aspiring to settle the supreme government in himself and posterity after him ... he could not homologate with his father-in-law in these designs." By the "convention" which sat in Dublin to promote the king's return in 1660, measures were taken to weaken the efforts then making to spread the sentiments of the baptists ; a committee was appointed, which was to " inquire after and give in a list of those now enjoying salary, who were anabap- tists, whereof there was a large number in considerable salaries in Ireland, and divers of them members [chaplains] of the army, and some who refused ordination. These were degraded from their preaching and deprived of their salaries, who a little before had ruled all." These measures considerably weakened the influence of the body in the country; though they did not extinguish the churches already formed. Those in Kilkenny, Dublin, and Waterford, have continued to the present time. Of the modem baptist churches, a few in the north were founded on the principle of the Scotch baptists, and under the auspices of the Messrs. Haldane. Since the formation of the Baptist Irish Society in 1814, new churches have been organized, and missionary operations carried on with en-

BAPTISTS IN SCOTLAND.

The first traces of the baptists in this country, after the refor- mation, occur in the time of the commonwealth. The English army under Cromwell entered Scotland in 1650 : many of the soldiers and officers were baptists. These kept up the worship of God in the regiments, preached the gospel, and immersed those who from among them embraced the truth. Some of the troops were stationed at Leith and Edinburgh, and the baptists had a church there. A considerable impres- sion seems to have been made on the minds of many : several ministers adopted their sentiments ; — Alexander Cornwell, of Linlithgow, and Thomas Charteris, of Stenhouse, are said to have " baptized old people, maintained anabaptism, and would not baptize infants." In 1653, a considerable number of per- sons were baptized in the water of Leith, among whom, it is said, was Lady Wallace of Craigie. At Cupar, in Fife, also, there was a troop stationed, in which was a baptist preacher named Browne, who preached the gospel and baptized several of the regiment in the river Eden. When the English troops

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 115

quitted Scotland at the restoration of Charles in 1660, all traces of the baptists in Scotland disappeared ; and we do not meet with them again until the early part of the eighteenth century, when Sir William Sinclair of Kiess, in Caithness, was immersed in England. He returned to Scotland, preached the gospel, baptized those who through his instrumentality were brought to a knowledge of the truth, and formed a bap- tist church on his own estate. Notwithstanding his rank, he suffered much persecution for propagating baptist principles. No permanent effort, however, was made to establish the denomination in Scotland until 1765, when Robert Carmichael and Archibald Maclean were immersed, and a baptist church was formed in Edinburgh, consisting at first of nine persons, having Carmichael for their pastor. Maclean was chosen his colleague in 1768, after which time baptist views rapidly spread into different parts of Scotland.

INCREASE PERSECUTION, &C.

Mr. Neale states that in 1644, there were forty-seven con- gregations of baptists in the country, and seven in London. Towards the middle of this century, the Particular Baptists increased more rapidly, and their interests were strengthened by the union of several clergymen. Mr. Hanserd, Knollys received ordination from the bishop of Peterborough, but after- wards became a baptist. He frequently preached against infant baptism, even in the established church : at one time he was stoned out of the pulpit; at another time the doors of the church were closed against him and his hearers. Finding how much offence was taken at his preaching in the church, and to what troubles it exposed him, he began to hold separate meet- ings in Great St. Helens, London, where the people flocked to hear him so that he had generally a thousand hearers. Mr. Knollys suffered much for the truth's sake, being persecuted from city to city and from one country to another, enduring privations, imprisonment, and hardships of various kinds. Mr. John Sims, who preached at Southampton, and Mr. Andrew Wyke, also fell under the power of persecution about 1646. Mr. Tombes, preacher at the temple ; Mr. Christopher Black- wood, in Kent; Mr. Benjamin Cox, at Bedford ; Mr. Edward Harrison, Mr. Daniel Dyke, and some others in or near Hert- fordshire; are mentioned as eminent ministers who left the establishment and joined the baptists. In 1650 several Par-

i2

116 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

ticular Baptists were preferred to offices in the navy — among others, captain Mildmay, to command the admiral flag-ship under the duke of Albemarle ; captain Pack, to command the flag-ship under Sir George Ascue; Sir John Harman, to com- mand the flag-ship undei the duke of York. The celebrated colonel Hutchinson, governor of Nottingham castle during the civil wars, was a pious Particular Baptist. It would have afforded much gratification to have given a more extended notice of these brethren in the Lord : but the design and limits of the work forbid. We can only hail them as fellow-labourers " contending for the faith once delivered unto the saints," and bid them God speed in the work of the Lord.

SECTION II.

FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CIVIL WARS TO THE RESTORATION.

A LIST OF GENERAL BAPTIST CHURCHES.

Before proceeding with the general history, it may be well to present a list of the churches that rose or flourished during the period included in this section and the preceding one — that is, from 1607 to the restoration in 1660. It is to be lamented that no documents have been preserved relative to the forma- tion of the earliest churches. Dr. Featley informs us that the baptists, against whom he engaged so zealously in 1644, had appeared in his neighbourhood (Southwark) twenty years before he wrote ; and that two of their errors were, that " Christ died indifferently for all," and that " God giveth to all men sufficient grace to be saved."

London. — 'The church formed in Holland by John Smyth, in 1607, re- turned to London in 1614, under the pastorate of Thomas Helwisse.

Bell-alley. — Was in a flourishing state under the pastoral care of Thomas Lamb in 1640.

Dunning' s-alley j— Gathered by John Griffith about 1640.

PauVs-alley, Barbican. — Formed about the same time as the preceding, by John Gosnold.

Spital, Bishopsgate-street. — Probably gathered before either of the former: it was under the superintendence of Edward Barber in 1641; and removed about 1674 to White's- alley, Moorfields.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 117

Old Jewry. — Jeremiah Ives was pastor of this church from about the year 1640 to 1675.

Tower-hill. — Was flourishing in 1657, under Samuel Loveday.

Shad-Thames, Southivark. —Was probably gathered during this period by John Clayton.

Lothbury. — Raised by a Thomas Lamb, about 1655. Kent. — Eythorne. — Tradition dates the origin of this church about 1590 : in 1624 it was flourishing.

Canterbury. — A church was formed here prior to 1 644.

Biddenden. — The origin of this church is obscure : in 1648, it was completely organised, and met in three divisions — at Cranbrook, Biddenden, and Rolvenden.

Spilshill and Staplehurst. — Gathered by Christopher Blackwood and Richard Kingsnorth about 1644: it soon spread into the adjacent parts.

Smarden was, during this period, a branch of Staplehurst.

Dover.— The General Baptists had a meeting-house here in 1655.

Deptford. — Probably formed during the protectorate.

Sevenoaks, Bradburn (afterwards BesseWs Green), Speldhurst and Pembury, were among the churches formed by Messrs. Jeffery. Sussex. — Horsham. — Was prosperous in 1655 ; probably gathered by Mr. Samuel Lover. Throughout this period Matthew Caflin laboured with great success in Sussex and the neighbouring counties. Buckinghamshire. — Amersham. — An old church-book belonging to this society has an imperfect entry as follows — " Brother David, 26 of April, 1626."

Aylesbury.— Edwards mentions the pastor of this church in 1646.

Chesham and Berkhamp stead.

Stony Stratford. — The church-book dates the origin of this society in 1625: G. Martin, one of the ejected ministers, laboured in this church several years. In 1714, a sermon was preached here " before an assembly of messengers, elders, and brethren, representatives of several baptized churches owning the six principles of the Doctrine of Christ; Heb. vi. 1, 2." By John Cook. Worcestershire. — Netherton. — The meeting-house here was probably built in the time of Cromwell. The old church-book contains the record of a baptism in 1654. Norfolk. — Yarmouth. — There appears to have been a society here in

1624. (See page 109.) Cambridgeshire. — Wisbech. — There were many General Baptists in this neighbourhood during this period ; in 1656, the brethren at Wisbech were formed into a church by Messrs. Denne and Mayle.

A destructive fire having consumed much of the property of a General Baptist at Great Eversden, in 1654, it was agreed to make up the loss by the neighbouring churches : invitations for assistance were sent to the churches at Warboys and Chatteris ; Elv, Littleport, and Streatham ; Cambridge; Salsham, Burwell, and Wigan; Wood- Ditton; Wilbroim and Balsham ; Melbourn, Royston, Hawson, and Thaxfield. There is reason to believe, that during the protectorate, there existed a General Baptist church at each of these places.

118 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

Derbyshire. — Ashford-in-the-Peak.—~Probab\j formed during the protec- torate : at the close of the seventeenth century, it extended over several villages.

Note. The churches, with the accompanying names, in the fol- lowing eight counties, against which an * is placed, are taken from a work published in 1651, entitled— " The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations gathered according to the Primitive Pattern." 12mo. 1651.

Oxfordshire. — * Horley. — 1651.— John Danvers. John Naman.

Bedfordshire. — * Sondon. — 1651. — Thomas Partridge. Samuel Tide. Bolton and Denton. — There appears to have been a society here in 1654.

Huntingdonshire.— Fenstanton. — Prior to the year 1644. Mr. Denne had been instrumental in gathering a church here. This may be considered the mother church in these parts, from which the General Baptist cause spread into adjacent counties, and to which the neigh- bouring churches applied for counsel and assistance in cases of difficulty.

* Fennyslanton. — 1651. — Edmund Male. Thomas Cocks. Warboys. — Formed about 1647.

Lincolnshire.— South Marsh. — About 1644, there had arisen a church in the South Marsh, which at first sprinkled infants. About 1651, four of the members united to form a new interest on the principle of believers' immersion: these four — of whom Thomas Grantham is supposed to have been one— had the honour of laying the foun- dation of the General Baptist cause in this neighbourhood.

Spalding. — In 1646 H. Denne was invited to preach at Spalding : there were many General Baptists in the neighbourhood, and it is probable that the church was formed at that time.

Kirton-in - Lindsay ,~ Probably gathered during the civil wars.

* TaftershalL— 1651.— John Lupton. Will. Codlyn. (Afterwards called Coningsby and Tattershall.)

* Goldsby.—l6Dl. — Thomas Drewry. Richard Drewry.

* North WiUingham. — 1651. — Ralph James. Daniel Chesman.

* Boston. — 1651. — Richard Craford. Edward Cock.

* Swyneshead. — 16bl . — William Barnes. Will. Hart.

* Surfleet.— 1651. — Jo. Lacye. Robert Massey.

* Thurlby.- 1651.— Robert Pecke. Jo. Beaver. Robert Dyer. (Called in 1653 "Langtoft and Thurlby.")

* Blankney. — 1651. — Greg. Allen. John Lucas.

* Lesingham. — 1651. — Robert Thompson. Richard Machyn.

* Lincoln.— 1651. — Val. James. John Johnjohns.

* Welby. — 1651. — Thorn. Everard, sen. Robert Anglesh aw.

* Westby.— 1651.— John Allen. Robert Cock. Rutlandshire. — * Burley. — 1651. — John Freeman. W. Dalby.

* Thorpe. — 1651. — James Tentoft. Anthony Snell.

* Tixover. — 1651.— Abraham Day. Matthew Ley.

Wackerley. — Was flourishing in 1655. There were General Baptists also at Uppingham.

Northamptonshire. * Ravensthorpe. — 1651. — Benjamin Morley..

Francis Stanley.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 1J9

Peterborough. — There was a church here in 1665. Harringworth (now Murcott, Rutland) church existed in the seven- teenth century. Leicestershire.— * Watham. — 1651. — John Barker. Henry Redgate.

* Earl Shilton.—lfioL. — Thomas Wehster. Nathan Jones.

* Whitwicke. — 1651.— George Moore. Robert Hebb.

* Bliteswell. — 1651. — Tho. Maurrice. Tho. Towneseud.

* Mountsorril. — 1651.— Rob. Fielding. Will. Kendall.

* Wimesicoithl. — 1651. — Richard Ley. Will. Franke.

* Normington.— 1651.— Will. Parker. Will. Wilde.

* Theddingworth.— If51.— Will. Poole. Will. Burditt.

* Leicester. — 1651. — Coniers Congrave. Thomas Rogers. Twyford. — In 1655, a letter was sent from this church to Fenstanton.

Warwickshire. — * Easonhall. — 1651. — John Oneley. Will. Perkins.

* Marston.— 1651.— Rich. Wills. Thomas Jeffes.

Coventry. — At the beginning of the civil wars, if not before that period, a church existed here. Nottinghamshire. — Nottingham. — In 1656, John Kirby was deputed , by the G. B. association held at Stamford, " to stir up" the society at Nottingham.

Collingham. — Probably formed prior to the Restoration.

Misterton. — Probably about the same time.

Other places in the midland counties are mentioned in connection with the public transactions of the General Baptists in the middle of the seventeenth century: viz., Winford and Rimson ; Newton; Whitwell and Markfield : — there is reason to believe that, during the protectorate of Cromwell, there existed a regular General Bap- tist church at each of these places.

CONFUSED STATE OF THE NATION.

We are now entering on one of the most eventful periods of our national history- The government of Laud was despotic —

that of the king was arbitrary. Towards the close of 1 640 1640, the long parliament commenced its memorable

operations, and the reaction began. Sir Edward Dering brought in a bill to extirpate prelacy — England began to agitate for a redress of grievances — and Scotland was in arms against the king. The confused state of the nation per- mitted the baptists to propagate their sentiments with some freedom ; a reference to the list of churches is sufficient to perceive that their efforts were in a high degree successful.

HENRY DENNE. EXTENSION OF THE CAUSE.

At the beginning of the civil wars, Mr. Lamb's church was in a flourishing condition and sent forth many popular and useful preachers, who did not confine their labours to their

120 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

own vicinity, but extended their exertions into most of the counties of England and even into Wales. One of the most conspicuous of these evangelists was Henry Denne. He had been a church clergyman at Pyrton, in Hertfordshire, where he laboured for about ten years with great accept- ance. In 1643, he professed himself a baptist, was bap- tized, and joined the church at Bell-alley. He was much employed in travelling from place to place to preach the gospel, and was very successful in his efforts. In one of his ministerial excursions in 1644, Mr. Denne visited Bedford- shire, Cambridgeshire, and the neighbouring counties. His labours there were soon interrupted by the ecclesiastical com- mittee for Cambridge, by whose command he was apprehended and sent to prison. He appealed to parliament, and was, by

an order of the house, removed to London and com- 1644 mitted to custody in Bishopsgate-street. After some

time he obtained his liberty, and pursued his great work with diligence amid much opposition from both prelatists and presbyterians. He visited Huntingdonshire and Lincoln- shire, where he was instrumental in planting chuiches. While he and his zealous colleagues were thus exerting themselves in these parts, others were equally active in distant counties. In Kent and its vicinity, the General Baptists appear to have made considerable progress before the commencement of the civil wars. William and David Jeffery, of Penshurst, were the principal agents in spreading and supporting their doctrines. By the assiduous labours of these pious brothers, more than twenty churches were gathered in the county of Kent. Mr. Jeffery, pastor of the church at Bessell's Green, was instru- mental in convincing many eminent members of the established church of the divine institution of believers' baptism. Francis Cornwell, M.A., who had been preferred to the living of Marden, cultivated an acquaintance with Mr. Jeffery and was baptized by him. Mr. Blackwood, the clergyman of Staple- hurst, Kent, was also baptized : he, in conjunction with one of his parishioners, Mr. R. Kingsnorth, gathered a church at Spilshill, near Staplehurst. As Mr. Blackwood held the doc- trine of particular election, Mr. Kingsnorth was ordained to the pastorate of this society ; Mr. Blackwood assisting in the ministry, until he accompanied the parliamentary army to Ireland.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 121

PRESBYTERIAN INTOLERANCE.

In 1644, the civil war raged in the country, and the party who had taken up arms against the king assumed the reins of government. Although they had hazarded their lives in defence of civil liberty, their views respecting liberty of con- science in religious affairs seem to have been very contracted. The ministers of the presbyterian party laboured assiduously, both in their writings and preaching, to oppose the granting of liberty to every man to judge for himself in matters of religion. Edwards, their great champion, asserted that " the government should keep the people in such awe by authority and penal statutes, as that they should not dare but stand to the cove- nant" — or in other words, conform to the religion of the domi- nant party. The same spirit was manifested by

1645 some of the leading men in parliament; and in April, 1645, an ordinance was passed by both houses

of parliament, forbidding any unordained minister to preach. The baptists were soon made to feel the effect of this blow at religious liberty. Mr. Thomas Lamb, pastor of the General Baptist church in Bell-alley, had been regularly set apart to the pastoral office by the society over which he presided. This, however, was not recognized by the legislature as a church : and he was required — in conformity to the ordinance — to dis- continue preaching. But it was not to be expected that he who had braved the haughty Laud, would silently submit: he continued his labours without noticing this new law. Informa- tion was laid before the Lord Mayor against Mr. Lamb and his assistants : the Lord Mayor held them to bail to appear before a committee of the house of parliament, which sent them to prison. They were, after a time, released by the interces- sion of some powerful friends, when they resumed their labours with renewed zeal.

BAPTISM AT MIDNIGHT.

In the year 1646, Henry Denne was invited to preach and administer the ordinances at Spalding, in Lincoln-

1646 shire. Several candidates were waiting for an op- portunity of being baptized : but fearing to ad- minister the ordinance in an open manner, it was determined by the friends to avail themselves of the shades of even- ing; and on Wednesday, near midnight, Mr. Denne bap

122 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

tized four persons in a place called the Little Croft. The female candidates had invited a young woman to assist them, who, by some means, divulged the transaction. The report soon reached the ears of the magistrates : they sent officers to arrest Mr. Denne on the Lord's day, during the whole of which he was kept in close custody to prevent him from preaching. The next day, the young woman was examined on oath, and confirmed the fact. The magistrates threatened to commit Mr. D. to Lincoln goal ; to which he replied that he cared not for himself, but was concerned that his great work should be interrupted. Ciosby says he was committed. It is evident that at this time there were many baptists about Spalding, as the magistrate who apprehended Mr. Denne stated that several had been brought before him.

TRIAL FOR MURDER !

It was not from parliamentary enactments alone that the baptists suffered : the psedobaptists ungenerously misrepre- sented their doctrines and practices. They frequently took occasion, both from the pulpit and the press, to describe the baptists as murderers. One, whose name is deservedly revered, asserted that baptism by immersion was " good for nothing but to dispatch men out of the world who are burdensome in it, and to ranken churchyards" — and that " the abettors of it were no more to be suffered than highway murderers." A charge of murder was actually preferred against Mr. Samuel Oates, one of Mr. Lamb's assistant preachers. Among the multitudes baptized by Mr. Oates during one of his visits into Essex, was a young woman who died a few weeks after her baptism. An inquest was held on the body : but so eager were the magistrates to secure the baptist, that they committed him to Colchester gaol before the coroner's jury had returned their verdict. At length the day of trial arrived, and Mr. Oates was tried for murder at the Chelmsford assizes. But, to the confusion of his accusers, it was proved by unexception- able witnesses — amongst whom was the young woman's mother — that for several days after her baptism the deceased had enjoyed an unusually good state of health, and had walked abroad with comfort. The jury pronounced a verdict of not guilty, and Mr. Oates resumed his labours the ensuing Lord's-day.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 123

BAPTISTS AT NOTTINGHAM COLONEL HUTCHINSON.

In 1647, colonel Hutchinson — then governor of Notting- ham castle — was urged by the presbyterians to dis-

1647 perse a number of "anabaptists" who met for wor- ship in a room called the cannonier's room. The

colonel repaired thither, but the baptists were not then assem- bled : he found some papers, which he took to his lodgings. His wife examined the documents and found in them argu- ments in support of believers' baptism. Impressed with their truthfulness, she made her husband acquainted with the sub- ject : he carefully read the articles, was convinced of the im- propriety of infant-sprinkling, and not only declined having the rite performed on his child, but called together the puri- tan divines, with whom he held a discussion on scripture bap- tism. It is highly probable that the " anabaptists" referred to were General Baptists, as a society of that denomination ex- isted here previously to 1656 : but how long prior to that date is not known. In 1663, John Kelsey, General Baptist minister of Kirton, was imprisoned in Nottingham gaol : during his confinement he preached to the prisoners, and through the iron grating of his prison made known the way of salvation to many.

LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE.

Presbyterianism was now established : the ruling party were the avowed enemies of toleration in religious con-

1648 cerns, and enacted severe laws to enforce conformity, in which the baptists were specially noticed. In 1648,

the parliament passed a law which rendered it imprisonment to immerse believers who had been sprinkled in infancy, or to maintain or publish that infant baptism is unlawful or void. But the baptists, both General and Particular, were very numerous, and their importance was felt in the nation. Though some were removed from situations of trust and dignity, their increase was not prevented : many were in the army — both in the ranks and among the officers — and their influence acted as a check on the parliament. In 1649 and 1650, some of the penal laws against dissenters were repealed; and when Crom- well was declared Lord Protector in 1653, an instrument was drawn up granting freedom and protection in the profession and exercise of religion. Thus persecution was restrained, and the interval during the protectorate may be regarded as a season of religious liberty.

124 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

THOMAS GRANTHAM.

Thomas Grantham bore an important part in the history of the General Baptists during the ensuing forty years. He con- tinued in connection with the friends who had separated from the independent church in the South Marsh of Lincolnshire,

and in a short time was called to the work of the 1656 ministry. In 1656, he was solemnly ordained by

fasting, and prayer, and laying on of hands. He laboured assiduously in the work of the ministry, and the church flourished under his care. Attempts were made to disturb their peace: it appears that in some instances the magistrates acted contrary to the professed principles of Cromwell's government; for Mr. Grantham complains, thirty years afterwards, that — " In the time of Cromwell's usurpation they did then hale us before the judgment seats because we could not worship God after the will of the Lord Protector — for so they styled him in their articles against us. And we had then our goods taken away, and never restored to this day." In 1666, Mr. Grantham was ordained to the office of messenger : " I was," he says, " elected by the consent of many congregations, and ordained to the office of a messen- ger by those who were in the same office before me. The place where I was ordained was in my own mansion, or dwell- ing-house, the place where the church usually met."

BEARING EACH OTHER'S BURDENS.

Nov. 17, 1654, a fire broke out on the premises of John Wilson, of Great Eversden, a farmer, and a member of Fen- stanton church : the fire consumed the greater part of his property. He asked the advice of the church on the propriety of applying to the magistrates for letters of request to the inhabitants of the county. A meeting was called to consider the subject, and as it was thought that the honour of the gospel was deeply interested in it, the final adjustment was referred to a general meeting of two brethren from each church in the neighbourhood. They met at Cambridge : it was Unani- mously agreed to help their distressed brother among them- selves, and neither to apply to the county nor to distant churches. The brethren present, therefore, promised, on behalf of their respective societies, each to give a certain sum ; and the engagements were punctually fulfilled by the churches. The Netherton church-book records upwards of

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 125

forty collections, upon "briefs," for losses by fire in London, various counties in England, and places in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. There are also four "briefs" in behalf of churches of the establishment: one is "for a fire at Harlow, in the county of Essex, wherein the church and steeple were demol- ished." After each of these latter it is laconically stated — " But nothing collected." The sum of 12s. 6d. was "collected for protestants banished out of the prencipallatine of Oraing by the king of France." It was the practice of the churches also to make regular collections for those who were prisoners for religion, and distribute the amounts according to circumstances: sending, at the same time, special messengers to comfort and strengthen their brethren in the name of the church.

INTERNAL TROUBLES.

About this time some of the Lincolnshire churches and others were troubled by dissensions respecting the practice of laying hands on baptized believers. Fanatical enthusiasts were also active in spreading their extravagant notions, and produced disorder in some of the societies. Many members of Fenstanton church fell into their errors : the church exer- cised great forbearance towards them, and took great pains to convince them of their errors — but without effect ; and a con- siderable number were excluded.

ITINERANT LABOURS. ASSOCIATION AT STAMFORD.

The General Baptists were very attentive to discipline; their elders were much employed in travelling about from place to place, to comfort the afflicted, strengthen the weak, reclaim the wandering, and rebuke the gainsayers. This diligent attention to the welfare of existing churches, did not, however, satisfy their desires — they longed to be more extensively useful. At a general church-meeting at Fenstan- ton in 1653, Mr. H. Denne put the brethren in mind of the commission of Christ — " Preach the gospel to every creature." " I desire," said he, " that we may seriously consider whether we are not in a great fault in being so negligent in sending forth persons to divulge the gospel in those many places that are ignorant thereof." A day of fasting and prayer was ap- pointed, and Mr. Denne was " chosen and ordained by im- position of hands, a messenger to divulge the gospel of Jesus Christ." Mr. Denne, accompanied by one of the brethren, set out on a missionary tour and preached the gospel in many

126 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

places : in some localities he baptized several converts — in others he found persons who had formerly been united with the baptists, to whom he administered reproof and ad- monition. On his return he gave a written account of his proceedings to the congregation by which he had been sent forth. In July 1656, an association of elders and brethren from many of the General Baptist churches, was held at Stamford. A request was sent to this meet- ing from a number of General Baptists at Uppingham, in Rutland, " that messengers might be sent into the west for the work of the ministry." Two ministers, John Fair- brother and William Reignolds, were accordingly appointed to this service. It was agreed that each messenger should receive a certain sum weekly, and brethren were appointed by the assembly to take care of their wives and families in their absence. In order to raise the necessary funds for this under- taking, each of the brethren present engaged that his own church should contribute towards the expenses. In Kent and Sussex itinerant labours were prosecuted with great success.

PUBLIC DISCUSSIONS.

The leading men among the General Baptists weie fre- quently engaged in public discussions with their opponents. When Mr. Denne was sent to prison for preaching in 1644, he found there — a prisoner — the celebrated opponent of the baptists, Dr. Featley, who had just published his work entitled, " The dippers dipt." When Mr. Denne entered the prison, this pamphlet was put into his hands : feeling himself called upon to defend the principles for which he suffered, he sent the Dr. a message, offering to dispute with him on the argu- ments advanced in his book. The Dr. accepted the challenge with alacrity : but when they had only debated the first of his ten arguments, he declined proceeding — under the pretence that it was not safe without the permission of the magistrates. He desired Mr. Denne to write against his arguments and he would defend them. Mr. Denne drew up an elaborate answer to " The dippers dipt" and presented it to the author — dating it "in prison, Feb. 22, 1645." The Dr. published no reply. — In Kent Messrs. Jeffery, Hammond, Reeve, &c, were frequently employed in the defence of the truth against learned and determined opposers. Mr. Hammond, pastor of the church at Biddenden, maintained controversies with Mr. Holland,

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 127

a clergyman of Sutton Vallance, and others. Controversies were also carried on by publications from the press. — In Sussex, Mr. M. Caffin had a public dispute with the quakers in 1655. He was so celebrated for his ability in defending the truth, that his opponent informs us he was " cried up by the General Bap- tists in Sussex as their battle-axe and weapon of war." — In London, Mr. H. Denne was publicly engaged in defending believers' baptism against Dr. Gunning, afterwards bishop of Chichester. This discussion was held in St. Clement's church, in the Strand, and lasted two days. So triumphantly did Mr. Denne maintain his opinions, that this occurrence has been thought one of the most remarkable incidents of his life, and that by which he rendered most essential service to the baptists. Dr. William Russell — assisted by John Williams of East Knoyle, and J. Sharpe of Fiome, both Particular Baptists — held a public discussion in 1699, with Mr. Chandler, Mr. Leigh, and Mr. Robinson, all eminent presbyterian ministers. The scene of combat was the presbyterian meeting-house, Portsmouth. There — in the presence of the governor, the lieutenant-governor, mayor, and magistrates of Portsmouth, and a large auditory, attended by the military to preserve order — the champions entered the lists, and, for upwards of nine hours, exerted their polemical skill.

ATTACHMENT TO THE GREAT DOCTRINE.

" The doctrine of the universal love of God in Christ to all mankind" was considered as the glory of the denomination. In the early part of their history, they rebaptized those who had been baptized in the belief that Christ died only for a part of mankind : but this appears to have been soon discontinued. They still exercised a vigilant care to preserve the churches sound in the faith on this article. A widow, baptized by Henry Denne and admitted into the Fenstanton church, was afterwards understood to entertain erroneous views on this point; J. Denne and another brother were sent to admonish her. She stated that " if by the faith they meant the doc- trine of Christ's dying for all, she never had believed it." At this, J. Denne expressed his surprise, and observed, he was sure his father would not have baptized her unless he had understood that she had believed this truth. The matter was brought before the church, and Henry Denne attended to ex- plain his conduct. He stated that he had been led to suppose

128 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

she believed the doctrine, from the manner in which she applied 1 Tim. i. 15. The widow still asserting that she did not believe it at the time of her baptism, though she was now better satisfied, the question was put to the church, "whether the baptism was true, seeing she had no true faith?" The church decided " that it was true in the intention of the baptizer, but not true in the intention of the baptized: and therefore, seeing that it is not the intention of the baptizer but of the baptized that makes baptism to be true, it was no true baptism." The woman, refusing to acquiesce in this decision, was excluded.

CHARACTER AND NUMBERS.

We now close our account of the General Baptists during this period. They were undoubtedly men of like passions with ourselves, and were not free from the imperfections of human nature. But notwithstanding any weaknesses with which they may be charged — when we consider the character of the times in which they lived, they appear as " lights shining in a dark place :" — there are many things connected with their history which claim our respect and admiration. Their zeal for the truth, manifested by their active exertions to spread the gospel — their attachment to their principles, evidenced by their willingness to suffer rather than abandon or conceal them — their uncom- promising advocacy of religious liberty, asserted in their ad- dresses to kings and senates even when petitioning for relief from sufferings — their love to each other, exhibited in their practical sympathy with distressed brethren — the holiness of their lives, as testified by their enemies : — these are features in their character which ought not to pass unnoticed. The fre- quent religious discussions with men of learning and eminence in the established church, prove that the General Baptists pos- sessed many ministers of talent and respectability. The rise and progress of many of their churches, and the zeal and activity of their ministers, are probably buried in lasting ob- livion. But if we examine the list of churches, and recollect that there are traces of large societies in various counties, we reasonably conclude that their numbers were great. Thomas

Grantham and his colleagues — who had every oppor- 1660 trinity of obtaining accurate information — stated

them to king Charles II., (not two years after this period,) at twenty thousand: and there is no reason to suppose that this account was exaggerated.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 129

SECTION in.

FROM THE RESTORATION TO THE REVOLUTION.

LIST OF CHURCHES.

We here present a list of the churches of which we have notice during this period, in addition to those mentioned in the former list.

London.— At High Hall, near West Smithfield, a church assembled during this period, under Dr. Wm. Russell. Park, Southwark. — In 1674, a separate society was formed here by a

number of members from Shad Thames. (See New Connexion.) Glasshouse-yard, Goswell-street. — Existed between 1670 and 1681. Dockhead. — The church at Shad Thames were driven from their meet- ing-house in 1687, and fitted up a place at Dockhead. In 169'^, they built a meeting-house in Fair-street, and the church assumed that name. Turner's Hall, Philpot-lane. — Formed about 1688, by Richard Allen. Hari-street. — Formed in 1692, by members from White's-alley. Middlesex. — Branford.— Existed in 1700.

Kent. — Chatham. — Was numerous and flourishing in 1665, under Mr. Morecock. Maidstone. — Joseph Wright presided over a respectable church for

many years. Tenderden. — In 1678, the members of the Biddenden church were scattered over ten parishes : two distinct churches were formed — one at Biddenden, the other at Tenderden, including Headcorn. Marden. — There was a church in 1692, of which Cranbrook was con- sidered a branch. In 1681, the church at Dover had become so extensive that it was agreed to separate into three divisions, viz. : — Dover; Samuel Taverner and Richard Cannon, elders: Sandwich and Deal ; Henry Brown and Isaac Slaughter : Folkestone and Hythe ; Messrs. Author and Hadlow. Many other General Baptist churches flourished, during this period, in this county: besides the twenty churches gathered by the exer- tions of Mr. W. Jeffery and his associates, there were numerous congregations, in various parts of Kent, of equal, if not of superior standing. Sossex. — The General Baptists were numerous in this county, and were closely connected with the Kentish churches. At Lewes and its vicinity they were, in 1670, estimated at five hundred. Brighthelmstone and Chichester possessed large churches : the latter was gathered by James Sicklemore, formerly a clergyman. K

130 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

Essex. — Dedham. — A church under Isaac Ham") . , ., , . ..

„.,, . , , t r t. x i towards the close of the

Tilbury— A. church under J. Butcher \ . 4 ,

„ . , 9 rr,, iii seventeenth centurv.

Bainham. — There was a church here )

Hampshire.— Portsmouth. — Formed by J. Sicklemore, about 1660.

Southampton furnishes traces of a church under John Sims, who was

baptized by J. Sicklemore.

Wiltshire. — Downton church was flourishing in 1680, under the care

of John Sangar.

Dwisshum — Under H. Miller about 1699.

Dorsetshire. — The General Baptist cause made great progress in this

county, chiefly through the instrumentality of John Miller.

Minthenton. — Formed by John Miller, who fixed his residence at this

place.

Somersetshire. — A number of churches in this county had, prior to

the revolution, formed themselves into an association. In 1691,

they published " A short confession," &c.

Buckinghamshire. — Cudington church was flourishing in 1683.

Amersham. — Another church was formed in 1675 by John Griffiths of

Dunn ing's- alley. High Wycombe. — This society is supposed to owe its origin to G. Fownes, M.A., who relinquished his living in the established church some time prior to the restoration. In 1697 it became possessed of some property: in 1777, only three or four members remaining, the place of worship was opened for the use of the Particular Baptists, and the property was transferred.

Oxfordshire, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, and Buckingham- shire. — A confession of faith was published, in 1678, by the General Baptists of these counties. In 1700, there were churches at Win- slow, Barnety Wing, Tring, Kempton und Luton, und Burnham.

Cambridgeshire. — March, Whittleseu. — Churches existed in 1700.

Northamptonshire. — Welton. — Was flourishing in 1680. In Northamp- tonshire and the adjoining counties, the churches were numerous during this period, and well supplied with ministers. Leicestershire. -There are traces of General Baptists at Wanlip,

Charley Forest, und Humberstone. Staffordshire. — Stonehouse.— George White was pastor of this church

some time prior to 1688. Lincolnshire. — Holbeuch and Fleet — In the midst of much opposition a church was formed at Holbeach in 1681, by the efforts of James Marham. Fleet. — Robert Vellem removed the meeting from Holbeach to- Fleet

about 1690. Killingholme. — Was flourishing in 1686.

Bourn und Huckenby separated from Spalding towards the close of the seventeenth century, and became a distinct interest. (In 1688, members of the united society resided at Spalding, Bourne, Hack- enby, Gosberton, Holbeach, Fleet, Lutton, Gedney, and Moulton.) Sleafoid. — A church existed here in 1700.

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An association was held in Lincolnshire in 1G95-G, in which were represented — Coningsby and Elshain, Lincoln, North Willingham, Spalding, Stennigett, the isle of Axholme, Marsh Chapel. South Marsh, including the congregations at Alford, Walmsgate, and Croft; Tattershall, Bourn and Hackenby, Boston, Highcam. Among the churches which agreed to " keep a day of fasting and prayer in 1718, we find— Witherton, North Marsh, Asterby, and Broughtou, all of which probably existed in the seventeenth century. Nottinghamshire. — At Rerapston, Gamston and Retford, Collingham, and Misterton, churches existed during this period. Nottingham. — Under S. Creswell in 1700. Norfolk. — Norwich.— Founded about 1670, by Thomas Grantham. Walpole.— Founded about the same time. Lynn. — Raised by T. Grantham, about 1689. Ditcheling.— Under N. Webb in 1700. Cheshire. — Nantwich. — Was flourishing in 1688, under S. Acton. Yorkshire. — In 1692, it was agreed by the assembly "that brother Reeves go into Yorkshire, to preach the gospel, plant churches, and set those in order that are there." Sheffield. — There was a society here in 1700. At Leominster, Worcester, and Lichfield, there were churches in 1688. Also at Webstone, Warbledon, and Turner's Hill, near the end of the seventeenth century. There is satisfactory evidence of the existence of a number of General Baptist churches in the adjoining parts of Derbyshire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire, which, at the commencement of the eighteenth century, were in a flourishing state, and held annual associations. The Netherton church-book mentions association meetings at Colten Hall and Netherton. John Eld was " a messenger of the churches."

CONFESSION OF FAITH.

As the unhappy doctrinal dissensions which proved so de- structive to the General Baptist interest will soon come under our notice, it will be proper to exhibit here the principal doctrines of the churches at this period, by extracts from their confessions of faith.

The Deity. — " There are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one."

The death of Christ.— "The Lord Jesus Christ, whom God freely sent into the world, as freely gave himself a ransom for all, tasting death for every man : a propitiation for our sins, and not for our's only but also

for the sins of the whole world So that none shall eternally

suffer in hell for want of a Christ that died for them."

" The Holy Spirit, the precious gift of God, is freely given to such as obey him, that thereby they may be thoroughly sanctified, and made able — without which they are altogether unable — to abide steadfast in the faith, and to honour the Father and his Son Christ."

k2

132 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

Faith. — " The way set forth by God for men to be justified in, is by faith in Christ."

Holiness. — "We verily believe that unless men, professing and prac- tising the primitive form and order of Christ's doctrine, shall also beautify the same by a holy and wise conversation, the profession of the visible form will be rendered of none effect, for without holiness no man shall see the Lord."

The confession of faith from which these extracts are taken was drawn up in 1660, and presented to king Charles II. by Thomas Giantham and Joseph Wright: it was declared to be approved by twenty thousand General Baptists.

AN ORTHODOX CREED.

About 1670, the General Baptists were very numerous in Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, and the counties adjacent. In 1679, the churches in the counties of Bucks, Herts, Bedford, and Oxford, published a declaration of their tenets. This was called "An Orthodox Creed, or a Protestant Confession of Faith : being an essay to unite all true pro- testants in the fundamental articles of the christian religion, against the errors and heresies of the church of Rome." This creed was signed by " fifty-four messengers, elders, and breth- ren of the baptized churches, in behalf of themselves and others to whom they did belong." As Adam Taylor laments that neither Hooke nor Crosby has recorded the names of the subscribers, the list is here presented. It is taken from the edition of the creed published in 1679, 12mo. An extract or two will suffice to prove it to be a General Baptist document : —

Elect ion. — "God has elected all that do or shall believe in Christ." . . . . " hath decreed to punish all those wicked or ungodly, disobedi- ent, and unbelieving or impenitent siuners, that have or shall despise grace.''

Extent of the death of Christ. — "Christ died for all men, and there is a sufficiency in his death and merits for the sins of the whole world .... so that if any do perish, it is not for want of the means of grace manifested by Christ to them, but for the non-improvement of the grace of God offered freely to them through Christ in the gospel."

The following are the subscribers — Thomas Moncke . Will. Giles, sen. Thos. Dell

Stephen Dagnall Will. Giles, jun. John Garrett

Eichard Young John Hendley John Russel

John Truelove John Holan Eich. Bampton

James Fenn Hugh Glenister Will. Glenister,

Joseph Cooper Leonard Wilkins Henry Goss, jun.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

133

William Howes Daniel Cox Nicholas Reynolds Henry Baldwin William Glenester John Carter Henry Goss John Reynolds R. Burname Robert Iony Thomas Headach William Bate

John Hobbs Angel Mantle Robert Catlin John Babb Clement Hunt John Montegue Will. Smart Richard Goodchild Jeffry Wild Robert Fellow Will. Davis Geo. Catheral

John Delafield Timothy Ransome John Darvel Will. Goodchild Nicholas Gaffield Daniel Lucas Joseph Etheridge Robert Goodson William Norman Tho. French John Glenister James Lucas.

For these names, and other valuable information, the compiler is in- debted to the kindness of Mr. James Read, of Ipswich.

MESSENGERS.

As the churches inci eased, they introduced an officer into their system whom they styled a messenger. They remarked that Barnabas, Luke, Timothy, Titus, and some others, were fellow-labourers with the apostles in preaching the gospel and organizing churches ; and that, in various passages, they are designated by a term corresponding with the word messenger : ever attentive to the precedent of scripture, they established what they supposed to be a similar office. Mr. Hooke describes the work of the messenger as being — to plant churches — ordain officers — set in order things that were wanting, in all the churches — to defend the gospel against gainsay ers — and to travel up and down the world to perform their work. The mode of their appointment will be sufficiently explained by the following extract from the Bourne church-book —

"Sept. 6, 1696, the said Joseph Hooke was ordained messenger of the baptized churches in Lincolnshire, at the earnest request of the said churches, with the approbation of the General Assembly at London (before that Assembly was divided about Mr. Caffin's doctrines), with Fasting and Prayer, and laying on of hands, at Spalding, by Mr. Francis Stanley, messenger of the baptized churches in Northamptonshire. By which ordination he hath ever since stood equally related, as a general pastor, to all the churches that own him in this office. Note. — The day of this ordination was appointed by an association at Lincoln, and all the churches related thereunto, by a joint agreement, kept a solemn Fast that day to implore the blessing of God upon the said ordination. And Mr. Stanley preached an excellent sermon at Spalding that day to a great congregation, from 2 Cor. xi. 28, and after that proceeded to ordi- nation as abovesaid."

IMPOSITION OF HANDS.

Towards the commencement of the civil wars was introduced the practice of laying on of hands on those who had been bap-

134 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

tized. This rite soon gained an extensive prevalence, but never appears to have been adopted by all the churches. The difference of opinion respecting it led to much unpleasant altercation.

DISCIPLINE.

The churches were laudably attentive to the character and conduct of members. Regular attendance on the means of grace and at church-meetings was strictly enforced ; a vigilant oversight was maintained of their deportment in their families, in their business, in their connexions in civil society, and even in their recreations. In cases of private offences of one brother against another, they vigorously enforced the mode prescribed in Matt, xviii. 15, 16, 17. They thought that, when the great Head of the church had condescended to give such explicit directions, it was highly presumptuous not to pay a sacred regard to them. When any member discovered that a brother or sister was guilty of a pub- lic offence, as dishonesty, intemperance, &c, he was expected to take the earliest opportunity of stating it to the church : if he neglected this, he was accounted blameworthy. But to guard against frivolous or malicious accusations, the accuser was required to state the charge in writing, signed with his own name : a copy of which was sent to the accused, who was summoned to attend at the next meeting for discipline ; or if the facts were very serious and scandalous, at a special meet- ing held for the purpose of considering them. If the crime was proved, the offender was solemnly excluded : but if he professed penitence and submitted to the decision of the church, after a sufficient time had been given to prove his sincerity, and nothing had transpired inconsistent with his professions, he was re-admitted to communion. I f the offender attended the church-meeting, and justified his conduct in opposition to the decision of his brethren, he was admonished and urged to repent- ance : if he still persisted, he was suspended from all the privi- leges of the church, and the business was postponed till the next meeting. If the accused did not obey the summons and ap- pear in his place at the time appointed, this was considered as an aggravation of guilt : messengers were sent to admonish, to exhort, and to warn him to attend the next meeting. After three admonitions had been sent at proper intervals without effect, the church proceeded to excommunication : thjs was, with them, a very affecting transaction. The elder, by the

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 135

authority of the church, aud in the name of the Lord Jesus, using the apostolic language, solemnly " delivered the offender to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit might be saved in the day of the Lord :" the sentence was accom- panied with serious prayer, and affectionate expostulation with the fallen brother, if present : if he refused to attend, mes- sengers were sent to deliver the sentence to him personally, tendering, at the same time, an admonition to repentance. In all cases of public scandal, it was thought necessary, to vindi- cate the honour of religion, that the separation of an offender from the church should be openly announced to the world in the course of public worship.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY, ASSOCIATION, ETC.

An Association was composed of two or more representa- tives, elected by the churches in a certain district. These meet- ings probably took their rise during the civil wars, as assemblies were frequent under the protectorate. To effect a more general co-operation, occasional meetings were held, usually in London, which were styled General Assemblies. They were composed of representatives from the various associations, and from such churches as chose to send deputies: who might be either ministers or private brethren. The doctrinal disputes which afterwards distracted the body gave rise to the General Association, formed by the party who seceded from the General Assembly. " It is not easy to ascertain the number of [district] associations into which the General Baptists were divided ... we have discovered traces of the Buckingham- shire, the Cambridgeshire, the Dorsetshire, the Isle of Ely, the Kentish, the Lincolnshire, the London, the Northampton- shire, the Western, and the Wiltshire Associations. These all existed at the close of the seventeenth century."

FIFTH-MONARCHY MEN.

We now resume the history. — May 29, 16f>0, 1660 Charles II. entered London in triumph. Episcopacy was in a few months reinstated in its former authority, and the persecuting statutes resumed their power. The justices of the peace in several counties, presuming on the support of government, began to harass the nonconformists : and it was not long before an event happened which furnished a pretext for proceeding to greater severities. An opinion was held by

136 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

some individuals that Christ was about to descend and reign personally over all nations for a thousand years : this expected government of the Messiah they called the fifth monarchy — hence they obtained the name of " Fifth-monarchy men." Ven- ner, their leader, with fifty followers, sallied out armed on Lord's- day, Jan. 6, 1661, and killed a man in the street. Soldiers were sent to apprehend the fanatics, and a number of them were barbarously executed. This mad attempt furnished a pretence for proceeding against the nonconformists. Jan. 10, a proclamation was issued, by which anabaptists, quakers, and fifth-monarchy men were forbidden to assemble for worship: peace-officers were commanded to search for conventicles and cause persons found there to be bound over to the sessions. The nonconformists, finding themselves thus stigmatized as dangerous members of society, thought it proper to vindicate their character and profession, and publicly disown any know- ledge or sanction of Venner's insurrection. This was done by the baptists, independents, and quakers, respectively, in apolo- gies addressed to their rulers and fellow- subjects. The bap- tists suffered more than any other party on this occasion ; though Venner is said to have declared " that he believed there was not one baptist among his adherents; and that, if they succeeded, the baptists should know that infant baptism was an ordinance of Jesus Christ."

LAWS AFFECTING DISSENTERS.

Corporation Act. — In a few months the Corporation Act was passed, which, among other severities, required that all persons chosen to office iu corporations, should have received the Lord's supper according to the rites of the church of England, within one year before their election. This act excluded nonconformists from civil offices.

Act of Uniformity. — This act received the royal assent, Aug. 24, 1662, and required from all professors, ministers, schoolmasters, &c, an un- feigned assent and consent to all and everything contained in the church prayer-book. The effects of this rigorous measure were felt by all parties. It exposed the dissenting ministers, and teachers, to fines and imprisonment if they ventured to worship God after the dictates of their own consciences: and it deprived the church of England of more' than two thousand useful and pious ministers.

Conventicle Act. 1 — The following year the Conventicle Act was passed. By this all persons refusing to come to church were condemned to banishment ; and in case of return, to death : it forbade any person above sixteeu years of age to be present at any religious meeting, in any other manner than is allowed by the liturgy of the church of England.— This law pressed hard upon the hearers.

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Five-mile Act. — In 1665 this act was passed, which prohibited, under severe penalties, any minister from coming within five miles of any city or corporation, unless he took an oath never to oppose the king, nor, at any time, endeavour to effect any alteration in church or state.

These were the statutes under which the dissenters groaned during this despotic period, and the infliction of the penalties by which these laws were sanctioned, entailed on noncon- formists the most grievous sufferings.

APPEALS TO THE KING.

Before the insurrection of Venner, the General Baptists began to be harassed by their enemies; finding no redress upon applying to the magistrates of the county, the Lincoln- shire brethren resolved to appeal to the king. 1660 Thomas Grantham and Joseph Wright obtained an audience of his majesty in 1660, and placed in his hands an address and a brief confession of faith. The king received them with complaisance, and promised that he would have special care over them and that none should in future molest them. But the rash proceeding of Venner supplied a plausible pretence for withdrawing all indulgence from sectaries; the baptists became the subjects of peculiar odium. The General Baptists in Lincolnshire, in London, in Kent, and other parts, addressed the king repeatedly in vindication of their character and principles.

PROTEST AGAINST INTERFERNCE IN RELIGION.

The government manifesting a strong disposition to adopt the most intolerant principles of the papists, the principal General Baptist ministers published an address to 1662 the king, parliament, and people, to oppose the prin- ciple on which all public persecution is founded — the right of the magistrate to impose anything in the worship or service of God. In this address they state their willingness to yield active obedience to such commands of the king as do not oppose the scriptures of truth. But they observe, " we have here written some arguments, which we humbly offer to all men, to prove how contrary to the gospel of our Lord Jesus and to good reason it is, for any magistrate by outward force, to impose anything in the worship of God, on the consciences of those whom they govern." A brief summary of their argu- ments may be interesting. The power to impose anything in

138 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

the worship or service of God cannot, they say, belong to the magistrate, as such, because — 1. If all magistrates have the power, heathen magistrates have it: and, therefore, the sub- jects must be papists, Turks, &c, in different countries. 2. No such power is given by Christ in the New Testament. 3. The apostles refused to obey their rulers in things pertain- ing to religion. 4. The directions in scripture which enjoin obedience to magistrates, referred to heathen powers. 5. If magistrates had this power, all religion would consist in obey- ing them, and persecution must cease. 6. The wise Gallio thought otherwise (x4cts xviii. 12). The authors conclude with a request that they might have the privilege of a public dispute between themselves and the members of the establish- ment in the presence of the king.

MILITARY OUTRAGES.

Unhappily these sentiments of the General Baptists did not prevail. Persecution in all its various forms visited 1662 the conscientious nonconformists. The enemies of all religion, incited by the seventy of the laws, took the opportunity to vex and spoil their innocent neighbours. Soldiers were sent into different parts of the country to disarm the dissenters and break up their meetings. Some troops em- ployed on this business in Lincolnshire, under the pretence of searching for arms, rifled the houses of the General Baptists ; and though they found no arms, pillaged their goods. They apprehended Thomas Grantham and several others, and made them run by the side of their horses from one town to another, refusing to inform them whither they intended to take them, or to what punishment they were destined. When night overtook them they put up at an inn, and confined their prisoners in a very incommodious room, tying them up so that they could take no rest. When brought before the magistrates, attempts were made to ensnare them into self-crimina- tion. Finding this did not succeed, the magistrates tendered them the oaths and demanded whether they would conform to the establishment. This the prisoners explicitly refused to do : Mr. Grantham; Mr. Gree, and Mr. Green, w r ere sent to the common gaol. Similar outrages were committed in other parts of the kingdom : ministers were apprehended by the soldiers while preaching the gospel — individuals were, arrested in the streets while going about their lawful concerns — others

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 139

were dragged out of their beds at midnight. And all this violence was often committed by the military without even a warrant from the magistrates.

THE GOVERNOR OF DEAL CASTLE A GENERAL BAPTIST.

Notwithstanding the danger to which the preachers

1663 of the gospel were exposed, they continued their labours with persevering faithfulness ; even proclaim- ing their tidings in the open air. Mr. Prescott, pastor of the church at Dover, was preaching in a field, and captain Tavernor, at that time governor of Deal castle, was led by curiosity to conceal himself behind a hedge. In this singular situation he heard the message of salvation : the truth of Mr. Prescott's doctrine so powerfully convinced his understanding that he became a convert to the baptist faith, into which he was bap- tized in 1663. Two years after, he resigned his commission as governor of Deal castle, became a General Baptist preacher, and was for many years the faithful pastor of the church at Dover. Mr. Tavernor suffered much on account of his nonconformity ; he was not only frequently taken from the meeting-house while preaching and had before the magistrates, but in several instances was harassed by warrants to take away his goods.

GENERAL BAPTISTS CONDEMNED TO DEATH.

The town and neighbourhood of Aylesbury, Bucks, drank deep of the cup of persecution. In 1664, having

1664 filled the county gaol with dissenters, the magistrates hired two large houses which they converted into pri- sons for their reception : not content with imprisoning their persons and conGscating their goods, they attempted to take away their lives. Among others, twelve General Baptists were apprehended while assembled for worship — one of whom was Stephen Dagnall, their minister. Having been convicted under the conventicle act, they were confined three months in prison, and then brought before the quarter sessions. The magistrates required them either to conform to the church of England and take the oaths, or quit the kingdom. The prisoners unanimously declared they could neither conform to the church nor abjure their native country and relations, and must therefore throw themselves on the mercy of the court. They were then adjudged guilty of felony, and sentence of

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death was passed upon them. Officers were sent to their houses to seize what little property they possessed, as forfeited to the crown. Mr. W. Kiffin, a Particular Baptist minister, of London, who had some influence at court, laid the case before lord chancellor Hyde. The king was made acquainted with the whole affair, and though he had only a few months before given his consent to the very act under which they were con- victed, eagerly inquired whether there was any law in force that could authorize such a procedure ! Being satisfied that there was, he promised a pardon, and gave proper orders to the chancellor. A reprieve was immediately sent: the prisoners were confined till the next assizes, when the judge brought down his majesty's pardon, and they were all released.

JEREMIAH IVES AND THE PRIEST.

Jeremiah Ives, pastor of the church in Old 16 70 Jewry, maintained many controversies with the paedobaptists. King Charles II. heard of his skill in disputation and wished to hear a discussion. He sent for Mr. Ives, and desiring him to disguise himself in the habit of a clergyman, introduced a Romish priest ; he then commanded them to dispute the merits of their respective churches. The priest opened the debate with a panegyric on the antiquity of the church of Rome. Mr. Ives replied at large, and argued, that whatever antiquity the papists might claim, yet, as their doc- trines and practices could not be found in the New Testament, they could not be of apostolic or divine origin. The priest, unable to answer his reasoning, thought to silence him by an appeal to his own practice ; and told him that his argument would apply with equal force to infant baptism as to any of the catholic doctrines. To this Mr. Ives replied, that the obser- vation was just ; and therefore infant baptism was as ground- less as they. At hearing this the priest broke up the confer- ence, with no small indignation at the trick which had been played upon him : as he now discovered, that, instead of a clergyman of the church of England, he had been disputing with an anabaptist.

MAN-TAKERS.

Besides exposure to the violence of the soldiery, informers

of the most abandoned character were openly

1 680 encouraged by the. magistrates to hunt for the.persons

and property of those who ventured to meet for

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worship, though in the most private and inoffensive manner. Mr. G. Hammond, pastor of the church at Biddenden, Kent, had engaged to preach at a distant place : on his way thither he was overtaken by a violent storm, and took shelter under a tree on the side of the road. While there, a stranger from an opposite house, mistaking him for a person of a different character, called out to him, saying, " I am an informer : I hear there is to be a meeting to-night at such a place, and I am going to give infoimation against the persons assembled." Mr. Hammond, on hearing him name the place at which he was going to preach, instantly replied, " I am a man- taker also, and am going to the same meeting." "Are you so ?" said the informer, " then we will go together and share the spoil." They proceeded to the place of meeting, where the hearers were already assembled. After sitting for some time, Mr. Hammond said to his companion, " Here are the people, but where is the minister ? unless there is a minister, we can never make a conventicle of it. I propose, therefore, that either you or I preach." Upon the other declining it, Mr. Hammond said, " Then I must :" to the great surprise of his new associate, he preached with such energy and effect, that the informer laid aside his profession and became an honest man.

PERSECUTING PRIESTS.

The clergy also took an active part in persecution. A nar- rative was drawn up by Thomas Grantham, probably about 1685, entitled " The Baptist's complaint against the Persecut- ing Priests," &c. After acknowledging the worth of some of the clergy of the established church, they complain of the per- secuting spirit of others who sought their utter ruin, and incited magistrates to persecute them, notwithstanding they had faithfully endeavoured to obtain peace and brotherly kindness with the ministers of the church of England. "We have borne," they observe, " the unkind usage of many of our countrymen, and of persecuting priests in particular, for more than thirty years." Nor was this spirit confined to the inferior clergy : Dr. Gunning, bishop of Chichester, especially signal- ized himself by his zeal. Many of his episcopal brethren were content privately to encourage the informers; but the bishop of Chichester marched in person at the head of a troop of police officers, to disperse the meetings of the schismatics ; if the doors were closed, he would courageously order them to be

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broken open with sledges, which once gave occasion to a wag in the crowd to exclaim, "What! has Peter lost his keys ?" On one occasion the bishop seated himself on the bench with the justices at the quarter sessions, to see that no undue lenity was shewn to the offenders against the laws of the church.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CHURCHES.

During this gloomy period, some of the churches were troubled by dissensions lespecting laying on hands: but in general they enjoyed internal peace and christian harmony. In Lincolnshire, they not only maintained their ground, but increased in numbers and order. In the records of Fenstanton church it is observed at the close of 1661 — "The church is in very good order, blessed be God, and uphold their meetings through evil report and good report." In 1683, they remark, " This year presents us with great rumours of troubles abroad : the meetings in London broken up and brethren haled to prison : yet this noise doth not trouble us with fear, for we are all content to suffer for Christ, knowing it is the lot of the righteous, not only to believe but to suffer for his sake." Again, 1684 — " Notwithstanding the aforesaid rather increases than abates, the brethren are zealous for the faith and increase in number, there being some added to the church, and continue in the apostles' doctrine, in breaking of bread and prayer, with preaching from house to house, not being permitted to preach in our meeting-houses." The ministers were affectionate! v attentive to the interests of their flocks : it is recorded of Joseph Wright, pastor of the church at Maidstone, Kent, that he was confined for twenty years in Maidstone gaol; during this imprisonment he diligently watched over the interests of the churches. Nor were the members less anxious to enjoy their spiritual privileges. Respecting the General Baptists at Dover, a contemporary writer observes — " They met with so much secrecy that it was hard to know either time or place — sometimes at one part of the town, sometimes at another, and sometimes in the country — one while at five o'clock in the morning, and another while in the evening, and at uncertain hours of the day."

JOHN MILTON A GENERAL BAPTIST.

On the tenth of November, 1674, died John Milton. This illustrious man was a General Baptist, at least in theory^though it is not ascertained whether he ever joined a General Baptist

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 143

church. A manuscript written in latin by Milton, was found in the state paper office, and printed by order of George IV., in 182-5. In this body of divinity, the author ably and clearly advocates believers' baptism, and defends universal atonement. His third wife attended the General Baptist meeting-house at Xantwich, in Cheshire, and was probably a member of the society there during the latter part of her life ; as Mr. Kimber, the pastor, preached a funeral sermon at her death, which is still extant in a volume of sermons published by that minister.

THE VICTIMS OF DESPOTISM.

James II. ascended the throne in 1685, as an avowed papist. The ill-concerted rebellion of the duke of Mon- mouth furnished him with a pretext for attempting to crush the opponents of popery and arbitrary power, and the dis- senters were persecuted with ten-fold fury. Many good men left England and sought refuge in America and other countries.

The period from the restoration to the revolution pre- sents a fearful pictuie of sufferings. It has been com- puted that during the reigns of Charles II. and James II. — a period of about twenty-eight years — 70,000 persons suffered on account of religion, and twelve millions of pounds were paid in fines and levies.* James "occa- sioned about eight thousand persons to perish in prison, or by other means, for the sole crime of dissenting from the church of England. "f "Mis. Gaunt was an anabap- tist, noted for her beneficence, which she extended to persons of all professions and persuasions." Having sheltered one of the rebels who had recourse to her in his distress, " he betrayed his benefactress and bore evidence against her. He received a pardon as a recompense for his treachery ; she was burned alive for her charity." %

The baptists, says Sir James Mackintosh, ■' suffered more than any other under Charles II. because they had publicly professed the principles of religious liberty." The foregoing pages present examples of some of the kinds of sufferings to which some of these pious men were exposed. Thomas Grantham, of Lincolnshire, was imprisoned ten times — Jeremiah Ives lay in prison fourteen years — John Griffiths, of Dunning's-alley, spent in the whole " fourteen years in

* The Mansion-house of the city of London was built with money collected by fines levied on dissenters.

t Jones. t Hume.

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sufferings, bonds, and imprisonments for his Lord" — Mr. Caffin, of Horsham, was five times committed to prison — John Miller, of Minthenton, Dorsetshire, lay ten years in confine- ment — Joseph Wright, of Maidstone, Kent, was confined in Maidstone gaol twenty years — John Kelsey, of Kirton-in- Lindsey, lay in Nottingham gaol seventeen years.

REMARKABLE DELIVERANCES.

The history of the General Baptists during the persecution presents some instances of remarkable deliverance, from which we select two : — Several of the members of the church at Chatham were apprehended and put on board of a ship to be transported to America. But the wind shifted and detained them in port so long, that the captain began to suspect he should not be able to proceed on his voyage while they con- tinued on board : he, therefore, landed the baptists, and the wind immediately shifting in his favour, he made sail and left them. — The magistrates of Seven Oaks, one Lord's-day, sent the police officers to the meeting at Bradburn : the officers seized all the men in the congregation and carried them to Seven Oaks, where they were detained in custody all night. In the morning when the justices were assembled, they sent for the prisoners ; and after some conversation with them dis- missed them all. With hearts full of wonder and gratitude, the men returned to the meeting-house to unite in giving thanks to God for this unexpected deliverance. When they arrived there, to their surprise and joy, they found the women still assembled ; who had not left the house, but had spent the whole night and morning in fasting and prayer to God on their behalf.

PROSPERITY IN AFFLICTION.

A brief review of the state of the denomination during this gloomy period, will furnish cause for admiring the good- ness and power of the Lord, in preserving and extending his own cause, while the powers of this world were exert- ing all their strength for its destruction. In Lincoln- shire and the adjacent counties, new churches were planted, and the old ones continued to flourish. The apostolic Thomas Grantham was still actively employed in promoting that cause for which he had so long laboured and suffered : his efforts were effectually aided by many promising young ministers who had grown up under his care and imbibed his

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spirit. John Denne and his associates in the counties of Cambridge and Huntingdon ; Thomas Monck and many assiduous fellow-labourers in Buckinghamshire and its vicinity; Francis Stanley and Benjamin Morley, with a number of zeal- ous coadjutors in Northamptonshire; were all diligently and successfully engaged, in their respective circles, in advancing the same interest. In London, the congregations had increased in numbers and order, and were well supplied with ministers. Though Messrs. Lamb, H. Denne, Gosnold, Barber, Love- day, and Clayton, had been called to their reward, their places were well filled by Messrs. Plant, Jennings, Maulden, Russell, Marnor, White, Kirby, and others. The veterans Morecock, Wright, and Tavernor, were still effectually employed in water- ing the numerous societies in Kent, and in planting new ones ; and an encouraging group of young ministers, trained up under their influence, stood ready to assist their efforts and enter into their labours. In the southern counties the churches were numerous and flourishing. Indeed at the accession of William III., the General Baptists appear to have reached the summit of their prosperity ; " it is almost certain that the General Baptists were then more numerous than the other section of the body," their numbers being supposed to have exceeded thirty thousand.

SECTION IV. DECLINE OF THE CONNEXION.

ACT OF TOLERATION.

William III. was declared king Feb. 13, 1689; a law was soon enacted in favour of dissenters which has generally been distinguished by the appellation of the " Act of tolera- tion." By this act a legal termination was put to the persecu- tion of nonconformists : some respect was shown for the rights of conscience; and dissenters obtained liberty to worship God without exposing themselves to civil penalties.

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ELEMENTS OF DECAY. — MATTHEW CAFF1N.

For some years after the cessation of persecution, some of the churches continued to flourish: in many others it soon became evident that the leaven of corruption was operating. The disputes respecting the laying on of hands proved injuri- ous to some extent: but the great cause of dissension was the introduction of unscriptural doctrines. Mr. Matthew Caffin, pastor of the church at Horsham, Sussex, was the chief supporter of these doctrines : a minister eminent for his diligence, success, and suffering, in the General Baptist cause. Mr. J. Wright, of Maidstone, perceiving the destruc- tive tendency of the principles of Mr. Caffin, preferred a charge against him at the general assembly, of denying both the humanity and divinity of the Saviour. The assembly after hearing Mr. Caffin's defence, acquitted him of the charge and censured Mr. Wright for want of charity. The 1693 charge was again preferred in 1693; when "by far the greater part of the assembly voted that Mr. Caffin was not guilty of the matters charged against him :" but at the same time resolved " that the opinions ascribed to Mr. Caffin were heresies." The proceedings of this assembly were so much disapproved by some of its members, that a " Protest" against them was published, signed by sixteen "messengers, elders, and brethren, representatives of several congregations in divers parts of the nation." The assembly then adjourned for three years. It is worthy of remark, that through the whole of these unhappy dissensions, all parties agreed in considering the denial of the divinity or humanity of Christ a dangerous error : the questions at issue were, whether Mr. Caffin was guilty of holding the errors imputed to him, and whether it was lawful to hold communion with such as explained themselves on these subjects in the manner in which he and his friends did.

THE BODY DIVIDED.

The assembly met in 1696, and the subject was resumed. The majority adhered to their former decision, when the " Protesters" seceded from the assembly and resolved to hold an annual meeting, to which they gave the name of " The General Association." The first meeting was held in London May 12, 1697. In 1699, this association

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addressed a long letter to the churches which they esteemed sound in the faith : stating the reasons and design of their separation from the general assembly. Several other churches joined the seceders this year: but many, unwilling to make a breach till every effort had been made to procure redress, waited the issue of the trial which the general assem- bly had promised to institute in 1 700. In that year 1700 the assembly met: an " expedient," as a ground of reunion, was offered to the association, but was 1 ejected as obscure and ambiguous : neither party being disposed to give way, nothing was done. A reconciliation between the two associated bodies was effected in 1704 : but in a few years they again separated, and the asso- ciation was resumed. The association at this time con- sisted chiefly of the churches in White's-alley, and that under Dr. Russell, in London — Deptford and Ashford, in Kent — Rainham and Brainford, in Essex — Wilbrun, in Cam- bridgeshire — Aylesbury, Cuddington, and Berkhampstead, in Buckinghamshire — and the Northamptonshire churches. The struggle continued until those ministers who had been raised up under Grantham, Stanley, and their associates were called to their reward : when that laxity of principle which had too evidently leavened the general assembly at the close of the seventeenth century, gained the ascendancy.

DAN TAYLOR ON THE DECAY OF THE CHURCHES.

The following extract from Dan Taylor's letters to Gilbert Boyce on this subject is interesting and important —

"In the last century (the seventeenth) the General Baptists almost universally maintained that the death of Christ for the sins of men, was the only foundation of a sinner's hope. And what was the state of the General Baptist cause then ? Their churches were numerous and many of them were large: the zeal and piety of the ministers and people were celebrated, and the pleasure of the Lord prospered in their hands. Towards the latter end of the century, the sentiments of Arius and Socinus were countenanced by some of their leaders. Others were alarmed at this : their zeal for the doctrines of the gospel was raised ; they preached and wrote with vigour and earnestness, and insisted that Christ atoned for the sins of men, and that none can be saved but through that atonement. These were calumniated and aspersed as defective in charity: too many of them yielded so far as to trim and temporize, and to treat these fundamental doctrines of the gospel as if they were matters of indifference. Consequently, they were but seldom preached; and when they were mentioned, even by those who still maintained them, it was rather in a way of controversy, as their opinions ; not as the only

l2

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foundation on which the everlasting all of man depends. The people too much lost sight of these all-important doctrines, and the relish for them gradually dwindled. Carnality and conformity to the world pre- vailed in the then existing members of churches. The gospel, the great mean of conversion, being nearly laid aside, others could not possibly be converted by their miuistry. And thus one church after another came to nothing; and a great number of their meeting-houses were lost or converted to other uses, in almost every part of the nation. In a word they degraded Jesus Christ and he degraded them."

CAUSE OF THE DECLINE.

There can be no doubt that the errors introduced into the Connexion related to those doctrines which are generally con- sidered to be fundamental. In the letter of the assembly already alluded to, it is stated — " in vain is it for you to sepa- rate from such as err about the subjects and manner of bap- tism, if at the same time you maintain communion with here- tics and idolaters, as those must needs be who deny the deity of the Son of God, and the immensity and omnipresence of the Divine Essence." It is equally apparent that the Arian and Socinian errors gained an extensive prevalence towards the middle of the eighteenth century, and proved awfully destruc- tive to the churches in various counties. In the old church- book at Earl Shilton is the following entry, which appears to be a " case" presented to the Leicestershire association, com- posed of six or seven churches. — " The Case. Whether the elder of this church is justifiable in declining to act as an elder in the church at Leicester; when that church has imbibed heretical doctrines contrary to the true doctrines of Christ, and denies some of the essential doctrines of the gospel." Answer. "It is the unanimous opinion of this association that he is justifiable." Of Northamptonshire, Mr. John Stanger, of Bessell's Green, remarks, in a paper written about 1790 and published in the Baptist Magazine in 1844 — " By what 1 can learn, the General Baptists in Northamptonshire, about the time of my grandfather, were in a flourishing state .... at present the General Baptist interest in that county is nearly or quite extinct. Their declension in principles and preach- ing proved the annihilation of the denomination." In Kent, the church at Eythorne was sinking under the withering in- fluence of Socinianism, but the leaven was happily expelled : that at Dover is still professedly unitarian in sentiment. The Particular Baptist church-book, Mill bay, Folkestone, records

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that — u In 1728, Mr. G. Green, minister, with Messrs. Jenkvn Hague, James Boxer, and Henry Bayley, left the General Baptist church meeting at Hythe and Folkestone, on account of their denying the divinity of Christ and other im- portant doctrines of the gospel, and united with Mr. and Mrs. John Stace and Mr. Johu Bayley in the attempt to establish the cause of Christ in this town." In 1844, not a single member of that once extensive society could be discovered either at Hythe or Folkestone ; the only visible memorial of its existence was the old meeting-house, then occupied as a school- room by the Wesleyans. So closely was Socinianism identified with the old G. B. churches in these parts, that the intelligent independent minister at Hythe entertained the opinion that the body was originally and continuously of that faith. And when, about the year 1838, the writer visited Kent, after re- siding two years with General Baptists in Leicestershire, he was asked by an aged christian, " have they made a Socinian of you yet ?" With many, a General Baptist and a Socinian were synonimous. It is, alas ! too painfully evident that this deadly heresy wrought the ruin of the Old Connexion : God grant that the mournful fact may be a lasting and efficient warning to the New Connexion !

A REMNANT.

The churches that adhered to the Lincolnshire association in 1771, were Coningsby, Fleet, Gosberton, Knipton, Monks- thorpe, and Tetney : Boston having joined in forming the New Connexion, and Spalding having scarcely an existence. An association was held in Leicestershire, which, in 1762, was composed of the churches at Leicester— Earl Shilton — Smeeton — Wymeswould — Knipton and Mountsorrel and elsewhere — Coventry. After the year 1762, the name of Coventry dis- appears: the other churches continued to hold an annual asso- ciation until 1776. In London but two churches have per- petuated the ancient faith — Tower Hill, and the Park church. A few churches in other counties afterwards joined the New Connexion, which will be noticed in their places. Of others it may be observed, that many became Particular Baptist churches : almost all the old baptist churches in Essex are of General Baptist foundation; the same may be said of many in Kent, Northamptonshire, and other counties. The society at Moulton, of which the immortal Carey became minister,

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was a General Baptist church. Of those in Northamptonshire, Mr. Stanger, observes — " They declined gradually, and'as they declined, more evangelical preaching took place, and Particular Baptist churches became established on the ruins of the others." In 1844, there were only twenty-six churches connected with the General Assembly : the members amounted to 559, and the congregations averaged fifty-six to each place of wor- ship. These hold unitarian sentiments. "How are the mighty fallen !"

AN OBITUARY.

We present here short biographical notices of some of the principal General Baptist ministers of the seventeenth century ; with the titles of as many of their published works as we have been able to obtain.

John Smyth was descended from a respectable family : he enjoyed a liberal education, was a fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and a popular preacher in the University. (See page 103.) He settled at Amsterdam, where he formed a church in 1607 or 1608. He was very successful and laborious as a minister, but was spared only a few years longer to prosecute his great designs for the spread of the genuine truths of the gospel: he was called to his reward about 1610. The celebrated Roger Williams published, in 1644, a correspondence between himself and Mr. Cotton, an independent minister who had greatly encouraged the persecution against him in America. Mr. Cotton had published a letter in which he observed— " Sad and woful is the memory of Mr. Smyth's strong consolations on his death-bed, which is set as a seal to his gross and damnable arminianism and enthusiasm, delivered in the confession of his faith prefixed to the story of his life and death." Gn this uncharitable reflection, the honest Roger Williams, though a steady calvinist, candidly remarked — " To that which pertaineth to Mr. Smyth, although I knew him not, and have heard of many points in which my conscience tells me that it pleased the Lord to leave him to himself; yet I have heard by some whose testimony Mr. Cotton will not easily refute, that he was a man fearing God. And 1 am sure that Mr. Cotton hath made use of some of those principles and arguments on which Mr. Smyth and others went, concerning the constitution of the church." From this correspondence we learn two very important facts — one, that Mr. Smyth retained his distinguishing sentiments even on his death-bed ; the other, that under the undiminished influence of these sentiments he enjoyed strong consolation in the immediate prospect oJ eternity. The personal character of Mr. Smyth appears to have been uniformly honourable and consistent with his christian profession. He was an able preacher, and a man of considerable learning. Works. — Parallels, Censures, and Observations on a Letter written to R. Bernard, on Mr. Bernard's book-called "The Separatist's Schism, and on the answer to that book by H. Ainsworth." 1609. — The Character

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of the Beast. 1609. — Differences of the Churches of the Separation. — A Dialogue of Baptism. — A Reply to Mr. Clifton's Christian Plea.

Thomas Helwisse was a member of the church of separatists in Holland: there he was esteemed a man of eminent faith and charity, possessing excellent spiritual gifts. When Mr. Smyth raised the con- troversy about baptism, Mr. H. became one of his disciples and was bap- tized by him. After Mr. Smyth's death he became pastor of the church, and returned with it to England. He died about 1620. Works. — A Proof that God's decree is not the cause of man's sin or con- demnation; ami that all men are redeemed by Christ, and that no infants are condemned. 1611. — Admonition to the congregation called the New Frylers. 1611. — An advertisement to the congregation in the Low Countries ; wherein are handled four principal points of religion. 1611. — A Declaration of the Mystery of Iniquity. 1612. — Persecution for Religion judged and condemned (?) 1615. — A plain and well- grounded Treatise concerning Baptism. 1618.

John Mobton was another of Mr. Smyth's disciples. He came to England, was a zealous and popular preacher in the city of London, and a sufferer in the cause of nonconformity. He probably succeeded Mr. Helwisse. Work. — Truth's Champion.

Thomas Lamb, pastor of the church in Bell-alley, was a zealous and active minister of the gospel : in 1647, one of his opponents states " that his congregation was by far the largest and most fruitful of all the anabaptist churches." His character stood high among his con- temporaries ; among whom he was prominent as the intrepid and steady friend of religious liberty. His death is placed in 1672. Works. — A Treatise on Predestination. 1642. — Confutation of Infant Baptism. 1643. — The Fountain of Free Grace opened.— Absolute Freedom from Sin. 1656. Dedicated to Oliver Cromwell.

Henby Denne was educated at Cambridge, and left the university in 1630. Entering into orders, he obtained the living of Pyrton in Hert- fordshire, where he laboured for about ten years. In 1643, he was bap- tized and joined the church in Bell-alley. He was a man of decision and zeal, and entered waraily into the views of that society. His mode of preaching was persuasive and affectionate. Mr. Disborough declared that Mr. Denne was the ablest man in all England for prayer, expound- ing, and preaching. His labours were very abundant, and resulted in the formation of many churches. He died about 1661. The following epitaph was written by a clergyman of his acquaintance, and placed over his grave —

" To tell his wisdom, learning, goodness, unto men, I need to say no more but — Here lies Henry Denne."

Works. — The doctrine and conversation of John the Baptist, a visitation sermon. 1642.— The foundation of Children's Baptism discovered and rased: an answer to Dr. Featley and Mr. Marshall. 1645. — The man of sin discovered, whom the Lord will destroy at the brightness of his coming. 1645.— The Drag Net of the Kingdom of Heaven, or

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Christ drawing all men. 1646. — The Leveller's Design discovered. 1649. — A Contention for truth ; in two public disputations at St. Clement's church, between Dr. Gunning and Henry Denne concerning infant baptism. 1658. — Grace, Mercy, and Truth. Reprinted in 1796.

Henry Adis was pastor of a small society in London, in 1660: he

seems to have endured much persecution.

Works. — The symptoms of ruin. 1648. — A Cup for the city and her adherents. — A Spie for Justice, sent out of the Chambers of the Fleet Prison, a Poem. -A Fanatick's Mite cast into the King's Treasury. 1659. — A Fanatick's Address, humbly presented to the king and his peers, by Henry Adis, a baptized believer, undergoing the name of a Freewiller. 1661. — A Fanatick's Alarm given to the Mayor in his Quarters. 2nd edition. 1661. — A Fanatick's Letter sent out of the Dungeon of the Gate House Prison of Westminster, to all his brethren of the three nations. 1660. — A Fanatick's Testimony against Swear- ing. 1661.

William Jeffery was born in 1616. (See page 120.) It cannot be ascertained when he became a baptist : he was an eminent defender of their cause in 1644. He died in a good old age. Work.— The Whole Faith of Man. Second edition. 1659.

William Britten was born in Northamptonshire in 1608, and afterwards took orders in the national church. "In the year 1630," he observes, " 1 remember an old minister in the county used to inveigh much against infant sureties .... by degrees, I was almost persuaded to be a baptist." At length he embraced the truth, but his subsequent history is not known. Work. — The Moderate Baptist. 18mo. 1654. By William Britten,

minister of the gospel. This work contains some good criticisms on

those texts which seem to favour Calvinism, and proves the author to

have been a learned man.

Edward Barber was founder and pastor of the church at the Spital, Bishopsgate-street: he laboured zealously in spreading the gospel in country places, especially in Kent; and was esteemed a leader among the General Baptists. The exact date of his death is not known, but was, pro- bably, about 1674. He was imprisoned in 1641, for publishing a book in which he asserted that " our Lord Christ appointed dipping, and that the sprinkling of children is not according to Christ's institution."

John Gosnold gathered the church in Paul's-alley, Barbican. In early life he was chaplain to lord Grey; after embracing General Bap- tist sentiments, he retained the friendship of many of his former asso- ciates, especially of Dr. Tillotson, with whom he maintained great inti- macy. He was a pious and practical preacher, and was called to his reward in 1678. Works. — The Doctrine of Baptisms. — On laying on of hands.

Samuel Loveday presided over the church at Tower-hill. Edwardsi calls him " a learned, pious, and very serious minister of the gospel." He died, probably, in 1685.

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 153

John Cla-jton gathered the church at Shad Thames, Southwark, over which he presided with faithfulness until his death in 1689.

John Griffith formed the church in Dunning's-alley, and continued to preside over it until his death in 1700. He had been devoted to God for upwards of three-score years ; and was pastor of that church upwards of fifty years, fourteen of which he spent in prison. Works.— A Complaint of the oppressed against the oppressor. 1661. —

Two discourses— " God's Oracle and Christ's Doctrine;" and "A

Treatise touching falling from grace."

Jeremiah Ives. Mr. Crosby says — " He was well-beloved, and bore a fair character to his dying day," which probably occurred in 1675. Works. — Infant Baptism disproved. 1655.— Confidence questioned- 1657. — Confidence encountered; or a Vindication of the lawfulness of preaching without ordination. 1658. — Saturday no Sabbath ; being an account of two public disputations. 1659. — Contention for Truth . two disputations with Mr. Danson concerning Perseverance and Apostacy. 1672.

Dr. William Russell was pastor of the church at High Hall, near West Smithfield, and celebrated for the discussions in which he was engaged. In 1663, he published a piece against the Sabbatarians; and in 1676, an epistle concerning baptism. (See paga 127.)

George Hammond was pastor of the church at Biddenden, Kent, about forty years. He was a man of a superior character, and contended earnestly for the truth, maintaining controversies with several clergymen. His death occurred about 1680, at Haseldon Wood, Cranbrook. Works. — Dagon's Downfall. — A Discovery of the latitude of the loss of the earthly paradise by the original sin. 1655. — Sion's redemption discovered. 1655. — Sion's Redemption, and Original Sin, vindicated. 1658. — Sion's Redemption redeemed. — Truth and Innocency prevail- ing against Error and Inconsistency. — The Good Ancient Laws and Statutes of King Jesus. 1658. — Annotations on the ninth chapter to the Romans.

Joseph Wright was a messenger of the churches in Lincolnshire, but left that county soon after the restoration, and became pastor of the church at Maidstone, Kent, over which he presided until he was re- moved by death in 1703. He was a diligent and successful preacher ; and tradition says he was once mayor of Maidstone.

— Morecock was pastor of the church at Chatham. He commenced preaching before he resigned his commission as captain of a man-of- war ; and frequently ascended the pulpit at Chatham in his scarlet roquelaure. He was a consistent and zealous supporter of the General Baptist cause. He died in 1693.

Richard Hobbs was pastor of the church at Dover. He was much respected, and died about 1673. Work. — The Quaker's looking-glass looked upon: in answer to Luke

Howard's Looking-Glass for the Baptists. 1673.

154 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS

Samuel Tavernor was ordained elder of the church at Dover in 1681. He was appointed by Oliver Cromwell governor of Deal castle in 1653 ; but resigned the commission when he became a General Baptist. He laboured faithfully and diligently in the cause until 1696, when he entered into rest.

Thomas Grantham was born in the year 1634, and chosen pastor of the church in South Marsh in 1656, when only twenty-two years of age. In 1666, he was ordained to the important office of messenger; in which capacity he laboured diligently and successfully, and was the great support and ornament of the Saviour's cause. He died Jan. 17, 1692, having, within two minutes of his death, delivered a striking and solemn address to those who were witnessing his departure to his rest. As reports were circulated that the enemies of this eminent man threatened to abuse his corpse, the Rev. J. Connould, clergyman, of Norwich — with whom Mr. Grantham had held a controversy on the prin- ciples and practices of the General Baptists — procured the interment of the body in St. Stephen's church. Mr. Connould read the burial ser- vice himself with many sighs and tears; and, on closing the book, added with an affectionate earnestness, " this day has a very great man fallen in Israel." Sixteen years after, Mr. Connould was, at his own request, buried beside Mr. Grantham. " The excellences of men of common size require to be pointed out by the historian ; but the actions of such men as Thomas Grantham speak too plainly to need any comment," He was, probably, one of the best and greatest of the many eminent men that flourished in the seventeenth century. When his opponents were compelled to resign the palm of victory to him in public disputa- tions, they consoled themselves by declaring that he " was one of the greatest divines in England, and could beat the bishop." Works. — 1. An Apology for Thomas Grantham's Method of Teaching. Quarto. 1644.— 2. The Baptist against the Papist. 1662. (When confined in Lincoln goal.) — 3. The Prisoner against the Prelate. Written by a prisoner of the baptized churches in Lincolnshire. — 4. A Sigh for Peace. 1671. — 5. A Religious Contest holden at Blyton, between Mr. Ford, minister of the parochial congregation at Blyton, and T. Grantham. 1674.— 6. The Fourth Principle of Christ's Doc- trine vindicated : being a brief answer to Mr. H. Danvers' Treatise on Laying on of Hands. 1674.— 7. The Successors of the Apostles: or a Discourse on the office of the Messengers or Apostles of Christ. 1674. — 8. Mr. Home answered; or Paedo-rantism not from Zion. 1675. — 9. Christianismus Primitivus: or the ancient Christian Reli- gion considered, asserted, and vindicated. 1678. — 10. An Epitome of the Controversies depending between those who are commonly called Papists and those commonly called Anabaptists. 11. Presumption no proof. 1687. — 12. Hear the Church: or an Appeal to the Mother of us all. Being an Epistle to all the baptized Believers in England. 1687. — 13. The Infant's Advocate against the cruel doctrine of those presby- terians who hold that the greatest part of dying infants shall be damned. 1688. — 14. Truth and Peace; or the last and most friendly Debate concerning Infant Baptism. 1689. With a Postscript on the " manner of marriages among the baptized believers." — 15. The

OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 155

Slanderer rebuked. — 16. The Grand Impostor caught in his own snare. 1691.-17. A Dialogue between the Baptist and the Presbyterian. 1691.

John Lupton, of Coningsby, was a messenger of the Lincolnshire churches. He was a pious man, and preserved the esteem of his brethren in the ministry to the close of life. He died in 1670.

Joseph Hooke was baptized in Peterborough river in 1676. He was pastor of the church at Spalding, &c. ; and was a messenger of the Lincolnshire churches during forty years. His labours were abundant: through the long period of his service he was one of the principal ornaments and supports of the good cause in Lincolnshire. He died in 1736, being about eighty years of age.

John Denne was the son of Henry Denne, and pastor of the church at Fenstanton upwards of fifty years. We have no account of the time of his death, but it was subsequent to the year 1700. His labours were very extensive and successful. Work.— The Glad Tidings of Peace. 1696. (A Sermon.)

Edmund Matle was colleague with John Denne for nearly half a century. They strove together for the faith of the gospel, and probably died nearly at the same time. After the names of both in the list of church-members, it is written — " died in the faith."

John Lacey was messenger of the churches in Cambridgeshire, and for several years represented them at the general association, to oppose the errors of Matthew Caffin. He resided at Wilbrun, and was probably pastor of the church there.

Thomas Monck was a leading minister in Buckinghamshire. He is considered as the composer of " the orthodox creed," published in 1678.

Benjamin Morley was a messenger of the Northamptonshire churches, and laboured diligently in his office. We have no account of his death.

Francis Stanley was a messenger of the Northamptonshire churches. He was an eminent servant of Christ, and his usefulness continued until his death in 1697, at East Haddon, where he then resided. Work. — Christianity indeed : or the well-disciplined christian the delight

of Christ.

Stephen Curtis for many years presided over the church at Harring- worth, Northamptonshire, (now Morcott). He was much respected, died in a good old age, and was buried in the church-yard at Harringworth. The register of the established church contains the following entry — " Stephen Curtis (anabaptist) buried Feb. 5, 1727."

James Sicklemore was a laborious minister, and was instrumental in gathering several churches : among which were those of Chichester and Portsmouth. In the former part of his life he was a clergyman at Single- ton : he became a General Baptist in 1648. The date of his death is not recorded.

Matthew Caffin was a native of Horsham, Sussex : and was expelled from the university of Oxford for embracing and defending believers'

156 ENGLISH GENERAL BAPTISTS.

baptism. He joined the General Baptist church at Horsham, and was soon called to the work of the ministry. His labours were assiduous and his success was great. He was frequently engaged in defending the principles of the baptists, especially against the quakers. He is dis- tinguished as the principal supporter of those doctrines whose introduc- tion proved so destructive to the denomination. He died in 1714, aged 86 years.

Carolus Maria Du Veil, D.D., was born of Jewish parents at Mentz, in Lorrain. Becoming convinced that Jesus Christ was the promised Messiah, he embraced Christianity; at which his father was so incensed, that he attempted to kill him with a drawn sword. He joined the Roman catholics, and obtained high honours and great preferment in the French church. Being appointed to write against the Hugouots, or French Protestants, he read their writings in order to refute them ; but finding the truth on the side of those he had undertaken to confute, he nobly joined them. He came to England, and became tutor and chaplain in a noble family. The bishop of London gave him free access to his library, where he met with some of the writings of the English baptists. He was afterwards baptized by Mr. J. Gosnold, and had, for some time, the over- sight of a small church in Gracechurch-street : but his imperfect pronun- ciation rendered him almost unintelligible to an English audience. He, therefore, practised physic, and enjoyed, until his death, a small annuity raised by the baptists. " He was," says Crosby, " a grave, judicious, divine, a good chronologer, a skilful grammarian ; and such a pious, good man, as brought honour to any cause in which he was embarked." Works.— Commentary on Matthew and Mark. 1672. — Explication of Solomon's Song. 1679. — Exposition of the Minor Prophets. 1680. — A Literal Explanation of the Acts of the Apostles. 16S4. (Latin.)

William Pardoe resided chiefly near Worcester; but laboured in various parts of Leicestershire and Yorkshire. He was a pious and suc- cessful preacher ; and was pastor of the church at Lichfield in 1688. He died in 1692. Work. — Bethania ; or Ancient Christianity revived. 1688. This work

was partly written in Leicester prison and Worcester gaol.

Francis Smith was an eminent bookseller in London, and an active and useful pieacher among the General Baptists. He was a zealous de- fender of civil and religious liberty, on account of which he suffered many imprisonments, and heavy fines and seizures ; he frequently felt the weight of the fury of judge Jeffries. After the revolution, he was appointed by king William to the office of Keeper of the Customs. He died Dec. 22, 1691. Work. — Symptoms of Growth and Decay in Godliness. 2nd edition. 1672.

PART III.

THE NEW CONNEXION OF GENERAL BAPTISTS.

CHAPTER I.

RISE OF THE CHURCHES AND THEIR PROGRESS TO THE FORMATION OF THE NEW CONNEXION.

SECTION I. THE BARTON SOCIETY.

GENERAL DECLENSION.

The state of declension into which the General Baptists had sunk in the early part of the eighteenth century, was by no means peculiar to that body : among dissenters generally there was a great decay of spiritual religion, and strenuous efforts were made to introduce deadly heresy into the church of God. Both in the establishment and among various denominations of dissenters, the leaven of Arianism, conntenanced, it was said, by queen Anne, spread its withering influence. Dr. John Guyse, an eminent dissenting minister, exclaims in 1729, " How many sermons may one hear that leave out Christ, both name and work, and that pay no more regard to him than if we had nothing to do with him !" Dr. Watts, in 1731, deplores " the decay of vital religion in the hearts and lives of men ;" and observes — " nor is the complaint of the declension of virtue and piety made only by protestant dissenters : it is a general matter of mournful observation amongst all that lay the cause of God to heart." Abraham Taylor, in 1734, ascribes "the grand cause of the corruptions and abominations which abound among us, to the contempt which has been for many years cast on the Holy Spirit and his operations." And Mr. John

158 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Newton, a clergyman of the church of England, remarks — " I am not sure that, in the year J 740, there was a single parochial minister who was publicly known as a gospel preacher, in the whole kingdom." It was unquestionably the most un- evangelical period that had ever occurred in this country since the reformation. At this gloomy crisis, three facts present themselves to our notice which bear indications of Divine Providence — the mission of Wesley and Whitefield to rouse the nation from its spiritual slumbers — the efforts of Andrew Fuller to reclaim the Particular Baptist churches from the errors of antinomianism, under the influence of which they were fast declining — and the rise of individuals from apparent obscurity, to revive and perpetuate the sentiments peculiar to the General Baptists, at the time when the scriptural character of the original body seemed almost at the point of extinction.

THE DARKNESS PENETRATED.

The inhabitants of the country parishes of the midland counties appear especially to have been involved in the most deplorable ignorance ; the foim of religion, as well as the power, was, in many of the villages, almost unknown. At this time the pious lady Huntingdon resided at Donington Park, in Leicestershire, and exerted her influence to promote the spread of the gospel. David Taylor, one of her servants, was occasionally employed in preaching in the neighbourhood ; he was instrumental in awakening the minds of the inhabitants

of that part of Leicestershire in which the New Con- 1741 nexion of General Baptists originated. In 1741, he

visited Glen field and Ratby, two villages near Leices- ter : the following year he was accompanied by Stephen Dixon. Their united efforts produced a serious inquiry after religion ; although it appears from a manuscript of the venerable Francis Smith, that none of those who afterwards became prominent as General Baptists were converted under their ministry.

SAMUEL DEACON, JOSEPH DONISTHORPE, AND OTHERS AWAKENED.

Among those who heard David Taylor preach in 1741, was Samuel Deacon, of Ratby. Being informed while at work in the field that a person was about to preach at Ratby, he imme- diately laid down his scythe and went to hear him. The sermon induced serious reflection on the state of his soul, and

BARTON SOCIETY. 159

a diligent examination of the scriptures with the determination, if possible, to know the truth and follow after 1742 righteousness. In 1742, John Taylor and C. Clapham, schoolmasters of Markfield, embraced the truth and began to make known to others the way of salvation. At the time these transactions were taking place, Joseph Donisthorpe, a blacksmith of Normanton, was brought to feel concern for his soul. He read the scriptures and felt con- demned and alarmed : he applied to a neighbouring clergy- man for advice, who encouraged him to rely on the honesty of his dealings, &c. : adding, " take my advice, make yourself easy, continue to attend to your church, and if all be not right at last I will bear the blame." This did not satisfy the inquirer : his uneasiness continued to increase, and he was driven to the brink of despair. At length his attention was attracted to the assertion of the apostle, " This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners ; of whom I am chief." Redemp- tion through the blood of Christ filled his mind with admira- tion and gratitude, and changed his fears to joy. Having found peace through believing, and thinking that he was the only person on earth to whom this grand scheme was known, he discoursed of "justification by faith" to his customers and neigbours; and the Normanton blacksmith and his new doctrines soon became the chief subject of conversation in the neighbourhood. Numbers flocked to his house after the toils of the day were over, to hear of the love of God to sinners.

PERSECUTION AT BARTON.

Barton Fabis, or Barton-in-the-beans, is a small hamlet on the western border of Chamwood Forest. In 1743 1743, John Wh^att, carpenter, and John Aldridge, farmer, of Barton, heard the new pieachers at Os- baston: they invited them to preach at Barton, and John Taylor delivered the first sermon in Mr. Whyatt's house. For a few weeks he pursued his labours without interruption : but during one of his visits a number of peisons from Nail- stone, a village about a mile distant, assembled and endea- voured to disturb the worship, uttering the most violent threats against the preacher and his abettors. Mr. Taylor, finding it impossible to proceed with the service, secretly withdrew. A farmer afterwards caused it to be proclaimed, with sound of

160 THE NEW CONNEXION.

horn, through the neighbouring villages, that whoever would attend and assist in taking the methodist parson the next time he came, should be rewarded with a barrel of ale. The next Saturday, John Taylor visited Barton as usual ; Mr. Aldridge, being a man of property and influence, resolved to take him under his protection, and conducted him to his own house. Towards night a numerous mob collected, headed by the con- stable of Nailstone and some of the principal farmers. A few individuals, who had assembled at Mr. Aldridge's residence to meet the preacher, were preparing for social worship, when they perceived seveial hundreds of people rush tumultuously into the yard. The outer door was instantly locked, and almost as soon broken open. The inner door being fastened, the assailants attempted to force it open by thrusting their fingers between the door and door-posts. One of Mr. Aldridge's sisters, in order to induce them to desist, took a cleaver and drew it down the edge of the door across their fingers. This imprudent action roused the fury of the mob, and they burst open the door in an instant. Mr. Aldridge's father and wife were treated with great brutality — the preacher was seized and dragged out of the house amid shouts of triumph and the most horrid oaths and imprecations. Having secured several of the hearers, they conducted them and the minister, first to Nailstone, where they exhibited them as trophies of victory from house to house, and then proceeded to Osbaston. The evening being far advanced, they returned to Nailstone. Some of the prisoners were dragged into the brook ; Mr. Aldridge was thrown into a fish-pond. Joseph Donisthorpe was seized by the hair, dragged to a gate, his neck violently bent over it, and threatened with immediate death. When they reached Nailstone, all the prisoners were set at liberty, except John Taylor, the preacher, and John Whyatt.

THE DISSENTERS UNJUSTLY CONDEMNED.

On Monday morning the constable, accompanied by the most active rioters, carried John Taylor before sir Wolstan Dixie, and laid heavy charges against him and his followers : the wounded fingers being exhibited in confirmation of the charges. Sir Wolstan bound the patties over to the next quarter sessions at Leicester. In consequence of these dis- turbances and the countenance given to the persecutors, it was not practicable to meet publicly; still the union of the

BARTON SOCIETY. 161

people with each other and their attachment to the cause were preserved and strengthened. During the interval between their appearance before sir Wolstan Dixie and the trial, they continued to receive fresh insults and were threatened with utter destruction. A large bonfire was made at Osbaston, around which these ignorant villagers danced in impious revelry, exclaiming — " We will burn the Holy Ghost with

the methodists." The case was tried in 1744, when 1 744 John Taylor and his friends were condemned. When

the verdict of the sessions was known, their persecu- tors were elated with victory ; it was deemed a virtue to harass them by every means they could employ. But the triumph of the wicked was short : the verdict was evidently partial and contrary to the laws of the realm. A statement of the case was laid before an eminent counsel who gave an oninion de- cidedly opposed to the verdict of the jury : the principal perse- cutors were consequently indicted at the crown office, and when the assizes approached, regular citations were sent to them. Perceiving their danger, they were softened into humility — the most submissive applications were made, and the most moving intreaties used, to induce those whom they had so cruelly abused, to stop the proceedings and not suffer the cause to come to a trial. The Barton friends, wishing onlv to enjoy their native rights without interruption, consented to abandon the prosecution on condition that their persecutors would pay all the expenses which had been occasioned by their violence. The costs, amounting to a considerable sum, fell heavy on seven or eight of the farmers : yet the terms were considered generous and were received by the parties with gratitude.

THE FIRST CHURCH, MEETING-HOUSE, AND PULPIT.

Not long after this accommodation, John Taylor removed to London, and David Taylor again became the regular preacher. Stephen Dixon — who had joined a society of Moravians at Pudsey, in Yorkshire, from which he was ex- cluded for some cause never fully explained — returned to Barton, bringing with him William Kendrick who had with- drawn from the same society : uniting their efforts to serve the cause at Barton, both were received with gladness. A few of the friends were now persuaded by the ministers to form them- selves into a society ; Messrs. Kendrick and Dixon were chosen

M

162 THE NEW CONNEXION.

elder s and Mrs. Kendrick eldress. This first church

1745 was formed in 1745; it consisted at its formation of only seven members; these were — John Whyatt,

John Aldridge, William Adcock, Stephen Dixon, William and Mrs. Kendrick, and most likely, David Taylor: many waited to see the result of the union. The number of hearers increased so rapidly, that it was resolved to erect a meeting-house. The building was quickly raised, and opened the same year ( 1745) by Mr. William Collins, a minister from London. The dimen- sions of this edifice w r ere thirty-six feet by twenty-two : it had a convenient vestry, and chambers over the whole building on the plan of the Moravians. The pulpit was sufficiently spacious to hold ei^ht or ten persons ; it was customary for all the preachers to sit there on public occasions, until they were too numerous to be all admitted. Though the members of the congregation were, in general, in poor circumstances, they cheerfully exerted themselvt-s and defrayed all the expenses of the erection, amounting to ฃ170.

ACCESSION OF LABOURERS MINISTERS LICENSED.

Mr. Dixon and Mr. Kendrick assumed the principal direc- tion of this infant society; but were assisted in spreading the gospel by several others — especially by J. Aldridge and J. Whyatt, who were now considered as regular preachers. Mr. A ult, a schoolmaster from London, settled in Leicestershire and became a preacher in this society. Soon after, Mr. Dixon introduced doctrines which created dissatisfaction in the church, and issued in his expulsion. In 1746, John Grimley

1746 of Donington-on-the-heath, and Francis Smith of Melbourne, joined the society. Possessing good

natural abilities, they soon became useful and active preachers of the gospel ; Mr. Smith was afterwards chosen joint elder with Mr. Kendrick. The preachers extended their excursions on every side ; labouring frequently at Hugglescote, Swan- nington, Hinckley, and other places in Leicestershire : even visiting distant villages in the neighbouring counties, of Derby, Nottingham, and Stafford. Nor did they confine their labours to the towns and villages, but often preached in the open air in Charnwood Forest. Sometimes a hollow tree, sometimes a broken rock, furnished them with pulpits; while the stones and hillocks supplied the hearers with seats. They frequently met with insult arid abuse : but they had learned to

BARTON SOCIETY. 163

endure hardships as good soldiers of Jesus Christ. To pro- mote mutual edification and to conduct the affairs of the church, weekly conferences were held on Friday evening, which were attended by the ministers and members : though many of the ministers resided at a considerable distance, they were regular and punctual in their attendance. Their zeal animated them to exertions which, in many instances, almost surpass credi- bility ; and their success was proportioned to their zeal. Feel- ing the necessity of being protected by the law in the prosecu- tion of their labours, the preachers availed themselves of the provisions of the Toleration Act: Joseph Donisthorpe, John Whyatt, John Aldridge, Samuel Deacon, Francis Smith, and John Grimley, registered themselves as dissenting ministers in 1751.

INDICTMENT FOR ADULTERY.

At this period dissenters enjoyed the privilege of performing the marriage rite among themst Ives : Mr. J. Aldridge was thus married to Elizabeth Cooper; this furnished the persecutors with a fresh weapon of annoyance. Mr. Aldridge was indicted in the spiritual court for living in adultery with Miss Cooper. This base proceeding excited the indignation of all good men : among others who sympathized with the suffering party, was Dr. Turville of Thurlaston, who assisted Mr. Aldridge with his countenance and advice. After a full investigation, the court declared that the marriage was legal; and the prosecutor made satisfaction to the injured persons. The principal instigator of the prosecution was greatly mortified at the defeat of his malicious attempt, and took every opportunity of insulting Mr. Aldridge and his friends and inciting others to abuse them. Their outrages at length became so violent, that Mr. Aldridge was compelled to seek protection from the laws by commencing a prosecution against the principal offender. The cause was tried at the Leicester assizes Aug. 1751; when all the influence that could be procured was employed on the side of the defendant, and the jury were overheard agree- ing to return a verdict in his favour whatever evidence might be brought against him. But the testimony was so clear that the judge advised the offender to come to terms of accommodation with the prosecutor : after some consideration a proposal was accepted. The dissenters were thus secured in the quiet enjoyment of their rights.

u2

164 THE NEW CONNEXION.

EXTENSION OF THE CAUSE.

Ill 1747, Francis Smith invited his friends to preach at Melbourne. Joseph Donisthorpe complied with the invita- tion : as he descended a hill from which he obtained a view of the village, he fell down on his knees, " wept over it," and fervently prayed for its inhabitants, and that his visit might prove a blessing. On reaching the place, he took his stand on the green, where he pieached the first sermon. The cause thus planted, soon increased ; in 1750 a meeting-house was erected. Mr. Samuel Fol- lows, of Castle Donington, introduced the preachers into that town, where they were attended by persons from Dise- worth, who being convinced of the importance of the great truths which they heard, were anxious to have them proclaimed to their neighbours. The ministers visited Diseworth, and commenced preaching in a weaver's shop : in a short time, a numerous society was formed : in 1752, a meeting- 1752 house was erected. Some of the inhabitants of Keg- worth attended the preaching and became converts to the truth. A piece of land was offered by Mr. Bradley: in 1755, a meeting-house was opened. — After Mr. Dixon's ex- pulsion from the society at Barton, he went to reside at Annesley Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire, where he raised a small congregation : but being excluded for immorality, the people applied for ministerial aid to the Barton preachers. These indefatigable men engaged to supply them, and their labours were blest. In 1754, a meeting-house was built at the neighbouring village of Kirkby Woodhouse : Mr. Abraham Booth and his parents appear to have been among the first fruits of their ministry in this place. — About 1753, Mr. Thomas Hutchinson introduced the preachers into Loughborough : John Whyatt delivered the first discourse in the house of Mr. William Cheatle. So few of the inhabitants were friendly to the cause, that it was with difficulty five signatures could be obtained to a re- quest for a license for the place of worship. Yet a consider- able number attended : many heard with seriousness. The service was frequently interrupted : on one occasion, a woman was seized by the mob as she came out of the meeting, and dragged along a deep kennel full of mire and filth, by the hair of her head. But the ministers still continued their labours, and the cause daily gained strength.

BARTON SOCIETY. 165

ADOPTION OF BAPTISM.

When these benevolent men first began to preach, they en- tertained no design of forming a party ; for some time they continued to regard themselves as members of the established church. But a more accurate acquaintance with divine sub- jects produced dissatisfaction with the doctrine, worship, and discipline of that body, and the unmerited persecution they suffered from its members increased their disapprobation : at length they declared themselves dissenters. When their first meeting-house was built, it became necessary, for the protection of the public property, to assume some dis- tinctive appellation :* as they determined to think and act for themselves, uninfluenced by foreign control, they called them- selves Independents. Some of the preachers, at an early period, entertained doubts on the subject of baptism ; at length, discovering from the scripture that immersion was the proper mode of baptism, they resolved to adopt it. A large tub w r as placed in the meeting-house, in which, for several years, they immersed their infants. Mr. Ault, who had separated from the society at Barton in 1748, attempted to iaise a distinct inter- est at Hinckley, where he introduced the practice of baptizing adults. The friends at Barton examined the scriptures on the subject, and found that the New Testament furnished no authority for the baptism of infants, but enjoined baptism on those who professed to repent and believe. After much con- sideration, it was agreed that Mr. Donisthorpe should baptize Mr. Kendrick, and then Mr. Kendrick should baptize him ; after which, they should unite in administering the ordinance

to the rest of their associates. This was accordingly 1755 done about the middle of November, 1755; when

between sixty and seventy thus solemnly devoted themselves to the service of the Saviour. The adoption of believers' baptism introduced a change in their system of fel- lowship. Some members of the society did not agree with the majority in their views on baptism, and continued unbaptized ; these still enjoyed the privileges of church fellowship: while some individuals were baptized on expressing a desire for bap- tism, without giving evidence of conversion ; these were not admitted to the Lord's supper. The society at this time was

* They had hitherto assumed no distinctive name ; hut their enemies had loaded them with epithets of reproach. Ravens was one name applied to them, and they were fre- quently assailed in the streets with croaking , by way of insult.

166 THE NEW CONNEXION.

composed of four classes — first, those who professed a concern for eternal things and enjoyed a degree of fellowship, though they were neither baptized nor admitted to the Lord's supper — the second class comprised those who had been baptized, but were not communicants — unbaptized communicants com- posed the third — the fourth, or highest class, consisted of bap- tized communicants. When the society was divided into separate churches, these distinctions were laid aside.

GENERAL PROGRESS.

The important change in the sentiments and practice of these professors just alluded to, did not produce any relaxation of exertions for the spread of the gospel and the conver- sion of sinners : nor did it diminish their success. At Louoh- borough, the hearers increased so as to render more spacious accommodation necessary : a barn belonging to Mr Oldershaw, was fitted up as a meeting-house. — At Kegworth religion pros- pered : frequently upwards of five hundred persons attended the public services. But in a short time, many espoused the tenets of antinomianism, and dissensions ensued which produced serious injury to the cause. — Notwithstanding the depression at Keg- worth, the seed sown there was bringing forth fruit in other places. Many persons were attracted from Leake, in Notting- hamshire, to hear the doctrines of the gospel; several of whom joined the society. These young converts frequently conversed with their neighbours on religious subjects, and opened a meeting for prayer and exhortation at Leake. The clergy became alarmed,and a violent persecution commenced : but the dissenters applied to a magistrate who obliged their enemies to make them compensation. The cause prospered at Leake in the midst of opposition, the number of 1756 hearers daily increased, and in 1756, a meeting-house was opened. Leake soon became the centre of ex- tensive labours, whence the gospel was introduced into many of the neighbouring districts.

A TRAITOR AT MELBOURNE.

The interest at Melbourne had prospered so greatly, 1759 tnat m 1759 it was considered as the second station in the society — Barton holding the first place. For the convenience of the members, the Lord's supper was cele- brated alternately at Barton and Melbourne. On these occa-

BARTON SOCIETY. 167

sions, frequently more than a hundred members attended from distant parts, for whose accommodation a plain dinner was provided at a friend's house ; each person paid voluntarily to ihe deacons what sum he thought proper towards the expense — the liberality of some supplying the penury of others. About 1759, a stranger settled at Melbourne as a barber, and formed an acquaintance with the baptists. He attended their meetings, appeared much affected under the preaching, and expressed a desire to be united with them. Having joined the society, he attended these social dinners, and observed the manner of conducting them, when he abruptly forsook the society and lodged information for a breach of the excise laws. Several of the principal members, both at Barton and Mel- bourne, were summoned before the magistrates and condemned to pay a fine of fifty pounds for each place. Though every means was used to procure a mitigation of the sentence, and Samuel Crompton, mayor of Derby, and other respectable persons kindly interposed, the full penalty was exacted.

WILLIAM SMITH AND THE VICAR OF EXHALL.

William Smith, of Exhall, near Coventry, travelled to Hinckley to hear the new preachers : he was soon convinced of the truth of their doctrines, and being an active and zealous man, he conversed freely with his neighbours on the salvation of the soul. A general excitement was produced, which alarmed the vicar of the parish, and induced him to send for Mr. Smith. The interview was occupied with a discussion on justification : the vicar insisting on works, Mr. S. on faith, as the means of it. The next morning the clergyman sent his servant to ask Mr. S. what he called himself? "Tell your master that I am a christian," was the reply. The messenger was again dispatched from the vicarage, to inform the innovator that un- less he refrained from conversing with the parishioners on the subject of religion, he might expect to suffer for his inter- ference. Mr. Smith promptly rejoined — "Tell your master that I regard neither him nor his persecution ; for I mean to go to heaven myself and to take all I can with me." The in- censed clergyman took every opportunity to denounce the heretics; thev and their heresies were the constant themes of his pulpit discourses : he thereby excited the curiosity of his hearers, many of whom determined to hear for themselves what these new doctrines were. Proselytes were made almost

168 THE NEW CONNEXION.

daily — meetings for prayer, reading, &c, were held in the neighbourhood — in 1760 a house was licensed at Long- lord for preaching. Persecution ensued, gross outrages were committed, and mobs were incited to interrupt the worship; until an appeal was made to the magistrate for protection. The number of hearers and converts continued to increase, although various private means were used to suppress the doctrines. The vicar of Exhall having in vain used all his expedients, applied for advice to a brother clergyman — Mr. Brookes, of Foleshill : the advice given was such as evinced a sound judgment and a benevolent heart — " Refrain from these men and let them alone; for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought; but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it, lest haply ye be found even to fight against God."

SECTION II. THE FIVE MIDLAND CHURCHES.

DIVISION INTO FIVE CHURCHES.

From the rise of the society, Mr. Kendrick had been re- garded as a leader, and its government had, in a great measure, devolved upon him. About this time ( 1759) reports affecting his moral character were circulated : after a careful investiga- tion, the evidence was so clear against him that his exclusion became necessary. Such a loss placed the society in circum- stances of perplexity : his fall exposed the interest to reproach, and left it without a manager. The cause had spread over a large tract of country, 160 members were in full communion, and the crowds who attended their meetings were, in some measure, connected with them. To superintend the affairs of such a society required persons of more experience and leisure than the preachers, who were engaged in daily labour for the support of their families. After frequent discussions, 1760 it was agreed (1760) that the body should be, divi- ded into five distinct and independent churches, each

THE FIVE MIDLAND CHURCHES. 169

having its own pastors or teachers. The division was as follows —

CHURCH. PLACES INCLUDED. MINISTERS.

(Hugglescote, Stanton, \ John Whyatt, of Barton;

Markfield, Ratby, Hinck- 1 Samuel Deacon, of Rat- ley, Longford. ' (by; John Aldridge, of j Hugglescote. _, (Packington, Measham,) Francis Smith, Thomas Melbourne . . j Swann i ug ton, Ticknall. J Perkins, of Melbourne.

^Castle Donington, Sawley, 1 ) Nathaniel Pickering, of Kegworth . . . . •] Whatton, Diseworth. j- Donington; John Tar- [ J ratt, of Kegworth.

(Quorndon, Leake, Wimes-^ Joseph Donisthorpe, of Nor- would, Widmerpool, I manton ; John Grimley,

Wysal, Gotham. f of Donington -on -the -

j heath.

Kirkby Wood- j The ad j acent p i aces . 1 Abraham Booth.

Though the society was thus divided into independent churches, the most friendly intercourse subsisted among them. Monthly meetings of the ministers were held for mutual advice and assistance ; and quarterly conferences met at each place in rotation, when one or two sermons were preached by ministers of the other churches.

CLERICAL AND MAGISTERIAL OPPOSITION.

Nothing of peculiar importance occurred after this 1766 division, until 1766. Among other places at which the Kegworth ministers regularly laboured was Saw- ley, in Derbyshire. On May 8th, Mr. Pickering was preach- ing at that place in a dwelling-house, when the curate of the parish, in a state of intoxication, came at the head of a nume- rous mob and ordered him to desist. Mr. Pickering read his license, but this had no effect : the curate seized him and con- ducted him to the stocks. The clergyman and his followers, however — probably from the effects of liquor — were unable to complete their design, and Mr. Pickering walked quietly home. The same ministers introduced the gospel into Dale-Moor, where their labours were so successful that a meeting-house became necessary for the neighbourhood : one was erected at Little Hallam ; about . the same time several dwelling- houses were opened for worship in adjacent villages. Applica- tion was made to the Derbyshire magistrates at the quarter

170 THE NEW CONNEXION.

sessions, to register the places of worship and to permit one of their preacheis to take the oaths required by the Toleration Act: this application was peremptorily rejected. They then applied to the bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, who imme- diately gave them an order to the registrar to grant them the proper certificates : but that officer, probably influenced by the magistrates, refused to obey the bishop's injunction. These circumstances rendered their situation more dangerous.

THE MANDAMUS.

In their perplexity they sought the advice of Gilbert Boyce, of Coningsby, who directed them to a society in London for the protection of the civil rights of dissenteis. Mr. Foxcraft, attorney, of Nottingham, was instructed by the committee to make a regular application at the next quarter sessions for the registration of four meeting-houses and one preacher : he did so ; but his request was dismissed with contempt. " I would sooner give up my commission as a justice of the peace, than accede to the registering of these meeting-houses," said sir John E. The committee in London immediately applied to the court of king's bench for a mandamus : this was readily obtained and sent to the attorney. Sir John E. was president at the next quarter sessions; no sooner had he taken his seat on the bench and inquired the business of the day, when he was told there was a mandamus J or him ! Struck with astonishment, the president exclaimed, " I don't know what you mean ; what is a mandamus ? let me look at it." " I will read it," replied Mr. Foxcraft. The mandamus was read : in the most authoritative language it required the Derbyshire magistrates to register the four places and the preacher, and to give the parties legal certificates of the fact. Mortification was depicted on each magisterial brow : " Sir John," said one of his brethren, " this is a breakfast for you." " Yes," rejoined the baronet, " it's a bitter pill." The registries were made — the certificates were given — sir John retained his commission — and the baptists were placed under the protection of the laws. But the struggle cost the churches fifty pounds.

STATISTICS OF THE CHURCHES IN 1770.

The churches continued to prosper under their respective pastors. The increase of members at Barton and the distance at which some of them resided, rendered it necessary in 1766,

THE FIVE MIDLAND CHURCHES. 171

to divide that society into two churches — Hinckley and Long- ford forming one, with W. Smith and G. Hickling for the

pastors ; Barton, Hugglescote, and Ratby, composing 1 770 the other, and retaining the original ministers. The

statistics of the six churches in 1770 were as follows —

Churches. Pastors. Deacons. Elders. Members.

Barton 2 5 2 120

Longford and Hinckley 2 .... 4 .... 1 .... 170

Melbourne 2 5 2 1G0

Kegworth 2 6 3 180

Loughborough 2 5 1 240

Kirkby Woodhouse — .... — .... — .... 30

900 Thus the small society formed at Barton in 1745, which at its commencement consisted of only seven members, gradually increased until, in 1770, it had become six respectable churches containing nine hundred members (Adam Taylor says 950) ; and extended over a considerable part of the counties of Leicester, Warwick, Derby, and Nottingham.

OBSERVATIONS ON EXERTION AND SUCCESS.

Having arrived at the period of the formation of the New Connexion, it will be proper to notice very concisely some particulars respecting the character, operations, and success of this body of dissenters.

Earnestness in religion. — The most striking feature in their character was a solemn earnestness in religious pursuits. Deeply sensible of the unspeakable value of immortal souls, and strongly affected with the won- derful plan for the recovery of a lost world, they suffered no consideration of ease or interest to relax their exertions in working out their own salvation and promoting the salvation of their neighbours. The private members regularly walked ten, fifteen, sometimes twenty miles, to hear a sermon or enjoy the ordinances of the gospel. Nor were they less anxious to promote the interests of others: nothing afforded them greater pleasure than to be made the instrument of awakening a sinner to flee from the wrath to come.

Self-denying zeal. — The noble exertions they made to build places of worship afford the strongest proof of their zeal to spread the gospel. Almost all were labouring men, and they had to encounter the opposition, instead of obtaining the aid, of their wealthy neighbours. But " the people had a mind to work" — the labourer devoted a part of his weekly earnings towards erecting a house for God, and employed many hours which should have been spent in repose, in labouring at the work — the women disposed of what little articles they could spare, some even their wedding-rings,* rather than suffer the building to be interrupted. To

* Mrs. Pegg, of Melbourne, did this at the erection of the first meeting-house there.

172 THE NEW CONNEXION.

their power, yea, beyond their power, they were willing to make the most generous exertions for the sake of the gospel.

The Preachers. — The most exemplary instances of disinterested zeal appeared in the almost incredible exertions of the preachers. They were working-men having families dependant on their daily labour: yet they were instant in season and out of season, ready at all times to sacri- fice their time, their repose, and even their property, to promote the cause in which they were engaged. For twenty years, Francis Smith of Melbourne preached the gospel without any recompense of a worldly nature, except some small presents which he received from a few indi- viduals towards the close of his life. He frequently worked hard through the day, then walked, sometimes ten miles, to preach in the evening, and returned home afterwards to pursue his daily labours next morning. On the Lord's-day he had to preach two or three times, and generally to walk from ten to twenty miles, or more. Not only did he thus labour, but what he could spare of his small property was devoted to the promotion of the Saviour's cause. At the time of the erection of the meeting-house at Melbourne, he worked at his trade as a journeyman, and regularly contributed eightpence per week towards the building: and receiving at this time a legacy of five pounds left him by his father, he joyfully devoted the whole towards completing the house of God. The exertions of Samuel Deacon, of Ratby, were no less arduous. On Lord's-day he frequently travelled from twenty to forty miles on foot, and preached twice, often three times. He has repeatedly walked from Eatby to Mel- bourne, a distance of twenty miles, on Lord's-day morning, returning after evening service that he might go early to work on Monday morning as a labourer. Several evenings in the week were also devoted to minis- terial duties in distant places. The other ministers being actuated by corresponding views and placed over churches equally large, were called to similar labours. When we reflect on these things, we cease to wonder at their success; all things are possible to men like these. They now " rest from their labours and their works do follow them."

Preaching. — The ministers were generally destitute of literary advan- tages, but they studied the bible diligently and carefully. In their preaching they had one great object which was constantly kept in view — this was to instruct sinners in the plan of salvation and persuade them to embrace it. Whatever text they read, their discourses generally turned on two grand topics — the wretched and ruined state of man by nature, and the method of salvation through faith in Christ ; they would have thought themselves culpable had they delivered one sermon which did not explain these subjects. Yet we are not to conclude that there was a dull monotony in their discourses: having considered the great theme of salvation in all its bearings, they were capable of present- ing it in its different aspects, and were furnished with many appropriate comparisons to assist their explanation and keep up the interest of their hearers ; while an abundance of scripture texts carefully stored in the memory, was always available to defend and illustrate their doc- trines. Being deeply affected with the truths they taught, they spake out of the abundance of the heart: this imparted an earnestness to their delivery and an animation to their, addresses, that fixed the attention and reached the hearts of their audience.

GENERAL BAPTISTS IN YORKSHIRE. 173

Order, $c. — In the constitution of their societies they imitated, in a great measure, the methodists. When a few persons were awakened to a concern for salvation in any place, they were formed into a society : to this society candidates were admitted on probation for six months, before they were considered as complete members of the union. The certificate of fellowship was a ticket given to each candidate, which was changed every month: the refusal of the ticket excluded the individual from communion. Each member was required to make a monthly sub- scription according to his ability; but it was directed that no husband, or wife, or child, whose partner or parent did not belong to the society, should give it any pecuniary support without the consent of their con- nections. The supreme control of the societies, as long as they con- tiued to act as one body, was placed in the weekly conference of the ministers, at which the general operations of the whole community were directed: subsequently, the private members obtained that ascendancy in the conduct of the concerns of the church to which they are certainly entitled by the principles of the New Testament.

SECTION HI. FORMATION OF THE NEW CONNEXION.

RISE OF GENERAL BAPTISTS IN YORKSHIRE.

While the foundation of the General Baptist cause was thus being laid in the midland district, an individual was rising into notice in Yorkshire, eminently qualified to occupy a prominent position among these soldiers of the cross, to organise their forces, and lead them forward to more extensive conquests. About 1760, the methodists were actively employed in propa- gating the gospel in the vicinity of Halifax, Yorkshire. Among them was a zealous young man of good natural abili- ties and an intrepid temperament, whose occasional labours were highly appreciated by the leading men among the York- shire methodists. But finding some things in their order and discipline of which he did not approve, and being dissatisfied with their manner of explaining some points of doctrine which he regarded as of essential importance, he withdrew from their society in 1762. — This young man was Dan Taylor. — About the same time, four persons in the neighbour- 1762 hood of Heptonstall left the methodists for nearly the same reasons; knowing Mr. Taylor's state of mind,

174 THE NEW CONNEXION.

they invited him to preach for them. He commenced his public labours in connection with them during the summer, and for several months preached in the open air, under a tree at a place called the Nook, about a mile from Halifax. As winter approached, they hired a house in Wadsvvorth lanes, which they fitted up for preaching — Mr. Taylor occupying it during the week as a school-room. Mr. Taylor had previously paid some attention to the subject of baptism ; he now carefully studied the scriptures and read the best authors on both sides of the controversy. The result was a complete con- viction that believers' baptism by immersion was the appoint- ment of Christ and the practice of the apostles. He frequently remarked in after years that Dr. Wall's celebrated History of Infant Baptism, contributed more than any other book, except the New Testament, to convince him that that rite had no foundation in scripture, but was wholly an invention of man. John Slater, one of the four, also became of the same opinion, and several others were inclined to adopt it. Having been informed that some baptists at Bos- ton, in Lincolnshire, under the pastoral care of Mr. Thomp- son, entertained sentiments somewhat similar to their own, Mr. Taylor and John Slater set out on foot, Feb.

1763 11, 1763, to visit the brethren in Lincolnshire: they travelled until night approached, when they sought

shelter under a hay-rick, where, having commended themselves to the divine protection, they slept securel)-. The next dav, they were agreeably surprised to learn that there was a society of General Baptists at Gamston, Nottinghamshire. Thither they repaired, and Mr. Taylor was baptized by Mr. Jeffries, the pastor, in the river at Gamston, Feb. 16, 1763.

Church formed. — In May, Mr. Taylor attended the Lin- colnshire association of General Baptist churches, and became a member of that union. Mr. Thompson, of Boston, returned with Mr. Taylor to Wadsworth, where he baptized several per- sons; fourteen were formed into a church over which Mr. Taylor was ordained pastor, in the autumn of the

1 764 same year. In 1764, a meeting-house was erected on the side of a steep rocky declivity called Birch-

cliffe, which name it afterwards gave to the church. This society increased rapidly: in 1770 it contained sixty-nine members. The church was then divided into five parts, the members in each division meeting weekly for conference,

GENERAL BAPTISTS IN YORKSHIRE. 175

praver, and communicating experiences. Each division had a leader; the five leaders met every six weeks for consulting as to the state of the church.

Interview with the Leicestershire General Baptists. — In 1764, Mr. Taylor again attended the Lincolnshire association: after his return, he took a journey iu the midland counties to collect for the meeting-house at Birehcliffe. During this ex- cursion he gained the first intelligence of the Leicestershire General Baptists. He was much pleased to find that they esteemed the doctrines which were the subjects of debate in the Old Connexion, as absolutely essential to Christianity. This union in opinion, and the general excellence of their character, made him and his friends desirous of a closer connection with them. Several attempts were made to induce them to join the Lincolnshire association. The Leicestershire friends de- clared they would never have any connection with persons who maintained the opinions which, as they believed, were held by many of the Lincolnshire General Baptists : at the same time stating their readiness to unite with the ministers whose senti- ments they approved.

A UNION PROPOSED.

In 1750, the Lincolnshire Geneial Baptists renewed their connection with the general assembly in London, which had been interrupted for nearly forty years. In 1765 1767 and 1767, Dan Taylor was deputed as their repre- sentative at that meeting, and became more intimately acquainted with the diversity of opinion which had caused so much altercation. In 1769, the disputes were so violent, both at the Lincolnshire association and the geneial assembly, and some circumstances occurred of so unpleasant a nature, that the friends of the great truths of the gospel were led to con- clude that a separation was necessary for the support of the faith; they therefore deteimined to withdraw from their pre- sent associates. They made their intentions known to the midland churches, and requested an interview, that mea- sures might be prepared for carrying their design into effect. A meeting was accordingly held at Lincoln about Michaelmas, 1769; which was attended by Dan Taylor and W. Thompson from the Old Connexion, and Francis Smith, John Grimley, and several others of the midland ministers. It was then resolved that a New Connexion should be formed of such as

176 THE NEW CONNEXION.

maintained the doctrines which they considered to be taught in the New Testament; and that the first associa-

1770 tion of this New Connexion should be held in London June 7, 1770: at which the ministers from

the midland counties promised to be present if their churches

approved of the proposed union.

THE NEW CONNEXION FORMED.

The meeting was held according to appointment, June 6, 1770, at the meeting-house in Church Lane, London. This first association was attended by the following ministers from the midland churches which had cordially agreed to the pro- posal for a union : —

Members.

Samuel Deacon Barton, Leicestershire 120

John Tarratt and

Nathaniel Pickering. . Kegworth, Leicestershire 180

John Grimley Loughborough, Leicestershire 240

William Smith and

George Hickliug .... Longford, Warwickshire 170

Francis Smith and

Thomas Perkins .... Melbourne, Derbyshire 160

They were met by the following ministers from the Old Connexion : —

Dan Taylor Waclsworth, Yorkshire 69

William Thompson . . Boston, Lincolnshire 76

John Brittain Church Lane, London 300

William Summers . . Park, Southwark 53

John Knott Eythorne, Kent 33

James Fenn Deal, Kent 21

J. Stanger Bessell's Green, Kent 43

David Wilkin Halsted, Essex 45

Charles Parman .... Castle Headingham, Essex 20

K. French Coggeshall, Essex 18

H. Poole Fleet, Lincolnshire 50

Previous to any definite measures being proposed, a deputa- tion was sent to the general assembly then sitting in London, to acquaint them with their design of withdrawing from their connexion — to assign the reason of their separation — and, in a friendly manner, to bid them farewell. The following morning, Dan Taylor preached from 2 Tim. i. 8: " Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord." In the afternoon the brethren again assembled, when D. Taylor was appointed chairman, and J. Knott and W. Thompson were chosen moderators.

ASSOCIATION FORMED. 177

After solemn prayer to God for his direction and blessing, a union was formed under the designation of —

The New Connexion of General Baptists formed in 1770:

with a design to revive experimental religion, or primitive

Christianity in faith and practice.*

ARTICLES OF RELIGION.

In order that it might be known what they considered as the faith and practice of primitive Christianity, six " Articles of religion were proposed, agreed upon, and signed," as a decla- ration of their views on those points which had been the chief subjects of difference between them and the other body. These articles are thus expressed : —

1. On the fall of man. — We believe that man was made upright in the image of God, free from all disorder, natural and moral : capable of obey- ing perfectly the will and command of God his Maker; yet capable also of sinning: which he unhappily did, and thereby laid himself under the divine curse; which, we think could include nothing less than the mor- tality of the body and the eternal punishment of the soul. His nature also became depraved, his mind was defiled, and the powers of his soul weakened — that both he was, and his posterity are, captives of satan till set at liberty by Christ.

2. On the nature and perpetual obligation of the moral law. — We believe that the moral law not only extends to the outward actions of the life, but to all the powers and faculties of the mind, to every desire, temper, and thought ; that it demands the entire devotion of all the powers and faculties of both body and soul to God : or, in our Lord's words, to love the Lord with all our heart, mind, soul, and strength : — that this law is of perpetual duration and obligation, to all men, at all times, and in all places or parts of the world. And we suppose that this law was obliga- tory to Adam in his perfect state — was more clearly revealed in the ten commandments — and more fully explained in many other parts of the bible.

3. On the person and work of Christ. — We believe that our Lord Jesus Christ is God and man united in one person ; or possessed of divine perfection united to human nature, in a way which we pretend not to explain, but think ourselves bound by the word of God firmly to believe : — that he suffered to make a full atonement for all the sins of all men — and that hereby he has wrought out for us a complete salvation ; which is received by, and as a free gift communicated to, all that believe in him ; without the consideration of any works done by us in order to entitle us to this salvation. Though we firmly believe that no faith is the means of justification, but that which produces good works.

4. On salvation by faith. — We believe that as this salvation is held forth to all to whom the gospel revelation comes, without exception, we ought, in the course of our ministry, to propose or offer this salvation to

* The title of the first Minutes is as- follows — " The proceedings of an Assembly of Free-grace General Baptists, formed in the year of our Lord 1770, with a design to revive experimental religion or Primitive Christianity in faith and practice. London, June 7, 177U."

178 THE NEW CONNEXION.

all those who attend our ministry ; and, having opened to them their ruined, wretched state by nature and practice, to invite all, without excep- tion, to look to Christ by faith, without any regard to anything in, 01 done by, themselves : that they may, in this way alone, that is, by faith, be possessed of this salvation.

5. On regeneration by the Holy Spirit. — We believe that, as the scrip- tures assure us, we are justified, made the children of God, purified and sanctified by faith : — that when a person comes to believe in Jesus (and not before) he is regenerated, or renewed in his soul by the Spirit of God, through the instrumentality of the word, now believed and embraced ; which renewal of his soul naturally produces holiness in heart and life : — that this holiness is the means of preparing us for the enjoyments and employments of the heavenly world ; and of preserving in our souls a comfortable sense of our interest in the Lord, and of our title to glory ; as well as to set a good example before men, and to recommend our blessed Redeemer's cause to the world.

6. On baptism. — We believe that it is the indispensable duty of all who repent and believe the gospel, to be baptized by immersion in water, in order to be initiated into a church state ; and that no person ought to be received into the church without submission to that ordinance.

These articles were signed by the ministers whose names stand on page 176.

With reference to these articles Mr. James Taylor observes, " The six articles on which the Connexion was formed, were not designed to embrace all the doctrines which the scripture contains, or which a minister might believe and teach ; but more especially they meant to exhibit some essential doctrines in which they differ from the Arian and Socinian baptists ; who, without a just claim, have retained the name of ' General Baptists' when they have renounced the doctrines of that denomination."

CHAPTER II.

HISTORY, STATISTICS, AND BIOGRAPHY, FROM THE FORMA- TION OF THE NEW CONNEXION TO 1846.

This chapter will be divided into four periods : —

First period of 15 years, from 1770 to 1785.

Second period of 15 years, from 1785 to 1800.

Third period of 20 years, from 1800 to 1820.

Fourth period of 26 years, from 1820 to 1846. Each section (or period) has three distinct parts — First. "An historical and statistical table," including all the churches that joined the Connexion during that period; their ministerial changes ; and their progress, as indicated by the enlargement and erection of meeting- houses and the periodical number of members. Second. " Short Notes" of interesting facts, and remarks on the general progress of the body. Third. "An Obituary," or biographical notices of departed ministers.

179

SECTION I. FIRST PERIOD, FROM 1770 TO 1785.

SECOND AND THIRD ASSOCIATIONS.

The second Association was held in London, May 22, 23, and 24, 1771 ; and was attended by the same persons nearly as the former meeting. Much of the time was occupied by the ministers relating their experience ; but the principal business of the Association was the division of the Connexion into two Associations — one, called the northern Association, including the churches in the midland counties and those in the counties of York and Lincoln — the other, called the southern Association, including the churches in London, Kent, Essex, and Surrey. The northern Association met at Lough- borough, June 3 and 4, 1772 : it was composed of the minis- ters and representatives of the churches at Barton, Mel- bourne, Kegworth, Loughborough, Longford, Wads- worth, and Boston. John Stanger and Samuel Benge were likewise present as the representatives of the southern Asso- ciation. The seven churches just mentioned must be con- sidered as forming the basis of the New Connexion ; as the southern churches, in a short time, relinquished their con- nexion with the northern Association, and Fleet church — whose minister assisted at the formation of the union in 1770 — withdrew in 1771, and rejoined the Lincolnshire Association.

ASSOCIATION RULES.

The first subject that occupied the attention of the Con- nexion was the adoption of rules for conducting the annual meetings. A conference of ministers was held at Hugglescote, July 20, 1773, when a number of regulations was prepared to be recommended to the pastors and churches.

With respect to the persons who should be entitled to act as members of the Association, it was recommended that the churches should "satisfy themselves" with the ministers or elders only having a place : unless when a church had no such officers, then they might choose two breth- ren, whom the Association would readily admit.

Admission. — At the commencement of the union it was required that every one who was admitted should subscribe the six articles which were then adopted : but at the Hinckley Association in 1775, it was the opinion of the majority that " subscription to a creed was not needful" — that the applicant for admission should give in his experience, and if

n2

180 THE NEW CONNEXION.

the majority decided that he should be admitted a member, a declaration should be made to him of what the Connexion believed respecting the most fundamental doctrines; in order that it might be ascertained whether there was an agreement in religious sentiments. Thus individuals were admitted; for it was not unusual then for ministers to be ranked as members of the Association whose churches were not in the Connexion. But as the churches became more numerous, it was found necessary to establish some mode of admitting them into the Connexion. At the Asso- ciation held at Castle Donington in 1777, it was agreed that any church desiring admission should present its request to the annual meeting — that during the succeeding year such church should send to every society in the Connexion a written statement of its religious sentiments, with its thoughts on the character of a true christian and the proper sub- jects of baptism and church fellowship, and that the minister should add an account of his experience — that each church should transmit to the ensuing Association its resolution whether it could hold communion with such a people as a church of Christ— that if the result was then favourable, it should be considered as a branch of the Connexion. This mode of admission continued for a number of years to be the established practice of the body.

EXPLANATION OF THE TABLE.

The reader is requested (before referring to the Table) to attend to an explanation of the signs and abbreviations which it has been found necessary to use, to bring the matter within the page.

Signs. — The f is placed against the churches which are not now con- nected with the body. The || indicates uncertainty about the number on the right hand of it: it will be seen that in the columns of dates this sign occupies tbe place of the figure 1 — one thousand is obviously im- plied there — 1|686 is to be read 1686, though it is not certain whether that is the precise date. In the columns " Erected" and " Enlarged," the letter p or h sometimes occupies the place of the first figure in the date — p783 means purchased in 1783, h824 is to be read hired 1824. The * indicates the present minister: — italic, (J. Yates,) assistant.

Abbreviations. — In the column " Mode, &c."— rn means resignation — in, invitation — x, exclusion— ill, illness — nf, infirmity — ag, old age — re, removal — se, secession — d, death. The capital letter (M, &c.) is the first letter of the name of the church that was formed by a division from the parent society, which is generally noticed in the observations : the minister against whose name the capital stands (in the column " Mode, &c.") removed to the new society, unk. means unknown : ch, change of sentiment: tu, tutorship : (re), in the "Names," resumed.

Meeting-houses. — The dates of the erection and enlargement may be easily understood in the Table, by referring to Barton and Kegworth as examples: — Barton meeting-house was erected 1745, enlarged 1801, enlarged again 18,09, re-erected 1841: then follow the stations belonging to Barton — Barlestone meeting-house was erected 1798, enlarged 1800, enlarged again 1811, &c. — Kegworth meeting-house was erected 1775, re-erected 1815 : that at Diseworth, erected 1752, enlarged 1790. The number of preaching-places us.ed by each church will be found in Chap- ter 6. The county will be found in Chapter 6.

AN HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE

Of the Churches composing the New Connexion of General Baptists during the FIRST PERIOD: viz. from 1770 to 1785.

Churches.

—

•6

g

M. houses

Tj

-

~

W

MINISTERS.

Names.

Periodical

number

of members.

Barton

In 1798 the members we- re scattered o- ver thirty vil- lages. A num- ber separated in 1798 to form

1745: 7:1770:120

stations — Barlestone

Bagworth.... 1814 Congerstone . . 1821 Newbold .... 1833 Bosworth .... hire

a church at Hugglescote, which accounts

for the diminution in 1800

1841

1798

1801

1,809

1800 1811

W. Kendrick

S. Dixon .. F. Smith .. J. Whyatt .. S. Deacon .. J.Aldridge ..

J. Yates

S. Deacon, jn. J. Hi ewin . . J. Green.. ..

J. Deny

J.Cotton.. ..

Melbourne

The diminu- tion of mem- bers in 1790

1760:40:1770:160

175011768 1782 1832

1795 1817 1845|

Ticknall . .

Hartshorne was caused by the separation of C auldwell : and that in 1810 by the separation of Ash- by and Packington, to form distinct chur- ches. The incautious admission of preach- ers caused a depression from 1810 to 1815

Kegworth ..11760

1770:180 17551 1815 The forma-| Diseworth . . 1 1752 1 1 790 tion of churches at Castle Donington and Ilkeston caused the diminution of members in 1785 ; and that at Sutton Bonington in 1800.

Loughboro'

, 11760:15:1770:240 h756 1792 1815

1-28

176-1

The formation of a church at Leake in 1782 withdrew 154 members from this society ; and that at Quorndonin 1803, withdrew 174: causing the diminution in 1785 and 1805

KirkbyWood-11760: :1770: 301175411818 house I Kirkby village! 18181

Smith

Perkins ..

Whitaker Gilchrist . . Smith .... Preston ..

F. Winks

Naylor .

Yates . . .

Stanion .

GUI

X. Pickering J. Tarratt W. Felkin . . resumed W. Butler J. Jones . . W. Wilders J. Taylor

1745 45 1747 L760 1760 1760 1772 1776 17'J7 1817 1824 1843

1760 1760 1794 1809 1812 1815 ls24 1827 1833 L841 1847

1760 1760 1800 1814 1824 1828 1830 1846

J. Grimley. J.Donisthorp

B. Pollard . T.Truman.

C. Briggs . W. Brand . T. Stevenson 1811 E. Stevenson 1842

1760jx. 1745 x. 1760 M 1770 x. 1812; d. 176

1766 1760 178' 1790 1799 1806

Though this was one of the five churches formed at the division in 1 760, its name does not appear in the minutes until 1773.

Longford

11766:50:1770:1701176511776 1807 1825

Longford &| Sow |l840| ■

Hinckley formed one church until 1773 when the increase of members rendered a division desirable. (Seepage 171.)

A. Booth

T. Truman.. G. Hardstaff E. Stenson ..

G.Hickling.. W. Smith .. R. Folds .... J. Cramp.. .. W. Butler .. J. Tunnicliff W. Chapman

1773 1816 1816

1x23

1796

1808

1811 18141 1823' 1826 1830 is 40 1*45

178-1 1700 1810 1818 1x2* 1830 1844

17*7 1774 1803

1707

1810

1841

1760 1787 1789 1844

1766 1766 1789 1792 1828 1*35 1843

1775 L781 1785

170O 1705 is 00 1805

lslO

1775 1781 1785

1700 1705 L800 1805 1810

1795 17*9 1839

1846

17*3 1773 1701 1827 1834 1842

1775 1781

1785 1790 1795 1800

is 05 1810

1775

1781 1785 1790

1705 1800

1S05

1810

1781

1785 1790 1795 1800 1805 1810

1775 1781 1785 1790 1795 1800 1805 1)810

1815 1820 ls25 1830 L835 1840 is 45

1815

1820

1825 1x30 is 35 1840

1S45

3 i o 319

341;

377

4!:; 420 330

1815 84 1820 107

1825 1830 1835 1840 1845

1815 1820 L825

is 30 1835 1840 1845

1815

1820 1825 1830

1835 1840 1845

1815 112 1820 121

1825 1830 1835 1840 1845

182

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

M. houses

Names.

-/.

Periodical

number

of members.

Birchcliffe ..11763:14:1770: 69:1764:1825

Dan Taylor J. Sutcliffe . . A. Barker . . H.Hollinrake

1763 1784 1799

l mi:,

1783 1799

is 03

The formation of the church at Burnley in 1 780, withdrew 22 members ; Queens- head in 1773, 17; Shore in 1795, 8. When the meeting-house was erected at Birchcliffe, the pastor laboured daily at the work with his own hands ; and when the pulpit was removed, he carried it on his back from the old house to the new one

1775 1781 1785

1790 1795

1800

ISlio

1810 153

Boston

,.||1651:

1770: 761176311777 1837 1841 WithamGreen|l842|

page 118

This church existed before the year 1 65 1

It forms a connecting link between the Old Connexion and the New : being the only one of the ancient churches that con- tinued regularly united with the New Connexion from its formation.

Hinckley

11773:70:1773: 68117681 1807 The mem-| Stoke Golding| rent |ed bers at Thurlaston and Earl Shilton form- ed a distinct church in 1814, withdrawing 75 members : the following year about 80 withdrew and formed a church at Wolvey.

Maltby

11773:15:1773: 15117761 I Alford |pP3ll

A G. B. church had existed here for many years. Some of the members being dissatisfied with the Old Connexion, with- drew and formed the present church. The meeting-house at M. was erected at the ex- pense of Mr. D. Dent, and, with the conti- guous premises, presented to the G. Bs.

tLong Sutton|l773:17:1773: 17:1776:

Formed by members from

ing-house is now occupied by Unitarians

1773:17:1774: 42 1 177311792 11820

Preaching was commenced b}^ Dan Taylor in the house of John Bairstow in 1772; in the following year a baptism took place and much inquiry was excited.

tHarbury ..11775:18:1775: 18:

E. Hall . J. Willey J.Hursthouse

J. Goode

S. Durance.. W.Thompson W. Taylor . . J.Underwood W. Nicholson J. B. Pike .. T. Mathews

W. Smith .. J.Freeston.. T. Yates.... J. Taylor .. W. Crabtree M. Shore .. T.Smith

J. Ingham . . J. Trolley .. Jan - om,Smed ley,Hurst,Ca- meron, Steven son, Jones J. Catley.... J. Kiddall ..

H.Poole.... Fleet : the m Seepage 196.

Jn. Taylor . . W. Hurley . . T. H. Hudson R. Hardy ..

1715 1722 1729 1738

1751 1702 1795 1830 1835 18.30 1839

1773

1799 1803 1822 1834 1840 1843

1775 1798 1800

182-2

1822 I82"i

1773 eet

1773

182(1

1829 1841

1722 1729 1738 1751 1762 1794 1830 1834 1835 1839

1798 1819 1814 1843 1837 1S43

1798

1800

1818

1829 1840

1775 1781

1785 1790 1795 1

1805 1810

1775 1781 1785 1790 1795 1800 1805 1810

1775 1785 1790 1795 1800 1805 1810

1775 1781

1785 1790 1795 1800

1805 1810

1810 1820

1825 18.30 1835

1840 1845

1815

1820

1 825

1

18 35

1840

1845

1815

1820 1825 1830 1835

1840 18-15

1815 1820 1825 L830

183- 1840 1845

1793

1815

1820 1825

18.30 18.3.5 1840

79 1 1845 92

190 213

211

250 295 298 309

105 54 74 112 181 183

208

The cause was introduced by the Longford ministers, who laboured hard in sup- plying it : but being at so great a distance from the churches, it could not receive adequate support. The cause declined, and about 1790 became extinct.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

183

Churches.

"8

5

>

—

M. houses

MINISTERS.

-d

■g

i

o

Periodical number

-

o

E

ei

■a

Names.

"

J

of members.

(S3

-

H

H

r.

■<

t Sutton Cold-1 1775:16:1776: 42

p774

A. Austin . .

1775

1785 rn

178)

63

1820

42

field |

1826

J. Smart

1815m

1785

59

1825

41

. . resumed . . W. Pollard..

1818

1819 d.

1810 1815

32 31

1830 1835

21 IS

After its separation from Birmingham

tills church stood aloof from the New Connexion until 1809, when it Mas readmitted.

The cause, however, declined, and in 1838, the few remaining members united with

the Birmingh

am church. See page 188 : also Birmingham.

Killingholme

1 : :1778

11117471

T. Sargeant

||686

1705

d.

1785

23

1815

33

|1792|

J. Wood....

1705

||712

1790

54

1820

29

This church comprised in 1686, eighty

T. Ullyott . .

1795

62

1825

IS

members scattered over ten or twelve

T. Wakeham

1720

1747

d.

1S00

52

1830

19

villages; and regular meetings were

W. Soulden

||748

1768

d.

1805

52

1835

19

maintained at Elsham, Melton, Boss,

J. Hannah . .

1768

1799

d.

1810

32

1840

25

Keelby, Killingholrne, and Winterton.

W. Atterby

1 8 00

1810

m

1845

24

About 1747, Mr. T. Wakeharn gave a

E. Himter . .

1 8 10

1829

rn

piece of ground to the church, upon which

J. F. Winks

1823

1825

rn

a meeting-house was erected.

W. Smedley G. Crooks . . W. Tutty . .

1829 1831 1832

1831 1832

1841

rn in d.

50:1736:

G. Crooks, re.

T. Cayme . . — Barber . .

1845

|]624 ||688

*

1820 1825

15

■38

1835 1840

56 46

Yarmouth ..

11624: : 1778|

T. Grantham revived the church here

— Roper ....

1704

1830

5(1

1845

51

about 1670: it joined the New Connexion

J. Reeve ....

1704

in 1778, was discontinued in the list in

J. Bending..

1716

1797, and reinstated in 1819. About the

J. Durant . .

1719

1740

d.

year 1818, the Socinians made a claim to

J.Blenman..

1737

the meeting-house: the claim was re-

W. Young . .

1755

1760

rn

sisted, and, chiefly through the exertions

J. Brown . .

1785

1818

of

of Mr. Davey of Norwich, the meeting-

W. Bampton

1818

1820

house was secured to the New Connexion.

— Waller . .

1820

1827

rn

Mr. Bampton removed to be employed in

G. Horner ..

1827

the missionary work.

D. Turner . .

G. Maddeys

1828 1830

1830 1836

rn in

W. Goss.... W. Fox ....

1836 1775

* 1779

X.

1781

23

1815

444

Nottingham,

1775:10:1778:

30

p783

Stoney-street

Stations —

1799

1834

R. Smith

1784

1817

se

1785

73

1820

335

Old Basford . .

1802

1820

T. Rogers . .

1794

1804

re

1790

154

1825

405

In this church

Arnolc Ruddii

1

1823 1825

T. Catton . . W. Pickering

1815 1819

1817

rn

1795 1800

178 272

1830 1835

317

635

igton . .

the prophecy is literally ful-

Carlto Bulwe

u

1826

1828

H. Hunter . .

1830

*

1805

1810

346 415

1840

1845

698

9

U ....

filled— "The

Hyson Green

1828

little one shall

Radford ....

1833

become a thou

Hucknall ....

1835

sand."

New Le/ iton . .

1841

Kirton-in- 1 : :1779|| 40118171 1836

J. Kelsey . .

|660

1781

40

1820

45

Lindsey ..] | l 1841

W. Atterby

J. Smith

— Nightscales

1797 1805 1810

1800 1809 1811

in

1785 1790 1800

44 51 44

1825 1830 1835

49 62 66

Probably gathered during the protec-

in

torate: it was flourishing in 1660. Mr.

R. Stocks . .

1819 1825

in

1805

36

1840

43

Kelsey resumed his labours here after his

J. Felkin ..

1826 1836

in

1810

3S

1845

34

release from Nottingham gaol in 1687.

W. Goodliffe

183711844

rn

1815

36

1

S. Cookman

1845 *

184

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

•6

1

O

g

ง1

s s

M. houses

-a •

to

MINISTERS.

w IS

Periodical

number

of members.

1782:30:1782: 30:1777:

D. Taylor frequently preached here in private houses as early as 1772: a chamber was afterwards hired in Jail Lane.

tAshford ,

:1782: 10:1761:

This was an ancient church : probably founded during the protectorate. Mr. Pickering exerted himself laboriously for many years : after his removal the cause declined, and in 1839, became extinct.

Leake .

1782:154:1783:154 Wimeswould . .

Wysall

Rernpstone . .

1750 17S0

1839 1826

This church enjoyed a pie asing revival about 1794 ; more than eighty persons were baptized in the course of two years. The formation of the church at Broughton caused the diminution in 1805. (See page 187.)

Leicester, ||1651: Friar-lane |

:1783: 4811719/

11785 1818

The formation of a church at Billesdon In 1819, withdrew forty-one members, and that in Dover-street in 1823, forty-four. The secession of those who formed the church in Archdeacon-lane caused the diminution in 1795.— (See page 186.)

Gosberton

:1784:

:1837

There were General Baptists here at an early period, who formed a branch of the Spalding church: their connexion with the parent society became gradually less intimate, until they became a distinct church, probably about 1762. The dimi- nution in 1810, was caused by the form- ation of a church at Sutterton.

Burnley . . . . 1 1780:26:1785: 22:1787:1843

The friends at Birchcliffe introduced the cause into Worsthorn, two miles from Burnley, 1776 : in 1780, the place of meet- ing was removed to Burnley.

Dan Taylor

1783

1785

in

1785

56

1820

W. Burgess..

1788

1791

in

1790

56

1825

J.Ellis ....

1793

1822

ag

1795

41

1830

J. Ingham . .

1822

1833

I'll

1800

31

1835

W. Nicholson

1836

1842

rn

1805

35

1840

F. Smith

1843

1844

in

1810

45

1845

J.Pike ....

1845

*

1815

77

B.Fox

1761

1766

rn

1785

15

1815

W. Kelsey . .

1766

1778

in

1790

20

1820

W. Pickering

1789

1800

in

1795

25

1825

R. Bradbury

1800

1814

rn

1800

23

1830

— Bramwell

1805 1810

24

27

1835

R. Thurman

1782

1801

B.

1785

159

1820

J. Bissill

1800

1802

in

1790

157

1825

T.Hoe

1803

1822

in

1795

207

1830

I. Henham . .

1825

1833

rn

1800

257

1835

E. Stevenson

1834

1805

190

1840

J. Tunnitliff

to

1810

188

1845

and C. Lacey

1837

1815

207

E. Bott ....

1838

^

C. Congrave

11651

1785

75

1820

T. Rogers . .

11651

1790

111

1825

T. Davye . .

11719

11750

1795

7ซ

1830

W. Arnold . .

11750

1800

70

1835

J. Johnson . .

1805

105

1840

S. Durance . .

1810

130

1845

R. Green

1781

1815

140

J. Deacohf,.

1782

1821

d.

B. Wood....

1808

1810

rn

S. Wigg ....

1821

*

W. Roberts

1699

i|724

d.

1790

16

1820

J. Anderson

1762

1781

d.

1795

23

1825

T. Fant

1781

1800

33

1830

J. Binns

1790

1795

rn

1805

47

1835

C. Briggs ..

1797

1799

in

1810

28

1840

J. Bissill....

1802

1807

1815

20

1845

C. Briggs(re)

1809

1812

rn

W. Bampton

1815

1818

in

J. Yates

1820

J.S.Thompsn

1825

1836

in

H. Everard

1836

*

R. Folds

1780

1789

in

1790

32

1820

E. Whitaker

1789

1794

in

1795

29

1825

R. Folds (re)

1794

1804

rn

1800

15

1830

T. Walworth

1804

1807

X.

1805

15

1835

G. Dean

1810

1818

in

1810

21

1840

H. Asten . .

1818

1837

rn

1815

25

1845

T.Gill

1838

1847

iu

191

24o 309 321 401

397

t See Obituary.

SHORT NOTES.

185

M. houses |

Churches. | 2

7

Z —

■a

o

>

T-

-

T3

■a

-

--

ZJ

S

=

! t<

r^_

W

s

Wisbech 11655

1785: 32

1697

1803

1812 1829

It is probable that this society

has continued in a church-state

1831

MINISTERS.

Names.

nd

•-

o

05

OJ

- S

Periodical

number

of members.

Strom 1655: the records state in 1697, "we agree to incorporate ourselves together in one church state ;" this perhaps refers to the " renewal of the church covenant."

E. Smith . Israel Cave. J. Sharman W. Fisher . J. Proud... J. Freeston J. Jarrom . J. C. Pike .

. 1655 . 1655

1710 . 173-' . 1756

1784

.1802 . 1 1838

1723, d. 17471 d. 1784J d. 1/991 in 1838 af

1790' 3811820

1/95 651825

180(1 3411830

180'. 51 1835

1810| 67 1815|104

Is 40 1845

SHOBT NOTES.

CHURCH FORMED AT NOTTINGHAM.

William Fox, a member of the church at Kegworth, re- moved to Nottingham, where he licensed his dwelling-house for preaching: in May, 1775, six persons were baptized; two others joining them from neighbouring churches, they were formed into a society. William Fox was ordained pastor : the ordination took place in Mr. Fox's garret, which was their usual place of worship. The conduct of the pastor soon be- came irregular ; having been admonished, in vain, he was ex- cluded. The effects of this unhappy event were inexpressibly mischievous to the infant cause : several of the members with- drew, and the enemies of truth took occasion to blaspheme. For several years the ministers from Melbourne, Donington, and Loughborough, supplied alternately with John Hallam, one of the members ; but seeing no fruit of their labours — often travelling twenty miles to preach to scarcely twenty hearers — they began to deliberate on the propriety of de- clining any further endeavours. Mr. Thurman exhorted them to continue, and they soon had the satisfaction of receiving additions to their number. In the year 1779, a large room was hired for a place of worship in Jack-Knutter's-lane : about this time a circumstance occurred which was overruled to the advantage of the church. A person was convicted at the Not- tingham assizes of robbing the mail, and received sentence of death. While he lay under condemnation, several General Baptists and their ministers visited him frequently : their in- structions and prayers appeared to be highly blest to his spiritual good. On the day of execution, John Tarratt and

186 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Benjamin Pollard attended the culprit on the scaffold : Mr. Pollard addressed the assembled multitude, and the effect pro- duced on many was strikingly visible. After the solemn scene was closed, the body was placed on the head of a cask in the street, and Mr. Tarratt, standing on another, delivered a dis- course from Psalm lxxxvi. 12, 13. From this time, the Gene- ral Baptist preachers — especially Messrs. Tarratt and Pollard — were attended by numerous congregations ; and the cause was established.

REVIVAL OF THE CHURCH AT LEICESTER.

A church had existed at Leicester for more than a century previous to the formation of the New Connexion (see page 119), but had become almost extinct. R. Green, elder of the church at Earl Shilton, possessed the property with which the society was endowed, and preached five or six times a year to the few who chose to hear him : but so obscure was their situation, and so little were they known, that though Mr. S. Deacon lived in Leicester three years, and made fre- quent inquiries, and often followed the people as they passed along the streets to the different places of worship, in order to find the General Baptist meeting-house, yet he was unable to discover it. In 1781, a family of the name of Brothers, the heads of which were members of the church at Loughborough, removed to Leicester. Soon after their removal, one of their children died : as it was unbaptized, it could not be buried in the church-yard. They sent, therefore, a request to their own ministers to come and assist at the interment in the burying- ground belonging to the old General Baptists. By the advice of Mr. Grimley, Mr. Pollard went, and preached to the friends of the deceased and a few of the ancient members who had been invited to attend. During the evening, one of the members of the original church said to Mr. Pollard with great earnest- ness, " Young man, we are six of us now with you, and we are all apostates." They united in requesting that the New Connexion would supply them with preachers. The request was laid before the ministers of the adjacent churches ; a regular supply was arranged, which was furnished alternately by the churches at Barton and Loughborough. John Deacon frequently visited them, and the people were desirous of en- joying his labours more constantly. Fourteen of the members who had formerly belonged to the society, reorganized the

SHORT NOTES. 187

church, Sept. 1782, when Mr. Deacon was invited to preach for them. To this he consented : the following year twenty- four persons were added by baptism, and good effects were produced by preaching in the villages around Leicester.

THE CAUSE STRENGTHENED AND EXTENDED.

This period presents the rise of several individuals who afterwards became eminent ministers among the General Bap- tists, and whose labours were greatly instrumental in strengthen- ing and extending the cause.

Barton church raised up Samuel Deacon, jun., the eldest son, and John Deacon, a younger son, of the indefatigable pastor — the former was afterwards associated with his father in the pastoral office, the latter settled with the church at Leicester. Thomas Orton, of Huggles- cote, and Jacob Brewin, also began to exercise their ministerial abilities in this church.

Loughborough church called fortb Benjamin Pollard, of Swithland, to labour in the ministry in 1779 ; in the following year Robert Smith, afterwards of Nottingham, and Joseph Freeston, commenced their minis- terial labours. This church was signally prospered in its exertions : in 1780, upwards of one hundred persons professed their faith in Christ at one time, by offering themselves as candidates for baptism. Quorndon, Woodhouse-eaves, and Bothley, regularly enjoyed the services of the Loughborough ministers. The progressive spread of the interest, and the accession of members suggested the propriety of a division of tbe society, which was effected in 1782 : Loughborough and the neighbour- ing villages forming one church, and Leake and Wimeswould, with the adjacent places, another.

Melbourne church encouraged the efforts of Thomas Mee, John Smedley, and Job Burditt; preaching was maintained at Packington, Ticknall, and other places. Joseph Norton, of Cauldwell, was induced to bear the preachers at Packington: after some time he was baptized and joined the church at Melbourne. His father entertained strong prepossessions against tbe Melbourne preachers : but they were at length subdued, he embraced the truth, and was baptized at Melbourne. Public worship was established in the village, and Mr. Norton generously gave a piece of land for a meeting-house and burying- ground. In 1785, forty of the inhabitants of Cauldwell and its vicinity stood members of the society at Melbourne.

Kegworth church called to the ministry William Corah and John Goddard. The cause was carried on here with energy and success. The society having become extended over many towns and villages, it was deemed expedient to divide it into three churches, viz. — 1. Keg- worth, comprising Diseworth, Belton, Long Whatton, and Sutton Bon- ington : — 2. Castle Donington, including Sawley : — 3. Ilkeston and Smalley. Through the liberality of Mr. Joseph Parkinson and Mr. John Stenson, a meeting-house was provided at Sawley : the former devoting a building to the purpose, the latter furnishing it with seats.

188 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Longford and Hinckley. The increase of members occasioned the division of this society into two churches: each church, after the division, continued to propagate the gospel in its locality. The Hinckley preachers extended their labours to Witheybrook, a village beyond Wolvey, where Mr. Robert Comptou licensed his house to receive them. Mr. B. Pollard being on a visit to Mr. E. Parkinson, of Thur- laston, was informed that the gospel had never been preached in that village in the memory of the oldest inhabitant. He preached the same eveuing and thus opened the way for the Hinckley ministers, who cheer- fully engaged to furnish a regular supply. Two of the members of Longford church having occasion to pass through Sutton Coldfield, obtained an interview with Mr. Abraham Austin who preached to a small independent society. The subject of believers' baptism was introduced, and Mr. Austin was induced to direct his attention to it. He and several of his hearers were shortly after baptized and formed into a General Baptist church.

Birchcliffe. — Several acceptable ministers were called by this church to labour in spreading the gospel — John Taylor (brother of Dan Taylor), John Sutcliffe, Jonathan Scott, Joseph Ellis, Richard Folds, and Jeremy Ingham. The labours of the pastor were almost incredible: his people, in general, co-operated with him, and their united efforts were blest. Three additional churches were established in this district; viz. — Queenshead, Halifax, and Burnley ; in each of which the work of the Lord prospered.

Boston. — Additions were frequently made to this church, but it does not appear that it originated any societies.

Several churches which existed prior to the formation of the New Connexion, joined the union during this period : for which see the table.

ATTEMPTS AT RE-UNION.

The increasing prosperity of the New Connexion, and the declining state of the few churches which adhered to the Lin- colnshire Association, induced the latter to desire a union with the former : the venerable Gilbert Boyce, especially, laboured anxiously to promote it. For several years the sub- ject was agitated, and various proposals were drawn up and discussed. But the ministers of the Old Connexion seemed unable to relinquish some of their ancient tenets and practices: at the Boston Association, in 1785, it was stated that they could not re-unite unless the New Connexion practised the lay- ing of hands on all persons received into church fellowship, and abstained from the eating of blood. As these conditions could not be complied with, the negociation closed.

189

Wfyt ฉfcttuavg*

The men who have been actively employed in bringing souls out of the kingdom of satan into the kingdom of God's dear Son, must doubtless be remembered among the greatest benefactors of mankind, and deserve to be had in everlasting remembrance. We shall therefore insert a biief notice of those ministers who have gone to their rest during each period.

John Yates, of Hugglescote, was a member of the church at Barton, but afterwards joined the Particular Baptists at Sheepshead, by whom he was called to preach occasionally. Not being satisfied, however, with his new position, he returned in 1772 to the Barton society, where he was immediately employed in the work of the ministry. His labours were so acceptable and useful, that he was ordained co-pastor with Mr. S. Deacon: but the hopes of his friends were painfully disappointed, and the prospect which seemed brightening before them was suddenly clouded. Mr. Yates died December 10, 1773 — less than a year after his ordination. The following extract from " lines written by Mr. S. Deacon" is no mean testimony to his worth —

" When he was with us much respect we bore, But now he's gone methinks we love him more. Now he is gone we see his excellence, His deep sagacity and piercing sense. Where's there another, if we search around, Where's there another like him to be found? Where's there another with such holy zeal ? W r here's there another that can preach so well ?"

Joseph Anderson was ordained elder in the church at Gosberton in 1762. He appears to have been an active and laborious minister; was constant in his attendance at the Lincolnshire associations, and fre- quently appointed to preach at those meetings. In 1781, while engaged in conducting worship for the General Baptists at Burgh and Monks- thorpe, he was suddenly seized with indisposition, and was conveyed from the pulpit to the house of his friend, Mr. Hursthouse, of Croft. The following Lord's-day morning, he said to his friends present, " I find it is death : this will be an everlasting sabbath to my soul." He departed in the evening, April 1, 1781, aged fifty-one years. He was much esteemed by his friends and respected by bis neighbours.

Joseph Donisthorpe was the son of George Donisthorpe, whose ancestors were driven from France to England by persecution on account of religion. Joseph was born on the confines of Charnwood Forest in 1702 : at the age of fourteen he was bound apprentice to a blacksmith at Normanton-on-the-heath. About 1741 , he was brought to a knowledge of the truth, (see page 158,) and imparted the glad tidings of salvation to his customers and to almost every person he met in the street. One evening, sitting on his own kitchen table with his neighbours assembled around him, he began to talk on religion: animated with a strong desire to make others as happy as himself, he undesignedly engrossed the whole conversation : after having talked with fluency and earnestness for nearly two hours, he was startled at the idea that he had been f reach- ing ! The fulness of his heart prompted this first sermon ; from the at-

190 THE NEW CONNEXION.

tention with which it was heard he was encouraged to proceed. His zeal gave great offence to the farmers and tradesmen on whom he de- pended for employment: they endeavoured by threats to deter him from continuing his benevolent exertions, but finding him resolved to proceed, they took away their work, and left him without any visible resource. His ingenuity, perseverance, and industry, however, were blessed by Providence, and soon procured for him sufficient employment. When the members of the Barton society determined to adopt believers' baptism, Mr. Donisthorpe first baptized Mr. Kendrick, and then Mr. Kendrick baptized him. On tbe division of the society into five churches, Mr. Donisthorpe and Mr. Grimley were ordained co-pastors over the Loughborough church. Although nearly seventy years of age, he laboured with great ardour and diligence. His labours and his life closed together. On the last Tuesday in May, 1774, he went to deliver a lecture in the meeting-house at Loughborough ; he prayed with his usual fervour, but while giving out the lines " The land of triumph lies on high, There are no fields of battle there ;"

his voice faltered, and he sunk down in the pulpit. He was conveyed home, where, after lying several days in a state of stupor, he expired in the 72nd year of his age. In person, Mr. D. was tall, stout, well-made, and had a pleasing, serious, countenance. He possessed good natural abilities, was affectionate in a high degree, of a warm, zealous, and forward temper, firm and persevering in his designs. As a preacher he was intent on the salvation of souls ; when preaching he was very animated, his favourite theme was the love of God in Christ; often would he burst into tears while describing it. One who knew him well, states that " he was a most immethodical, but a most spirited, popular, and successful preacher."

SECTION H. SECOND PERIOD, FROM 1785 TO 1800.

MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION.

At the formation of the New Connexion, the Association was a conference of the officers of the several churches, who be- came members by virtue of their stations. Some incon- veniences were found to arise from a seat being claimed on account of office: in 1795, it was declared at the meeting at Nottingham, that the members of the Asso- ciation were persons appointed by the churches. At the meeting of the Association at Kegworth, two years after- wards, it was declared that no person, whatever his station, could sit and vote as a member of the Association, unless as the actual representative sent by a church to that meeting. The Association was thus formally constituted an assembly of delegates.

191

AN HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE

Of the Churches which joined the New Connexion of General Baptists during the SECOND PERIOD: viz. from 1785 to 1800.

Churches .

8 ฃ ซ ฃ s ง w 5

fc IS MIS

M. houses

W

MINISTERS.

Names.

QQ

Periodical

number

of members.

Castle Don- ington ....

The reduction in 1840 was

1785:70:1786: 70,1774 1807

Stations— Sawley .

...1783

1801

...|1832

1*27

1-43

caused by a careful revision of the members

Ilkeston ....| 1785:54: 1786: 50/178411842 -I Newthorpe ..18281

The separation of Smalley caused the diminution in 1825. (See page 187.)

N. Pickering T. Pickering W. Brand J. Jones . . R. Stocks J. J. Owen

J.W.Goddard W. Felkin W. Pickering W. Purcell . G.Pike ... J,

Birmingham I : :1786: 591178611832 Sut. Coldfleld 1826

J. Green.. T. Yates.., G. Cheatle

1785 1791

1810 1822 1825 18401

1790 rn I8O7) d.

1821; in 1824 af 1839m

1785' 1/95 rn

1795,1800

180011815

1*20 1831 1841

1*22 1*33 1-40

1786 1808 1797 1803 18101 *

It is probable that B. had never been without General Baptists from the time of the commonwealth. Sev- eral joined the church at Sutton Coldfleld soon after its formation When the meeting-house was erected at Birmingham the church assumed that name. In 1800, the society divided into two churches— Birmingham and Sutton Coldfleld. (See Sutton Coldfleld.)

1790 102 1795 129 1800 137 1805 172 1810 202 1815 209

1790 112 1795 108 1800 149 1805 183 1810 195 1815 188

18201216 1825 229 1830 259 1835.296 1840 279 1845.333

1820 183 1825J 81 1830 124 1835; 70 1840;i01 1845JH1

1790'

1820

1795 73 182.5 1800, 4111830 1805 63' 1835 1810 119 1840 1815 184|1845

Cauldwell ..11785:40:1786: 46f 17781 I Overseal (l840|

The diminution in 1825 was caused by the separation of members at Burton. (See page 187.)

London — | Tower-hill,

1689 to Goodmn's flds

1712 to Virginia-st.,

1741 to Mill-yard,

1763 to Church-lane,

1821 to Commercial-n

1657: :1786: |h741|

1763 182l|

Job Burditt

178511786

d.

1790

45

1820

C. Norton . .

1788 1800

d.

1795

44

1825

J. Pollard ..

1808 1809

1800

43

1830

— Jarvis . .

1809

1805

45

18*5

T. Gamble . .

18131817

rn

1810

41

1840

W. Norton..

*

1815

7'

1845

S. Loveday . .

11675 1685

d.

1790

22.=.

1820

J. Maulden..

1686 1710

ch

1795

234

1825

L. Douglas . .

171M720

X.

1800

211

1830

ML Randall

1722 1756

d.

180.5

20C

1835

J. Brittain . .

175611794

d.

1810

199

1840

D. Taylor . .

1785 1816

d.

1815

150

1845

J. Wallis....

1820il843

Ill

G. TV". Pegg

1845| *

This church corresponded at intervals with the N. C . from 1770; but was not regularly received until 1786. In 1717, it united

with several other baptist churches in rebuilding and enlarging the baptistry at Horsleydown, for the general accommodation of their re- spective societies.

Gamston

11741: :1787: 61|||741|

I Retford unk.

1817 1836

The G. B. cause was introduced by Aaron Jeffery early in the 18th century : his son Joseph gathered the society and built the meeting-house.

J. Jeffery . . J. Dossey .. J. Scott .... J. Smedley S. Stenson . . W. Nicholson W.Fogg....

41 17^4 1763 1778

17-5 1795 1827

1832 1835

1794

1826 1831 1835

1790 95

1795 78

1800 75

1805 69

18101 70

1815 74

1*2,5 1830 1835 1840 1845

fLongwood 11789:19:1789:19: : J. Booth.... 1789 1804 1795 81800 9 1 The Yorkshire ministers introduced preaching. Mr. Booth of Halifax

performed laborious and gratuitous service, until an accident suspended his labours ; after which the cause sunk.

192

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

MINISTERS.

Names.

s s

Periodical

number

of members.

St. Ives

•H1644:

:1790: 40 1724 1787 p806

This appears to be the remains of the ancient Fenstanton society. They wor- shipped in a granary at St. Ives: this building was the property of Jonathan Denne ; in 1724, he assigned it to trus- tees for the use of the General Baptists of the society, which afterwards assumed

J. Cropper ..11720 H. Biggs.... 1758 Birlq/,Proud\l773

Payne, Mills, $• Barron . .

G. Birley

W. Naylor

to

1777 1777

Is 25

1752. d 1773 d.

1 705 is 00 1805 1810

IS 15

is 'J0

39 1825 34;1830 35 1835 34 1840 29 23

and it became the principal meeting-house the designation of the church at St. Ives.

Derby — Brook- street

1842, Mary's-gate.

1791: 9:1792: 23

Littleover

Jas. Taylor . . J. G. Pike . .

1 7 99 1810

IS07

180211811 1815 1819 p842 18Sll This church has a hired building fitted up as a meeting-house at Willington, and maintains preaching in houses at nine other villagi

1795 1800 1805 1S10 1815 ls20

1825

1830 1*35 1840 1845

The m. h. at Littleover is used by the Sacheverel-street church, but belongs to this society.

Shore

1794: 8:1794: 8:1777:

J. Spencer . .

1792

1819

d.

1800

9

1825

J. Midgley . .

1819

1843

rn

1805

31

1830

W. Eobert-

1810

35

1835

shaw ....

1844

1815 1820

40 40

1840 1845

107

Soon after Dan Taylor's settlement at Wadsworth, he carried the news of salva- tion to Shore — a desolate and unculti- vated hamM seven miles from Birchcliffe. Mr. Nicholson laboured here from 1777 to 1784 or 5, and Mr. Stansfield during the three or four succeeding years.

157

Tyd St. GUesI 1790: 16: 1796: 1511794 I Sutton St. James 1813

Formed by Mr. J Smith who 1 1834 withdrew from Long Sutton on account < false doctrines. See page 196.

Spalding.... || 1646: :1799: 22

1691 1715 1811

is 2*

1843

Henry Denne preached and administered the ordinances here in 1646, and it is probable the socie- ty has existed from that time. In 1688 it comprised Spalding, Bourne, and Hackenby, and contained 153 members, At the head of the fist of members stands " Thomas Grantham, messenger."

Bourne

:1799: 131171711807 -|1835|

This church was connected with Spald- ing until near the close of the 17th century, when it became a distinct society. The first recorded number of members in the B. C. book is 63, date June, 1720.

Hugglescote

Formed by a division; from Barton.

1798:98:1799:100

Ibstock . . . Whitwick. Coalville . Coleorton .

1760 1797 1814 1822 1836 rent led"

Jno. Smith..

1790

1807

a.

Jas. Smith . .

1812

1819

rn

J. Lilley

1820

1828

rn

J.Taylor....

1831

1846

in

— Harcourt

1846

*

T. Lawson . .

1687

1695

a.

J. Hooke....

I687

B.

W. Koberts

1699

1724

(1.

J. Pickerton

1703

1724

a.

J.Hursthouse

1708

1715

a.

E. Hardy . .

1709

1731

a.

M.Hrsthouse

1718

1720

a.

T. Blades . .

1734

1750

d.

— Eusling . .

1786

1797

X.

J . Bartol . .

1798

1810

a.

H. Everard

1810

1836

in

T. Hoe ...

1833

1846

rn

J. Hooke . .

1687

1736

a.

J. Halford . .

1728

1759

a.

W. Young . .

1761

1791

a.

J, Binns....

1795 1834

a.

J. Peggs

1834

1841

in

J. C. Mills..

1841

1846

rn

T. Beacon . .

1843

*

T. Orton

1798

1845

d.

J. Lindley . .

1845 1846

rn

H.Smith....

1846

*

1800

28

1825

1805

28 | 1830

1810

23|1836

1815

66 1840

1820

60

1845

1800

24

1825

1805

32

1830

1810

42

1835

1815

60J1840

1820

83

1845

30

44 84

7><

120 135 150 171 210 Previous to the revolution the members seem to have assem- bled in houses. The 1st meeting house cost ฃ89.

1800

14

1825

49

1805

20

1830

48

1810

45

1835

77

1815

55

1840

111

1820

47

1845

102

1800

120

1825

164

1805

125

1830

156

1810

148

1835J144

1815

149

1840)175

1820

147

1845

223

SHORT NOTES.

193

This church existed at the beginning of T. Mills . . the 17th century: towards the close of T. Ewen .. the 18th century, it had become almost T. Sarjant extinct from the age and inefficiency of its| J. Jones . ,

pastor, T. Mills. It was revived by the efforts of neighbouring ministers, especi ally Mr. T. Ewen.

Churches.

ฃ Is

•6 >

S a

a

a-

M. houses

111

U OS

w 1 w

Periodical number

of members.

March

: :1800: 44,1799 1813 T. Mears .. March Fen . . 184M I J. Buckland

11735 d. 1805

62 1830

li 735 1744

d.

1810

70

183'.

1744 1796

ag

1815

90

1840

1797

1822

vn

1820

84

1845

1824

1830

rn

1825

75

1832

•

London— ||1674 Park, South- wark ; remov- ed about 1765 to Duke-st.,

1800 to Gravel-lane,

1809 to

GrtSuffolk-st,

1839 to

Boro'-road.

:1800: 14

h800 1809

1816 1833

ls34

The members at Shad Thames had so increased 1839 about 1664, that it was judged necessary to divide the church into two bran- ches : a piece of ground was purchased in " The Park," Winchester, and a meeting- house erected. The earliest The Park" society commence

W. Marnor ^ 1680)1691 W. Brown.. 1 1| 692 ||704 W. Taylor . .1707:1716

records of

in 1674, at which time it was a distinct

church, though Mr. Clayton continued " an elder to both parties,

J Jenkins G. Mulliner

S. Hands . . J. Treacher A. Dobson . . W. Summers — Rowcliff.. F.B.Shenston J. Preston . . J. Farrent . . J. Stevenson

1716 1731 173111741 1740:1744 1745 1756 1757 1767 1768 1773 177511796

1799 1811 1817

1*52

1809 1815

1*32

1805 1*10 1815 1820

1825

35 18301 70 19 1835'l37 31 1840 308 77,1845 401 100| |

The meetinghouse inDuke-streetwas re built about 11 the original one, erected about 1670 issaidtohavebeen the place where Bunyan preached when in London.

Long ton

What-|l794:44:1800: 411179311828 W. Corah 1838 J. Green..

Belton 1814

The friends here were members of Keg- worth until the above date.

J. Deny

J. Stapleton

1799 1812 1819

1824

1811|d.

1819 d. 1824 in 1831 rn

1*05 1810

1815 1820

40,1825

43'l83()

50 1835

62 1840

1 1845

SHORT NOTES.

CHURCH FORMED AT DERBY.

Mr. Dan Taylor being on a journey, had occasion to pass through Derby, May 31, 1789, and was induced to preach on Willow Row. This opening encouraged Messrs. N. and T. Pickering to visit Derby, and preach several times at the same place. These services were held in the open air : a room was afterwards hired, and regular preaching commenced. Messrs. F. Smith and J. Smedley, of Melbourne, assisted occasionally by Mr. Goddard, of Ilkeston, attended in rotation until the close of the year. As the prospect of eventual success still

o

194 THE NEW CONNEXION.

appeared doubtful, the case was referred to the Conference at Cauldwell, Dec. 1790. That meeting, unwilling to relinquish the attempt, engaged the churches at Castle Donington and Ilkeston to furnish supplies for a limited time. Their perse- verance was crowned with success: on the 21st of August, 1791, F. Smith, T. Pickering, and J. Smedley, visited Derby, baptized nine persons, and formed them into a church.

THE SAILOR AND THE DIPPERS.

One of the nine was John Etches, a sailor who lost his arm in the celebrated battle between admiral Rodney and the count de Giasse, in 1782. After leaving the navy he returned to Derby, where he became notorious for the zeal and energy with which he engaged in the foot-ball contest which was annually held on Shrove Tuesday. One Lord's-day, when about to go to Normanton, one of his relatives said to him, " The dippers are come to town, and preach in a room by the gaol." " The dippers," he asked, " what are they ?" " They call them General Baptists," it was replied, " they are of the same religion as our relations at Nottingham." John went to the room : Mr. Francis Smith preached. Etches thought, as he quoted scripture so readily, he must be a gospel preacher ; and resolved to go again. He attended until he found joy and peace in believing. He was for some time reluctant to submit to the ordinance of baptism : his hesitation was, how- ever, subdued by our Lord's words, ■" Thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness." The baptism took place Aug. 21, 1791, in the river Derwent, near the Morledge. The Mor- ledge was full of people. Mr. T. Pickering preached, stand- ing on a stool in front of Etches' house. John was attired in his sailor's dress: just as he was going into the water a former foot-ball companion called out from a neighbouring tree, "Jack, where's the foot-ball now?" But he had done with the foot-ball for ever : from that day, he maintained an honourable christian profession for seven and forty years.

DAN TAYLOR AND ANDREW FULLER.

In 1785, Andrew Fuller published his pamphlet entitled " The Gospel of Christ worthy of all acceptation." This publication excited considerable attention : the high calvinists were alarmed lest the concessions of the author should under- mine their peculiar system ; those who opposed the distinguish-

SHORT NOTES. . 19a

ing tenets of Calvin thought the agitation of the subject afforded a favourable opportunity for stating and defending their own sentiments. Many ministers of the New Connexion requested Dan Taylor to publish remarks on the work. He at length complied ; in 1786, a pamphlet appeared signed " Philanthropos". The discussion was somewhat protracted, and was undoubtedly productive of good effects : Mr. Morris, the biographer of Mr. F., states its operation on Mr. F.'s con- nexions " in rendering the doctrine of the cross more gene- rally interesting. The universality of the atonement was more fully acknowledged as the ground of general invitations" (the very point which Mr. Taylor had laboured to establish) ; " addresses to the unconverted were applied with greater pun- gency and force." In 1806, Mr. Fuller was invited to preach for the sabbath school connected with Mr. Taylor's church ; when asked whether he would prefer preaching at Church-lane or at some other meeting-house, he replied — " I had much rather preach in Mr. T.'s pulpit, to convince the world that perfect cordiality subsists between him and myself." This he accordingly did on that and on a subsequent occasion.

PERSECUTION AT HOSE.

An attempt was made by the friends at Leake, in 1791, to introduce the gospel into Hose, a small village in the vale of Belvoir. The appearance of success exasperated the enemies of religion, and a bitter spirit of persecution soon manifested itself. The meetings were riotously broken up, the hearers were assaulted as they peaceably walked the streets; some- times the rabble followed them to their houses and broke their windows. So violent was the opposition that the attempt to plant the cause there was suspended. But the bread cast on the waters was found again after many days. About seven years after, Mr. Thomas Hoe, a native of the village, be^an to hold meetings for prayer and exhortation : his efforts met with encouragement. This revived opposition ; and every species of artful cruelty and open violence was used to crush the baptists. Mr. Hoe and his fellow-labourers were often in considerable danger: yet, in defiance of all opposition, they persevered and finally succeeded. The word preached was made the power of God to the conversion of several in this den of bigotry, and the interest was firmly established.

o2

196 THE NEW CONNEXION.

TRIALS OF FAITH.

In several churches of the New Connexion, attempts have been made to propagate some of the doctrinal errors which proved so destructive to the Old Connexion. At Kegworth, in 1 782, an occasional preacher embraced sentiments favouring the Sociuian system ; the church, after some investigation, sent to Mr. Dan Taylor for advice and assistance. Fully conscious of the danger which threatened the society, Mr. T. paid them a visit : he met the preacher, refuted his arguments, answered his objections, and clearly exposed the pernicious tendency of his views. The church withdrew their fellowship from him ; a few who adhered to him withdrew, and the leaven was purged out. — At Melbourne, about the year 1802, an insidious and determined effort was made to subjugate the church to the Sociuian faith: the piety, prudence, and firmness of Mr. Joseph Scott, one of the deacons, were mainly instrumental, under God, in averting the calamity. — The church at Hose was subjected to a similar trial: the pastor, Mr. Hoe, acted with decision, and they escaped the snare. In each of these instances, the trial was endured with a fidelity worthy of those who are " set for the defence of the Gospel." The enemy was resisted, and he Ued from them.

Mr. Poole, pastor of the church at Long Sutton, embraced the sentiments of Mr. Winchester about 1790: in this case a compro- mise of principle was effected, which led to further deviations from the truth. From the denial of the eternity of future pun- ishments they proceeded to the rejection of the divinity and atonement of the Saviour. Troubles ensued — the number decreased — and the church ultimately became extinct. The enemy was parleyed with, and he accomplished his object.

GENERAL PROGRESS.

It will be seen from the table accompanying this section, that only two new churches were originated during this period — Derby, and Tydd St. Giles: the others added to. the list were either such as had previously existed in a state of isolation from the New Connexion, or were formed by a sepa- ration from parent societies. Yet, pleasing progress is apparent among the associated churches — some were in a. high degree prosperous — and the foundation was being laid for future inde- pendent societies. The labours of Mr. Robert Smith at

THE OBITUARY. 197

Nottingham were eminently blest : a meeting-house was erected at the expense of nearly two thousand pounds — the hearers greatly increased, and ihe members had multiplied from 73 in 1785, to 272 in 1800. During this period Mr. Felkin was called to preach by the church at Ilkeston, Mr. Whitaker by the church at Burnley, Mr. Goadby at Barton, Mr. Bissill at Knipton, Mr. Jarrom at Diseworth, Mr. Cameron at Berkhampstead, Mr. J. Binns and Mr. James Taylor at Queenshead, Messrs. T. and W. Pickering at Castle Donington, Mr. Hoe at Leake, Mr. Rogers at Nottingham, &c. Towards the close of this period an Academy was opened under the superintendence of Mr. D. Taylor, to educate young men for the ministry: about the same time (1798) a denomi- national periodical, entitled " The General Baptist Magazine," was published under the sanction of the Association, of which Mr. D. Taylor was appointed editor.

Zty ฉfcttttarg-

Job Burditt was a native of Cauldwell, and was called to the work of the ministry two years after the opening of the new meeting house t'nere. His labours were so highly approved, that when the members formed themselves into a separate church, he became their regular preacher. As a minister he was diligent, zealous, and successful ; and anticipations of a long course of usefulness were indulged. But a severe cold, which he took while going to preach at a distant place, brought on a rapid con- sumption, of which he died April 27, 1786, aged twenty-seven years.

John Grimley was born in 1724, at Donington-on-the-Heath, near Hugglescote. Soon after his marriage, he heard the Barton preachers ; and was much struck with the view of Christianity as exhibited by them, when contrasted with what he was accustomed to hear from the estab- lished clergy. He joined the society in 1740, and soon began to pro- claim the wonders of grace among his neighbours. It was in a great measure owing to his advice and exertions that five distinct churches were formed and properly organized. Loughborough was one of these, and over this Mr. Grimley and J. Donisthorpe were ordained pastors. Mr. G. was possessed of good natural abilities ; he had a very clear un- derstanding, strong reasoning powers, a sound judgment, and a very retentive memory. Though many of his associates looked with suspicion on any other book than the bible and hymn-book, Mr. G. had the courage

198 THE NEW CONNEXION.

to cultivate several branches of useful knowledge. These literary pur- suits were attended to in secret, that he might not give offence to weak minds; while his friends enjoyed the fruits of his application, they, for a long time, remained ignorant of the sources from which he derived much of his ability to serve them. His sermons were instructive, and abounded in scriptural information : in church-meetings he was patient and forbearing; yet close, searching, and impartial, in dealing with offenders. One of his friends observed soon after his death — "In every- thing he was to us a father under God. Zion lay near his heart: the church was the care of his soul." His last discourse was preached at Loughborough from 2 Tim. iv. 6 — 8 : during the same week he was seized with a kind of convulsions; the following Lord's-day, August 12, 1787, his spirit took its flight, having dwelt in its earthly tabernacle sixty-three years.

Thomas Perkins was one of the first converts at Hinckley. At the division of the Barton society, Francis Smith and Thomas Perkins were ordained joint pastoisover the Melbourne church. These ministers were well qualified to labour together: Mr. Perkins' discourses being peculiarly adapted to arouse the careless sinner to a sense of his danger and to excite his fears ; while Mr. Smith's disposition led him to draw the wounded soul by the cords of love. Circumstances connected with an imprudent marriage in his old age, occasioned Mr. P.'s retirement from the ministry some years previous to his death, which occurred in Jan. 1792. There is good reason to believe that he died in the Lord.

William Thompson removed to Boston to take charge of the church there, in 1762. The cause was then in a very low state; but the zeal and diligence of Mr. Thompson, accompanied by the divine blessing, soon produced a pleasing revival. He laboured with unwearied assiduity while health was continued : and though, for several years, his infirmi- ties increased, the congregations were numerous and the cause pros- perous. He died Feb. 7, 1794, in the fifty-ninth year of his age : exhibiting, in his last moments, the efficacy of those doctrines which he had long laboured to propagate. Mr. T.'s natural abilities were not eminently great: but he employed them to the best purposes. He was a worthy man, a pious christian, a very respectable and useful minister, and contributed much to the establishment and support of the New Connexion.

Joseph Jeffery and John Dossey were joint pastors of the church at Gamston. Joseph Jeffery was son of Aaron Jeffery by whom the General Baptist cause was introduced into the neighbourhood of Gamston. Joseph acted as sole pastor until 1768, when John Dossey was elected co-pastor. They pursued their sacred work with diligence, zeal,, and success; all their exertions being gratuitous. In 1778, Mr. Dossey ceased from his labours, in his sixty-third year ; and March 14, 1794, Mr. Jeffery was called to his reward at the age of ninety years.

Jonathan Scott was called to preach by the church at Queenshead* In 1785, he removed to the church at Gamston and Retford, and the fol- lowing year was ordained joint pastor with Mr. Jeffery. Mr. Scott was a man of a zealous and persevering spirit, and his conduct was affable and

THE OBITUARY. 199

engaging. He laboured strenuously and affectionately — was earnest in his public ministrations — and diligent in exhorting from house to house. The efforts of Mr. Scott and his colleague were successful in reviving the cause of Christ in the neighbourhood: but in 1794, the church was de- prived of both its pastors. Mr. Scott died July 24, aged fifty-five years.

John Brittain was a member of the General Baptist church at Horsleydown, and was for many years employed by that society as an itinerant preacher about Nine Elms and Battersea. He occasionally sup- plied the church in Millyard ; his labours were so well approved that the friends gave him an invitation to take the oversight of them, to which he consented. While pastor of this church he acquired a con- siderable degree of popularity as a preacher, was successful in his minis- try, and enjoyed the respect and affection of his people. But as the effects of advancing years rendered him less useful and acceptable as a preacher, the cause declined: prosperity returned, however, after the settlement of Mr. Dan Taylor as joint pastor with Mr. Brittain. Though Mr. B. preached but little after the ordination of his colleague, he retained to the last his interest in the cause and his affection for the people: he died Sep. 18, 1794. at the age of eighty-four years; having sustained with honour the office of pastor of this society for nearly fhirty-eight years, during which he had made great exertions to promote its interests.

John Aldridge was a respectable farmer of Barton. Having heard the preaching of David Taylor and J. Donisthorpe, he, in connection with J. Whyatt, solicited them to visit Barton. He suffered much per- secution, but adhered firmly to his friends and to the cause which he had espoused. He was one of the first six who registered themselves as preachers ; and at the division of the society, was appointed one of the ministers of Barton church. But being affected by some doctrinal debates which arose in the church, and having previously entertained doubts respecting his call to the ministry, he resigned his office. He continued an honourable private member of the church until his death in 1795.

Francis Smith was born at Melbourne, Derbyshire, July 3, 1719. In early life he had strong religious impressions ; but, both his parents being called away by death when he was about sixteen years of age, he was left without a monitor, and for seven years he " went on to fulfil the desires of his own heart according as corrupt nature dictated." About this time he heard the methodists, and his convictions and fears were revived. For three years he continued in distress and fluctuation of mind, " sometimes hoping, sometimes fearing." He often heard the quakers, and read their books, as also those of Jacob Behmen and other mystics; but found nothing to remove his fears respecting his spiritual state. During this period he attended meetings for prayer and reading the scriptures held at Donington Hall, by the countess of Huntingdon and a few serious persons in the neighbourhood. At these meetings Mr. S. was frequently appointed to read, and obtained from her ladyship the appellation of "young Timothy;" but it does not appear that his dis- tressed mind received much relief. At length he was persuaded to hear the Barton preachers : after carefully comparing their doctrines with

200 THE NEW CONNEXION.

the scriptures, he was enabled to rest all his hopes of salvation on the Lord Jesus Christ. He then joined these professors, and was soon called to labour in the ministry. At the division of the society in 17G0, Mr. Smith and Mr. Perkins were ordained joint pastors of the church at Melbourne. His zeal in the work of the ministry, and in the discharge of the duties of the pastoral office, was untiring. As a preacher he was beloved and admired by the churches generally ; he had a pleasant and somewhat musical voice which rendered the delivery of his discourses exceedingly agreeable, joined witb a natural eloquence which but few preachers possess. His mind was deeply affected with the ruined state of his fellow-creatures and with the love of God in redemption : this subject called forth all the energies of his mind in the most tender and affectionate addresses to his hearers, and his preaching was abundantly blest by God to the conversion of sinners. His death was sudden : on the 19th of March, 1796, he was seized with a pain in the breast; and, sitting down in his chair, in a few minutes expired, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. He had been diligently, faithfully, and successfully employed in the ministry for nearly fifty years, and had uniformly main- tained a character which adorned his profession. As the sudden and unexpected departure of this venerable man prevented his leaving a verbal testimony of the state of his mind in the immediate prospect of death, the following fact is peculiarly interesting. About six hours be- fore his death, he made his will, in which be states— "Principally and first of all, I give my soul into the hands of the God of love (who in infinite compassion gave his only begotten Son for my ransom) ; and my

body," &c "nothing doubting, that at the resurrection of the just

I shall rise to life eternal through my ever-blessed Redeemer." (See page 143.)

Jeremy Ingham was called to preach by the church at Birchcliffe. In 1775, he was invited to supply the church at Maltby, and in a short time was ordained to the pastoral office. For some years his labours were attended with great success : but about 1785, his health began to decline. He continued to grow more infirm and less able to perform the duties of his office until 1798, when he exchanged a bed of languor and pain for that happy state in which the inhabitants never say "we are sick."

William Smith heard the General Baptist preachers at Hinckley, and was soon convinced of the truth of tbeir doctrines. fSee page 167.) About 1762, Mr. Smith began to preach ; when Hinckley and Longford separated from Barton in 1766, Mr. Smith and Mr. Hickling were or- dained joint pastors. When Hinckley and Longford were formed into distinct churches Mr. S. became sole pastor of the society at Hinckley. His labours in the gospel were extensive and very useful : for more than forty years he faithfully performed the duties of the christian ministry. His death was occasioned by a mortification, which began in the hand, and, spreading rapidly over the whole frame, in a few days terminated his life; towards the' close of the year 1798, in the sixty-ninth year of his age.

John Hannah began to preach, probably as early as 1755. After the death of Mr. Soulden, in 1768, the whole of the ministerial work-in the church at Killingholme devolved upon him; in 1773, he was ordained to

THE OBITUARY. 201

the pastoral office. Mr. H. appears to have been an active and useful minister, and a hearty friend to the General Baptist cause. Before his ordination, the church at K. was in a state of deep declension : by his persevering exertions jt was restored to a good degree of prosperity. He died March 19, 1799, at the age of eighty-seven.

John Sutcliffe was for some years an occasional preacher in the church at Birchcliffe. When Dan Taylor was invited to Halifax, it was agreed that he should preach there for six months, and Mr. Sutcliffe labour at Birchcliffe. This experiment commenced with the year 1783, and resulted in the removal of Mr. Taylor to Halifax, and the ordination of Mr. Sutcliffe to the pastoral office at Birchcliffe. This office he sus- tained for more than sixteen years. For several years he was subject to transient fits : after an attack of fever he was unexpectedly seized with a tit and after that with a second, in which he expired, Oct. 4, 1799, at about fifty years of age. He was a useful minister: his abilities were not of a superior order, but he delighted in the distinguishing doctrines of the gospel, was a meek, pious, christian, animated with strong com- passion for the souls of men.

Thomas Truman was a member of the church at Nottingham ; being an acceptable preacher, he was invited, in 1787, to serve the society at Kirkby Woodhouse. His labours were remarkably blest : but his stay was short — in 1789, he received an invitation from the Loughborough church, and settled there as assistant minister in January 1791. On the 10th of October 1797, as he was returning to Quordon from an even- ing lecture at Loughborough, a person rode against him in the dark and bruised him so severely, that he died in an hour after, aged thirty years. He was a man of a peaceable temper and an unblemished character : — as a christian, he was sober, grave, and exemplary — as a minister, he was faithful, and close in his application of divine truth to the con- sciences of men ; and had gained the affections both of the members and the congregation.

Charles Norton, of Cauldwell, gave proof of conversion and joined the society at Melbourne when about seventeen years of age. The church encouraged him to exercise his talents for preaching; and, at the death of Mr. Job Burditt, he was called to the work of the ministry. He was sent, for a few months, to receive instruction from Mr. S. Deacon of Barton : after his return, he resumed his labours, and was ordained to the pastoral office over the church at Cauldwell, Sep. 16, 1788. Soon after his ordination his sight began to fail; in about four years he became quite blind, but continued his ministerial labours with credit to himself and profit to his hearers. He was called to his reward Aug. 6, 1800, aged forty years. Few christians exhibited more of genuine meekness: in sickness and in health, he presented a bright example of piety, patience, and humility.

202 THE NEW CONNEXION.

SECTION III. THIRD PERIOD, FROM 1800 TO 1820.

SHOBT NOTES.

(FOB THE CONVENIENCE OF PRINTING, THIS PRECEDE8 THE TABLE.)

STATE OF THE CHURCHES.

At the Association in 1802, a circular letter was drawn up by Mr. Dan Taylor, founded on the statements received from the several churches. From this letter we learn that, at the commencement of this century, the state of the Connexion generally was encouraging. It is true there was a paucity of ministers, and the writer observes " this is a common and affecting complaint ; and as we increase in number of meeting- places, we need not wonder that it is so:" — in some churches also it is lamented that "conversion work goes on slowly." In others were reported " a revival and advancement of religion," and general unanimity and peace. " On the whole," observes the writer, " blessed be God ! it appears by the state- ments of the several churches, that our number increases con- siderably. Let us give God the glory to whom it belongs ; and take care that, while it is more expanded, it does not be- come more superficial. Still let Christ be * all in all' in every church and in every heart ; and he will take care that the gates of hell shall never prevail against us."

SUCCESS AT BEESTON.

The circumstances connected with the formation of the church at Beeston are worthy of a record here. While Mr. W. Pickering resided at Ilkeston, he and some of his friends frequently preached at Chilwell, a small village near to Beeston; thirteen members were the fruit of their labours. But in 1803, the prospect was darkened, and the dwelling-house in which preaching had been carried on, was closed against them. By a train of circumstances unconnected with preaching, Mr. Rogers, then assistant minister at Nottingham, was led at this juncture to remove from Nottingham to Beeston. Being con- vinced that an interest might be raised in the neighbourhood, he relinquished his engagements with the fiiends at Notting- ham, and resolved to devote his attention to this object. March, 4, 1804, eight members of Nottingham church were dismissed

SHORT NOTES. 203

and formed into a church at Beeston ; May 20, five candidates — the fruits of Mr. Rogers' ministry — were baptized ; July 27, twelve more ; Oct. 21, fifteen others, in the same way, made a public profession of their faith in Christ. Almost every week, for many succeeding months, individuals professed to be con- vinced of sin, and desired communion with this society ; so that within the space of twelve months, more than fifty mem- bers were received. Most of these candidates were persons of mature age, some were far advanced in years : in many cases, husbands and wives, and in some instances,, whole house- holds "arose and weie baptized."

FRENCH OFFICERS BAPTIZED.

Among the prisoners taken by the English during the French war, were Hyacinthe de Serre, and Honore le Jeune, two French officers, who were sent on parole to Ashby-de-la- Zouch. In 1808, M. de Serre began to attend the General Baptist preaching in that neighbourhood, and was soon con- vinced of the truth of divine revelation, which he had previously doubted. The prejudices of popery (in which he had been educated) fettered his mind considerably for some time; but he was at length brought to the enjoyment of gospel liberty, and was baptized by Mr. Goadby, Nov. 27, 1808. M. le Jeune was also baptized at Ashby during his captivity. After their return to France, a letter was received from M. de Serre by Mr. Goadby of Ashby (in 183S), in which, after stating that he had regularly maintained preaching and worship in his family, the writer observes — " By the blessing of the Lord I have been called to baptize and receive into the house of my God, an English lady residing at G., my eldest daughter, her husband, the mother of her husband, my niece C. S., the governess of my children, my present wife, my youngest daughter and her husband. I feel that the favour the Lord has so granted to me shall be a source of eternal joy and praise: I sometimes hear from Honore le Jeune: he is very zealous and faithful, but has very little success." Who can presume to estimate the importance of this interesting event ! The day alone will declare it.

BOROUGH-ROAD CHURCH REVIVED.

Towards the close of the eighteenth century, the ancient church in the Park, Southwark, became nearly extinct. Mr. D. Taylor was very assiduous in collecting the scattered

204 THE NEW CONNEXION.

remains of this society and re-uniting them in church order ; a degree of success attended his efforts. Having lost their meeting-house through the neglect of the trustees, the few members hired a small outhouse in Gravel-lane, and for some years the cause presented a more encouraging aspect. But in 1809, their pastor resigned his office, they were deprived of their place of worship, and the interest appeared again hastening to ruin. In this exigency, Mr. D. Taylor and his friends once more came forward to assist and encourage the desponding wanderers. Mr. T. frequently preached for them in a room belonging to one of their dwelling-houses, and encouraged his students to supply them. In conjunction with two or three friends he hired a piece of ground in Great Suffolk-street, and erected a meeting-house. The interest thus preserved from dissolution now constitutes the flourishing society in Borough- road ; these facts in its history afford encouragement not to " faint in the day of adversity."

AN OPPONENT SUBDUED.

In the year 1815, Mr. R. Smith baptized five persons who had been brought to profess faith in Christ by the preach- ing of the gospel at Mansfield. The ordinance was administered at Mansfield Woodhouse, upwards of a mile from the town. Believers' baptism being a new thing in the neighbourhood, nearly two thousand persons assembled at the waterside. Among these was an individual who gloried in being an enemy to dissenters. Resolved to turn into ridicule the solemn ordi- nance of baptism, he had given an old sailor a shilling to jump from the bridge upon the back of the first candidate that went into the water; he had also engaged a person to procure a number of dogs which were to be thrown into the water during the administration of the ordinance. Before the baptism, Mr. Smith addressed the crowd, and the ringleader of the mob placed himself in front of the preacher. He listened atten- tively and seemed affected. At the close of the discourse he forbade the sailor to interfere with the solemnity, telling him he might keep the money : he went also to his other agents in the crowd, and threatened to throw into the water the first per- son that dared to make any disturbance. The spectators, struck with the change, behaved with the strictest propriety, and there is reason to believe that many felt the power of divine truth.

205

AN HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE

Of the Churches which joined the New Connexion of General Baptists during the THIRD PERIOD: viz. from 1800 to 1820.

M. houses

■6

-

3

>

1

.a

i

•6

g 3

|

MINISTERS.

Periodical

number

of members.

Kniptou

:1801: 16:

J. Wortley . . — J. Bissill.... This is an ancient society: it joined^ Stokes .. the Lincolnshire association in 1769, after J. Proud.... which it was visited by G. Boyce,themes-|W. Kelsey .. senger. While Mr. Hoe supplied it, by[J. Turner .. his advice it left the L. association and W. Hatton joined the Xew Connexion.

Peterborough ||653: :180l: 18:1799:

R. Wright .

— Moyses . ,

— Poole S. Wright ..

A society was formed here during the protectorate of Cromwell. In 1794, only S. Wright .. 179718' two members remained ; when the Lin- jW. Pentney U colnshire conference agreed to furnish supplies, which were continued until Mr Wright became their regular minister.

11778 1789 1816 1817

||819

1655 174'.)

1 7S5

1*05 1810

1815

1820 1825

1805 d. 1810 J1815 ag 1820

1825

23 1830 17 1835 1211840

8|l845 5

17:1830 181835 251840 311845 21'

Sutton Bon- ington

1798:28:1801:

38 1794 1823

1829

Normanton ..|h809

W. Smith . W. Wilders J. Stapleton W. Clarke .

This church was formed by a separation from Kegworth. It received ministerial 1 W. Wilders aid from Mr. Tarratt, the former pastor of Kegworth church

1798 1800rnl805 18091830 m 1810

1832 1840

1841 1843 1845 *

inl815

rn|l820

1825 74

33 1830 93

68 1835 99

65J1840J 83

77 1845 64

Broughton ..11801:83:1802: 85

Hose

The gospel Widmerpool..

was introdu-| Clawson

ced here by the Leake church

1841

R. Thurman 1801 1811 nf 1805 83,1830 108 W. Hatton. 1812 1817 1810 73U835 99 W.Scampton 1817 1822 1815 63 1840 114 T. Hoe .... 1825 1838 d. 1820 99 1845 170 R. Stocks . . 1840 * I 1825 90 1 friends resident in the neighbourhood were members of that society until they became a distinct body as the church at Broughton and Hose. Disunion and altercations checked its prosperity for a time. (See page 195.)

1795 18 is 1804 1845 and the

Rothley

1801:73:1802: 73 17851

1800

Mr. Thomas) Sileby 1 18 18 1

Simpson, a member of Loughborough church, residing at Rothley, began to

J W Goddard 1803 .J.Austin ..11814

1812!d. I823rn

1826 ru 1836 in

1*05 1*10 1*15 1820

1*25

8511830 47 1835 73J1840 90 1845 851

F. Caldicott 1824

S.Taylor .. 1827

W. Goodliffe 1846 preach to his neighbours: this attempt opened the way for the Loughborough ministers: They commenced their labours in an old barn, and were soon crowded with hearers. The church was formed by a separation from Loughborough : the diminution in 1810 was caused by the separation of Woodhouse Eaves.

Louth

|1802:17:1803: 30]p800|1807 -1182711840

There was a church here in the 18th cen tury ; but in 1800 it had disappeared, and the meeting-house was offered for sale

1803|1810'rn

1810 1816

1815

1*22

1*05

1*10 1815 1*20

111

1825 130

F. Cameron

J. Stevenson

J. Jones ....

F. Cameron (resumed) J1822

These circumstances were laid before the association : that assembly purchased the meeting-house : by the labours of R. Smith, W. Taylor, J. Jarrom, and W. Smedley. a church was raised.

1830 120 1835; 120 18401145 1845 | 160

206

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

M. houses

1 o Eh

s

g

s >■

'a)

1

■a

Names.

DO

Periodical number

of members.

Quorndon..

Preaching was introdu- ced in 176G.

1803:174:1804:

Woodhouse .

Barrow

Mountsorrel .

1797 1*22

1803 1817

1822J 1827 1827JI830 1833 1843

18451

180;> 1810 1815 1820

1825

178 18301198 146 1835 295 145 1840' 274 155 1845E67

1581

1770 1780 H. Pollard 1790 J. Allsop..

iT. Scott . .

A. Smith

|J. Staddon

Mr. R. Parkinson licensed his house for the purpose, and much success was vouch- safed. It continued a branch of the Loughborough church until a division became desirable; when Mr. B. Pol Jar d was retained as its pastor. The meeting-house at Mountsorrel is an old building, formerly used by the unitarians : it was presented to this church, and opened for worship, in 1843. J. Allsop joined the mission.

Beeston

1 1804:

:1804: 30: 1806: I836|T. Rogers B. Bull ..

Theremovalof Mr. Rogers checked theJR. Abbot .. 1825 1833 rn 1815 100J1840

progress of this cause : it was also affected F. Smith 1836 184ljrnil820 74 1845

by the stagnation of trade. The diminu- R. Pike 18451 * | |1825 75|

tion in 1843 was caused by the secession of members, who attempted to form a dis- tinct church. (See page 202.)

1804 1814 m'1805| 831830 1815 1818 rn'1810 116:1835

Downton ....I 1804: 28117151

! |1835|1845

Founded before the revolution, but it declined towards the close of the 17th century. Peter Coles, assistant preacher, lay several years in Salisbury goal for nonconformity. It has an endowment which has been a fruitful source of trouble.

Leicester — Archdeacon- lane

1792||12:1805: 34

J. Sangar . . B. Miller .. — Brown . . T. Twining.. A. Aldridge W. Smedley J. Mead .... T. Gunning W. S. Clifton

1795)1807 T.Simpson.. 1825 T. Stevenson

1836 1841 1

W. Felkin . . W. Goodrich, B. WooiLand

Belgrave Formed by members from Friar-lane It has been subject to many changes. The 1 /. Bromwich diminution in 1820 was caused by un- ! .T. Bromwich pleasant circumstances in the church, and|T. Stevenson

the formation of a church at Fleckney and Smeeton. A large measure of prosperity has been enjoyed during Mr. T. Stevenson's ministry.

(1680

1805

34

1699

1747

d.

1810

39

1763

11765

rn

1815

44

1775

1777

rn

1820

24

1787

1802

rn

1804

11811

rn

1816

1841

rn

1841

1843

d.

1843

*

11792

1806

rn

1810

98

1806

1811

in

1815

109

1811

1813

in

1820

70

1814

1825

118

to

1819

1819

1827

rn

1827

*

1825 1830 1835

1830 189 1835 31 1840 399 1845 413

Portsea

1801:1G:1805: 49 1798

A church had existed at Portsmouth, probably from the time of Cromwell. It declined

1839

1804 J. Kingsford 1806 W. Brand .. 1808 E. H. Burton

18141

180) 182J

183-1

1820 1833

1810! 60:i830jl75 1815)107 1835:138 1820J 96 1840'230

1825,203 1845:241

under the influence of false doctrine : Mr. J. Kingsford, assistant minister, and others, withdrew and formed a distinct society at Portsea.

1807:42:1807: 42) 1808 1 1819' Jas. Taylor Blaked&in ..1821 \t. Smith .. | Broad Stone.. 1 18401 I R.Ingham.. Ihe General Baptists in this locality! \V. Butler ..

Heptonstall Slack ..

1807 1817 ls22 1834

1822 1822 1834

in ■ 1810| 98

11815 156

in 1820 183

' 1825 '224

i8;;o

1830 1840

1845

193

continued members of the church at Birehcliffe until it became evident that a separation would tend to promote the interests of religion in the neighbourhood ; a distinct society was consequently formed, and all ranks of people in the neighbourhood evinced a dis- position to patronize the rising cause.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

207

Churches.

I u o

ฃ ซ

a ■ซ

Si ซ

g

3

M. houses

MINIS

Names.

rฃRS.

Periodical

number

of members.

■d

o

13

bo

•a

"5

0G

V o

g

—

3

Ashby ....11807:105:1808:103

Preaching! Packington .. was maintained at Packington,

p802 1817 h76S 1831

1832 1810

J. Goad by .. C. Evans . . T. Yates....

1799 1842 1845

1841

1844

d.

rn

1810)10411830 225 1815 117 1835 253 1820 149|1840 160 1825 168J1845 163

in the house of Richard Thompson, some years before 1760 : when Mr. Goadby removed to Ashby in 1799, there was no place of worship belonging to this section except an old barn at Packington which had been engaged on a lease. In 1800, Mr. Goadby licensed a house for preaching at Ashby : the members at P. and A. constituted a branch of Mel- bourne church previously to their formation into a distinct society, having been, for some years, almost independent of the parent church. A diminution in 1810 was caused by the separation of Austrey — and in 1840 by the separation of Measham.

Sutterton .. 1 18081)31:1808: 3111803! (J.BIssill.

! 182511839 •/. Smith.

Mr. J. Bissill settled at Sutterton when' W. Bami>t>in he became minister of the church at Gos- JGolsworthy berton, and established preaching at the former place. The friends at Sutterton were members of Gosberton church until they formed themselves into a distinct society

180'j

1811

1836

1838 rn 1810 30

1810 [1815 32

1815 in 1820 27

* 1825 34

1835 41 1840 78 18451 74

Austrey

1808:15:1809: Warton Appleby . . Polesworth

1819! 1812

1820 1828

HO.

1810

1*09

W. Jarvis

J. Barnes Mr. Goadby of Ashby, in- troduced the gospel in 1802, Mr. Barnes having licensed a large room for preaching. The attempt met with much opposition from some farmers in the village, but the friends of the cause increased. The diminution in 1830 was caused by the separa- tion of Netherseal.

18101 241830151 1815 59 1835 134 1820 137 1840 129 18251159 1845 170

Berkhamp- stead . .

: :1809:150|!16911840

Cheshain .. .. |171ljl735 1835

This church Tring 1 1751 1839

was in a flourishing state in 1676, having at least 100 members. The friends at Ches- ham adhered steadily to the doctrines on which the church was founded, and firmly opposed the errors of Mr. Caffin. Success rewarded their constancy: in 1735, when many churches were declining under the influence of false doctrine, the friends at Chesham found it necessary to enlarge their meeting-house. Error crept in about 1775 and declension followed : when truth and discipline were restored, pros- perity returned.

Duffleld

1810:47:1810:

57|h809 — 1830

J. Russell . .

— Castledine J. Cook .... T. Basting.. J. Woodward T. Sexton ..

— Butler ..

— Trustram

— Young . . C. Cock.... W. Thrussell

— Pyall.... E. Sexton .. S.Young.... J. Hobbs .. E. Stevenson II. Compton J. Heathcote S. Ayrton . . J. Sexton . .

1676 1698 1700 1700 1712 1718 1733 1744 1744 1775 1775 1775 1780 1799 1-02 18.34 1838 1841 1842 !s43

R. Ingham.. 1812 W. Crabtree 1834 8. Taylor .. 1836

il 735

1775

1762

1780 1796

1834 -1

1800 d

1840 d. 1842

1841 rn

1-22 1834

Is 4--1

1810 1815 1820 1825

1835 1840 1845

Note.— B. C. and T. form but one church, though the af- fairs of each place are con- ducted sepa- rately and each has its own minister.

1815 1820

1 J25

15311835 199 1840 84 1845 110|

The cause was introduced in 1807 by Mr. J. Barrow, a member of the church at Derby : the attention of the inhabitants was excited, and numbers crowded to hear the doctrines of the gospel. For some time the truth was propagated with much zeal and success. The formation of the church at Wirksworth diminished the number of members in 1818, and that at Belper in 1823

208

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

M. houses

MINISTERS.

Names.

2 2

Periodical

number

of members.

t Woodhouse 1809:34:1810: 34:1797: Eaves ..

The friends here separated from Rothley. they united with the church there.

T.Wesley .. |1810|1816 rn 18151 40(18251 72 I 1820| 75| 18301 97

When Mr. Smith settled at yuorndon

t BradweU.. 11811: 9:1811: 9:1790:

I Mr. W. Pickering introduced the cause while at Ashford. The name of the church

appears in the minutes for the last time in 1839.

Fleet 1690: 1812:107 1764 1782 R. Vellem .. 1690

13 G Turrington 1716

Gedney Broad- gate

Solbeach ....

ls.T.i

Is 4 5

1S30 is 4'.'

This was a branch ol Spalding: ifr meetings were held chiefly at Holbeach until 1690 when R. Vellem removed the meeting to Fleet. From 1723 to 1729, public service was held alternately at Fleet and Lutton. In 1741, the number of members was forty-one. The formation of the church at Gedney withdrew a number of mem- bers in 1820, and that at Long button in 1840. (See pages 130 and 179.)

t Chatham ..II*

:1813:

There was a flourishing church here in 1665. Doctrinal differences led to the se- paration of a few members, who formed a

t Ipswich ..|1809: 8:1813: 50:1812:

W. Blades.. T. Blades . . W. Blades . . W. Kidd.... H. Poole .. J. Proud.... — Prowitt.,1 W. Burgess 1 1791 T. Rogers . .

T. Yates

F. Chamber

lain

R. Kenney..

J. Hobbs . . S. Garrett . .

— Clayton..

— Love ....

1718 1740 1756 1762 1770 1775

1814 1X40

1845 1845

1710, d. 1723 d. 1722 d. 1756 d.

1768; d. 1773rn 1786 rn

1813

1*39 1845

1815 1820

1825 1S3(

]s.35 184(1 1845

Several members have become pas- tors —

T. Ewen, March J. Birch, Gedney Everard.Gosbertn — Hall, Forncett J. Lyon, Chatteris S. Wright,Lincoln J. Peggs, mission I, Stubbins, ditto

1800'l802 in 1815: 16:1820: 15

distinct church: in 1821 it dis- appeared from the minutes. (See Obituary, J. Hobbs.)

IW. Jackson :1809:

S15: 70:1820 :33

This church was formed through the instrumentality of Mr. Jackson, and some General Baptists serving in the Derby militia. It presented a promising aspect for a time, but afterwards declined ; its name appears in the minutes in 1824 for the last time.

t Nantwich ..11812: 3:1813: -8||1695:

|J. Cooper ..11813) jch|1815| 9118251 19

1 I !l820| 20|1830| 19

A church flourished here in the seventeenth century ; all traces of it had disappeared before the close of the eighteenth century, and in 1812 the methodists had possession of the meeting-house. Mr. J. Deacon, Mr. R. Smith, and Mr. T. Stevenson visited Nant- wich at intervals; the meeting-house was recovered, and a church formed. After struggling against Socinianism and other adverse circumstances, the church was erased from the minutes in 1833.

Forncett, St.|18l4: 8:1814: 11||1750: J.Hall .... 1813 1820 in 1815 38 1835 54

Peters....| W.Brown .. 1821 |j 825 1 1820 751840 54

Mr. J. Hall, a member of the church at J. King * 1825 62J1845 54

Fleet, settled at Forncett in 1813. He ) 1830 54)

laboured with zeal and diligence ; being assisted and encouraged by the occasional visits of ministers from the Lincolnshire churches, his labours were crowned with suc- cess, and a church was gathered.

Thurlaston.. 11814:75:1814: 75|1787|1816 T.Yates. 1827, (See page 188.) The church 1 1 842 1

1814

1S42

1815 1820 1825 1830

8811835 1840 1845

was formed by the separation of members' from Hinckley. The diminution in 1820 was occasioned by the withdrawal of mem- bers to re-establish the church at Earl Shilton.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

209

Epwortli

: :1815: 36 Butterwick .. Crowle

M. houses

1760

unk.|18!

1820

MINISTERS.

Names.

Periodical

number

of members.

J. Norfolk . . J. Shaw I. Cotton .. E.Foster .. D. C'hesman S. Watson . .

1841 rn

It appears from the tattered remains of the records that a church in the Isle of Axholme con- sisted ot nearly 100 members in 1673, chiefly residing at Epworth and Butter- R. Heaton wick, which places afterwards gave their D.D.Billings united names to the church. During the latter part of the ministry of Mr. Foster, sound doctrine and discipline were neglected, and the interest seemed hastening to destruc- tion. After his death a pleasing revival took place. W. Thompson, of Boston called to preach by this church.

1738 1765 1813

1841

1673 d.; 18201 58118351 66 I1825J 69 1840 53 1764 d. 1830 68|1845| 42

S3" The river Torn,

I8 ^| a -|in this Isle, was

noted for "dip-

ping," in 1700.

Wolvey

1815:80:1815,

: 80i r of|

1789 1803IW. Jarvis |l818 J.Hall .. 1834 |j. Knight

1815;1819,rn|1820 99^1835 116 1821 jl825 in 1825, 81 1840 110 Mr. ft. Toone, a member of) 1 1834 |J. Knight .. 1826| * | |l830' 85,18451 97 Hinckley church, residing at Wolvey, was the first dissenter in this village : amid much opposition, he opened his house for preaching in 1768. The friends here were members of Hinckley until formed into a church.

t Misterton

:1816:

Skidmore

118201 9,18301 5 I 1 1825 1 8| I

This was probably an ancient church. It was said to be extinct in 1833, and was consequently erased from the minutes. It had a small endowment.

StalevBridgel 1808:1 1:1816: 68118191 ' 182H

'A. Barker .. -W. Pickering

Formed by Mr. Barker who left Birch- R. Abbott cliffe. His conduct brought reproach on T. Smith., the cause, and its existence was endan- J. Sutcliffe gered : the Yorkshire ministers came to the assistance of the scattered flock, and their visits were productive of beneficial effects.

1808 1814 x. 1820 1815 1819, in 1825 1821 1825 in 1830 1825 1843.ini 1844 1 * I

67 1835 84 78 1840 96 85 1845 147

Morcott

: :1816: 16|p732| IS. Curtis.... -I Barrowden . . 1 1819| 1821 |M. Stanger. . Probably formed about the year 1678 :.W. Stanger in 1729. it consisted of forty-five mem- W. Curtis .. bers. A meeting-house was purchased at E. Payne .. Morcott, and they removed their assem-'j. Dunkley.. blies thither. A small church at Oakham 'ft. Maddeys united with thissociety in 1747. Seep. 155. |W. Orton ..

Lineholm .. [1810:20:1817: 22:1818: |G. Dean.. .. |1818|1833| d'1820| 28 18351 29

W.Crabtree 1837 * 1825 37|l840 57

Formed by the united labours of thel 1 18301 36|1845|113

Yorkshire ministers at Lidgate, lฃ miles from Shore; whence it was entered in the

minutes as the Lidgate church. A meeting-house was afterwards erected at Lineholm,

and in 1819 the church assumed that name.

1727

d.l

1' 745

11770

1790

d.

1797

1817

d.

1817

1832

rn

1833

1834

re

1836

1841

rn

1844

*

1

1820 42 1835[ 67 1825 63J1840 38 1830 9111845' 43

The learned W Whiston, M.A., was connected with this church,

tWrotham.. ,1816: 5:1817: 5:

I A small church was formed here by Mr. G. — IPurcell after his removal from B-ssell's Green. It never reported more than five members ; and when M r. Purcell removed to Smalley it appears to have expired. It disappears from the minutes after 1820.

Chatteris.... 1 1735:30:1818: 21:1835:

I J. Scott .. J. Lyon ..

178511820 m 1820! 20(1835] 50 1824 * I 1825 40 1840 42 |1830! 30118451 58

There was a society here in 1654 : but' it became extinct. Joseph Scott, a minister in lady Huntingdon's connexion, adopted the sentiments of the General Baptists, and fitted up a large barn for preaching, which was used until 1835. In 1785, he and about thirty others were baptized and formed into a church.

210

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

A church had existed

here prior to this date, of which C. Gre- gory was pastor; but it had become extinct. Mr. Gregory continued to preach occa- sionally: in 1817 some of the Yorkshire ministers visited Tarporley and laid the foun- dation of the present church. The diminution in 1845 was caused by a secession of members

Joseph Barrow, one of the first mem-]W. Under-

bers of the church at Derby, extended his wood

labours from Duffield to Shottle, Wirks- R. Kenney .. worth, &c. The converts here were mem-JRNightingale bers of Duffield church until it was judged expedient to form a distinct society.

Smarden....||1644: :1818: 71] 17261

1 j 1841

The General | Staplehurst . . 1 1 7931

Churches.

•d

*N

7

M. houses

■d

s

1

1! I

S ! OS

S

o

3

a

•a Names.

on

Tarporley .. ; 18 1 7:23: Is 18: 24 Brassey Green

Clotton

Tiverton

18341 1700 hire d hire | d

C. Gregory..

D. Gathorpe J. Howarth

E. Stenson.. M. Shore ..

1817 182S 183S 183fi

1S47

1822 1832 1834 1842

Periodical

number

of members.

d. 1820, 24

1835i

rn 1825 31

1840

d. 1830, 29

m i 1

1845

50

3<J

Wirksworth 11818:69:1818: 69|p816] 1820 J. Barrow .. 11818

Bonsall 18231

J. Richardson

is '20

1 836 1842 1846

1841 L845

1820 1825 1830

1835 176 1840 202 1845 207

C.BlackMtJod (See p. 120) RKingsnorth 1644 1677 d. D Kingsnorth

RKingsnorth

Baptistswere numerousin this neighbour- hood during the former part of the 17th I R. Knight century. Smarden, Staplehurst, &c. form-|T. Gillam ..I ed one church. The first entry in the|V. Jennings church-book is dated 1644 ; in the record|J. Catmeat of 1706, the church is mentioned as " thelT Kingsnorth ancient church." About the latter date JD Kingsnorth the number of members was upwards of|G. Kenhelm 260. The branch at Staplehurst is now extinct. The church was in union with the Old Connexion until 1817, when it withdrew for the purpose of joining the New Connexion.

Fleckney and 1819.16:1819: 16/18131 Smeeton . . | Smeeton . . . . | unk . 1 835

.1. Austin . M. Vane.. . J. Sea ton . J. Merral . E. Merral . J. Dobell . D. Hosmar B. Austin . T. Rofe ...

— Jones . . .

1706

1706 1717 1732

is 05

1816

1751 1763

IS'27 1817

1820i 80 1835! 64 1825 72 1840 51 1830! 66J1845, 53

At the death of Mr. Kingsnorth, (the first pastor,) five of his sons were employed in the ministerial office. Mr. K. published — "The Pearl of Truth found out between two Rocks of Er- ror," and " Gospel Certainty of ever- lasting Felicity."

1820) 14118351 33 1825 24 1840! 20 1830 24 1845; 43

The General Baptist cause has existed for more than a century at Smeeton, but soon after the commencement of the nineteenth century was almost extinct. Mr. Jones, a member of Hinckley church, removed to Fleckney, and began preaching in his own house about 1809. The converts were in connexion with Archdeacon-lane, Leicester, until formed, with Smeeton, into a distinct church. (See page 149, & Obituary, Jones.)

Ford ||1814: 3:1819: 9:1716:1829

The churches at Ford and Wendover appear to be the remains of a society ol

1814 1825 1828

Its 40

18251 d. 11820 1828 nil 1825

1840 rn 1830

■ *

1835 1840

ls-lo

J. Sexton ..

T. Kingsford

S. Di prose ..

W.Hood.... General Baptists which flourished in 1683 under the name of the church at Cudington. At the beginning of the eighteenth century the society assumed the designation of the church at Ford ; but in following years it declined. About 1780 Mr. E. Sexton visited Ford, when ttie meeting-house was occupied by the Particular Baptists. Mr. Sexton and other ministers continued their visits, and the cause revived. It has an endowment.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

211

The changes at Wendiiver are somewhat R. Horsfield similar to those at Ford ; it was re-| vived by the same instrumentality, and at the same period

Wendover . .H1780:

MINISTERS.

:1819: 17| 17401 1829 W. Darvell 1834 C. B Talbot

x

1819 1834 1844

Periodical

number

of members.

1S33 rn 1820 1843 d. 1825 1846 in 1830

18351 C3

1840i 77 18451125

Norwich

J1G70: :1819: 52||1670:1816

Founded by Thos. Grantham : after his death it declined, but probably never was extinct. It revived at the beginning of the present century, and the meeting- house was rebuilt. The meeting-house is built on the ground where once stood the " White Friars' Priory." J. Peggs joined the mission.

Nottingham 11819:157:1819:157118181 Broad-street I New Bast'urd.. 1810

1827|

T Grantham W. Wells . .

— Besson ..

T.Ives

P. Finch . . T. Dexter . .

— Hafford . . T. Winder . . W. Booty .. J. Peggs

W. Thompson J. Green.. .. T. Scott .,..

,1692 d. 1710 a.

1728 1750 d.

1756.1789 d. 1800 re 1807 re 1815 d.

1816 1818;

1818 1820

1820 1824 rn

L824 1827

1831

R. Smith. ...1819

A.Smith 1830

R. In-ham..! 1834 Ferney hough 1840

1833 in 1838 rn

1820' 47 1835 77 1825 105 1840 90 1830 32 1845 104

1820 165 1835 285 1825 186 1840 286 1830 242 1845 327

The misconduct of an assistant preacher, in Stoney-street church caused the formation of two parties, and issued in the secession of the pastor, R. Smith, followed by a number of members, who built the meeting house, and founded the church in Broad-street.

Sutton-in- |1811: 6:1819: 34:1803:1824|E. Allen .. .. |1812|1817| d.|1820| 47J1835J 46 Ashfield Thi Woodhouse until a separation took place and a distinct church was formed

n-m- 1811: b:lt*iy: 34:l>iU.}:is_4'i^. Alien .... ioi_;ioi / u. io_u 11 iocji *v

meld I J. Burrows 1821 1833 rn 1825 56 1840 70

was a flourishing branch of Kirkb3'|S. Fox Il836|l844|rn|l*30| 56I1845| 47

1819:32:1819: 32:p815:

1841IW. Smedley 1817 1822:rnjlS20| 40I1835 1 83

J.Austin ..1823 1835 rn 1825 74 1 M0 97

Preaching was introduced by some Gene-'j. Wood Il839| * I |l830| 9G|l845 85

ral Baptists who settled here from other churches. The ministers of the neighbourhood supplied them, and the cause increased: the friends continued members of Nottingham church until they were formed into an independent society.

Billesdon.... 11820:41:1820: 41:1813:

|W II Creaton|1820'1836!af 18251 4411835! 49 W. WUley ..1842 1845 rn 1830 45 1840 29 Preaching w r as begun by the friends in| |l84o| 41

Friar-lane. Amid much opposition the cause was planted and a meeting-house erected, chiefly through the exertions of JUr. John Deacon The place was principally supplied by Mr. Creaton for some years before the church was formed.

GedneyHill |1820|!36:1820: 36 Sutton St. Ed- Mr T. Blades, munds

18111 IJ. Birch.... 182018331 d.|1825| 34J1840I 53 D. D. Billings 18361 1841 rn 1830 29 1845 60

1840| |G. Maddeys , 1841 |l845|rnl 18351 37| I

elder of the church at Spalding, held a church-meeting at Fleet in 1740: the Fleet

branch then comprised thirty-six members. Of these, twenty-one resided at Gedney;

the public meetings were in that year removed to Gedney, and continued to be held in

a room there until 1764. The members constituted a branch of Fleet church until 1820. _____

212

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

M. houses

Netlierton

11820: 5:1820: 5|unk. 1739

1*42

E. Williams ;. Buffer. .. R. Clark.... 3. Elwall .. W. Hloomar J. Greenway

A church existed here previous to 1654 in 1698 it contained upwards of 150 mem- bers— in 1718, about 100. The lastentrj in the old C. B. is in 1798 : probably sooi

after became extinct. The meeting-house was since occupied by the Particular Bap- tists. A revival of religion took place in this neighbourhood about 1820, and the present church was formed, which was supplied chiefly from Birmingham.

rERS.

Periodical

•6

o

=8

y

o

number

9

B

"8

of members.

1665 1707|ซ'.| 1825| 27

1840

24

1704

1712 d.

1830

29

J 845

45

1713

117191

1835

24

1729

||746 d.

||746

11769

1824

*

Sevenoaks .. 1818: 3:1820: 13I1818U837 I. Henham — ! 18421 JW. Brown.

Preaching was commenced in 1817 by G. Pickance Iden Henham, who had been a local J. Felkin.. . preacher among the methodists: the fol-JF. Smith.. .

lowing year Mr. Henham and two others were baptized by Mr. Kingsford, and formed into a church. W. Brown joined the mission.

1818

1825 rn

1825

51)1840

1826

18301

1830

46 1845

1831

1836 rn

1835

48

1836

1844 rn

1844

* 1

Earl Shilton 1 1820||22:1820: 33(17581 ! 1 1844|

IK. Green r. Green

1759 1799jdJl825 37,1840, 75 1797 1808 11830 43|1845 64 There was a church herein 1651 which|R. Verow ..'1820 * | 1 18351 47l I probably never became extinct. In 1808 its members, reduced to sixteen, joined Hinckley church ; but withdrew in 1814, and assisted in forming the church at Thur- laston. In 1820 it again became a distinct church. (See page 148.)

REMARKS ON PROGRESS.

The progress of the Connexion during this period was not rapid : it is, however, by no means to be regarded as insignifi- cant or unimportant. In 1800, there were 38 churches and 3,403 members; in 1820, there were 87 churches and 7,673 members. From this it appears that both the number of churches and the number of members had more than doubled in the twenty years constituting this period. This period beheld the birth of the Orissa Mission; and it is pleasing to obseive th^ following remarks at the commencement of the Circular Letter for 1819 — " At this annual interview, a degree of public spirit has been manifested which has seldom been witnessed on such occasions ... we hail with pleasure the improvement which has appeared."

213

John Smith was a deacon in the church at Long Sntton: about 1782 he removed to Tydd-St. -Giles, and commenced preaching in his own house. Many of the members ot the church at Long Sutton having embraced the tenets of Mr. Winchester, Mr. Smith and his neighbours withdrew and formed themselves into a church in Mr. Smith's house. Mr. S. continued to preach with acceptance, and, at the solicitation of his friends, was ordained to the pastoral office April 7, 1795. Mr. S., almost at his own expense, built a small meeting-house in which he preached gratuitously until about a fortnight before his death, which occurred Jan. 24, 1807, in the sixty second year of his age. He was a plain and faithful preacher, cordially attached to the truths of the gospel ; under their animating influence he launched into eternity.

Thomas Pickering was the son of Nathaniel Pickering, first pastor of the church at Castle Donington. At the request of the church he began to assist in the work of the ministry: his father having resigned the pastoral office in 1790, Thomas was chosen as his successor. He ful- filled the various duties of his situation with diligence and wisdom, preaching the gospel " in purity, and with energy and affection." Whilst discoursing on the love of Christ -his favourite theme — previous to ad- ministering the Lord's supper, he ruptured a blood vessel, from the effects of which he never recovered, though his ardour impelled him to preach sometimes when he appeared as much like a corpse as a living instructer. His last sermon was delivered in these circumstances: it was from Col. i. 28, and was considered peculiarly excellent. He de- parted Nov. 15, 1807, aged about fifty. Many of his talents were of the first order, and he had cultivated them with great care. His sermons were remarkably clear; sound, and practical; logical in their arrange- ment, and effective in their delivery ; indicating a masculine and well- disciplined understanding and a devout spirit. His mind retained its energy to the last, and his reputation its purity.

Edmund Whitaker was baptized by Mr. Dan. Taylor, at Burnley. By diligent attention to meetings for prayer and exhortdtion, his talents were brought into exercise, and when the pastor of the church removed to Longford in 1789, Mr. Whitaker succeeded him in the ministry. In 1794 he complied with the invitation of the church at Melbourne to become assistant minister to their aged pastor Mr. F. Smith: until March 1796, he laboured in conjunction with Mr. S., when that venerable man was called to his reward. In July 1797 Mr. W. was publicly set apart to the pastoral office. Symptoms of asthma had already appeared; and this complaint frequently interrupted his labours. After much suffering it terminated his life July 10, 1808, in the forty-second year of his age. For piety in general, he ranked high in the church and the world; humility, benevolence, and christian charity were very conspicuous :— in his ministry he was faithful, zealous,

214 THE NEW CONNEXION.

diligent and persevering. Perhaps few have heen favoured with a more unshaken confidence and a more pleasing view of immortality than he experienced.

Joseph Green was born Sep. 19, 1752 ; when abont twenty-three years of age he was induced to hear Mr. Abraham Austin; under his ministry he experienced, the great change. Educated in the doctrines and principles of the church of England, his mind was strongly preju- diced against believers' baptism : he warmly opposed this doctrine in the company of some christian friends, but not succeeding to the satisfaction of his mind, he wisely resolved to consult the scriptures. His examina- tion resulted in a conviction of the truth of the doctrine; and he was baptized and joined the church at Sutton Coldfield in 1770. In 1784 he removed to Birmingham and was instrumental in the erection of a meet'ng-honse in Lombard-street. Soon after its completion, Mr. Austin, who was expected to preach in it, and Mr. Green, in connexion with one or two neighbouring ministers, engaged to supply the pulpit. On the removal of Mr. Austin, Mr. G., in compliance with the earnest solicita- tions of the people, became the regular minister. As a minister, Mr. Green was diligent, successful, and his last days were his best. On Friday, Sep. 30, 1808, a blood vessel broke, it is supposed on his lungs, which caused his death, Nov. 2. His remains were carried to the grave by six ministers of different denominations; for some clays after his de- cease, when even men of the world met in the street, one would remark to another with evident sorrow, "Mr. Green is dead;" and the other would reply with a sigh, " ah ! he was a good man."

John Bartol, a worthy member of the church at Gosberton, was not called to the ministry until considerably advanced in years. He was ordained in the church at Spalding Nov. 22,1708. His labours were well approved, and the cause daily gained strength. A sudden calamity terminated his life and his usefulness. On the morning of July 1*, 1810, while pruning a small pear-tree trained to the wall of his house, he fell from the ladder, and instantly expired. In preaching he was plain, serious, and judicious. His understanding was well matured by evan- gelical truth and christian experience, so that when he emerged from a private to a public station, he possessed such a rich fund of useful knowledge as always made his ministry substantial and savoury.

William Corah in his early days attended the established church. His father heard the Barton preachers at Diseworth, and was converted f<om the error of his way. William, who was then in service, was so much offended at his father for attending the preaching of the sectaries, that for a considerable time he refused to see him. When at length he visited his parent, the latter conversed with him about the salvation of his soul: the conversation made such an impression onhis mind that he could not rest: This induced him to attend the preaching of the gospel ; when he found rest to his soul, and was baptized at Barton. He was called to preach by the church at Kegworth, and was chosen assistant to Mr. Tarratt. When the friends at Long Whatton formed themselves into a distinct church, they unanimously chose Mr. Corah for their miuister. In this office he continued to serve them until incapaci-

THE OBITUARY. 215

tated by the lingering illness which preceded his death. As a preacher he was very close aud searching. He had bnt little taste for study, his mind, consequently, was somewhat uncultivated: but his discourses were remarkable for evangelical doctrine. God's love to man in Jesus Christ was the subject on which he delighted to dwell ; though his preaching was characterized by simplicity of idea and homeliness of expression, yet it often reached the hearts and consciences of the hearers with amazing power. Of this a worthy minister has given the following instance — " When about seventeen years of age, I was attentively hearing Mr. Corah. In his sermon, he quoted John iii. 16, 'God so loved the world,' &c. 'God so loved the world,' said he. 'How much? — This little word so— ye canna fathom it.' I have heard many able preachers, many excellent sermons, a:;d striking remarks; bnt none was ever so blessed to me as this." Mr. Corah departed in Dec. 1811, in the seventy- fourth year of his age.

Samuel Deacon, senior, was born at Normanton-on-the-Heath, Leicestershire, Dec. S, 1714, where his father was parish clerk. Samuel, in the early part of his life, was a servant in several respectable families. For several years after his entrance on the ministry, he worked hard as a day labourer at Ra'by : about 1754, he learned the art of wool-combing. Soon after his conversion (See page 158) he began to exhort in private houses; this he continued to do for some years, until becoming ac- quainted with the Barton preachers, he united with them in their exer- tions to spread the gospel. When the society was divided, Mr. Deacon was set apart as one of the pastors of Barton church, and in 1782 he removed his residence to Barton. His labours in the ministry were almost incredible, being instant in season and out of season ; his life was one of considerable usefulness, both in the conversion of sinners and the edification of christians. He was diligent in business and given to hospitality; temperate in his habits and inflexibly just in his dealings. As a preacher he was not considered eminent; but was undoubtedly one of the best textuaries of the age: he was indefatigable in searching the scriptures; there were few texts of importance on doctrine, practice, or history, to which he could not give an immediate and pertinent reference. Mr. Deacon was low in stature, strongly made, and very active even till nearly ninety years of age. For three or four years before his death he was too feeble to walk to public worship, and at last became almost helpless, but still retained his confidence and hope in his Saviour. After one day's illness, he died in the enjoyment of the doctrines he had taught, March 19, 1812, in the ninety-eighth year of his age, having been pastor of the church at Barton fifty-two years. (See page 172.)

John Wateks Goddard, of Little Hallam, was called to preach by the Kegworth church, of which he was a member. When that society was divided into three churches, Mr. Goddard was chosen pastor of the Jlkeston division, where his services were well approved. In 1795, a charge of an extraordinary nature was brought against him. This report was unsupported by any direct evidence; but Mr. Goddard, thinking that some of the members lent too. favourable an ear to the insinuation, resigned his office and withdrew from the church. The church at Kothley invited him to become their minister ; he removed thither in

216 THE NEW CONNEXION.

June 1803. Here he enjoyed more tranquillity, and bis time was spent in a way consistent with his great work. His death was caused by dropsy, July 6, 1812. He was a man of considerable ability ; his preach- ing was close and argumentative.

John Booth, a member of the church at Halifax, took under his care a small society formed at Longwood in 1789. The interest had to struggle with many difficulties ; and when the hope of establishing the cause there was generally abandoned, Mr Booth still persevered. In the beginning of 1804, he had occasion to go to Leeds; during the journey, his horse fell on him and broke his leg. This confined him to his house, during which the church at Longwood expired. Mr. Booth continued an honourable member of the church at Halifax until his death in 1813.

Edward Foster was a member of the church at Epworth. He was occasionally employed in the ministry, and in 1765 was ordained to the pastoral office. Our information respecting him is very limited: but it appears that his ministrations were not of a character to support the cause ; the most interesting doctrines of the gospel were seldom in- troduced in his public discourses, and discipline was almost neg- lected. The interest, in consequence, seriously declined. He died in August 1813.

William Burgess was born in London, March 13, 1755; as his parents were strict members of the church of England, he was brought up in its principles. In 1769, he went with a friend to the Tabernacle, in Moorfields, to hear George Whitefield preach his farewell sermon pre- vious to his departure for Georgia. The sermon made a deep impres- sion on his mind, and he ever afterwards acknowledged Mr. Whitefield as his spiritual father. Becoming convinced of the importance of be- lievers' baptism, he was baptized at the age of seventeen, and received into the church, in Church lane: this step subjected him to much re- proach and persecution from his parents. The friends at ^Church-lane invited him to make trial of his gifts by speaking on week-day evenings. In 1788, Mr. Burgess was invited by the church at Halifax to succeed Mr. Dan Taylor : he continued there until 1791, when he accepted an invitation to Fleet. While false doctrine made havock in this neighbour- hood Mr. B. remained faithful to his charge ; his contending earnestly for the faith was, "under God, the means of preventing the church at Fleet from becoming a desolation and a heap." He had been frequently attacked with spasmodic asthma, which at length caused his death, Dec. 11, 1813, in the fifty-ninth year of his age. The talents of Mr. B., though not of the first order, were truly respectable. As a preacher he was plain and practical, serious and animated ; on some occasions re- markably copious and interesting. The doctrine of the cross was the delightful theme of his ministry, and his comfort and support in the hour of death.

Nathaniel Pickering was born at Markeaton, near Derby; in early life he was brought to a knowledge of the truth, and joined the Barton society. He soon became a preacher; when the society was divided, he was chosen co -pastor with John Tarratt over the church at Kegworth, and at the subsequent division of" Kegworth church, Mr. Pickering was

THE OBITUARY. 21/

settled over the Castle Donington society. He was strongly attached to the gospel of Christ, and was u uniform and steady opposer of everything bordering on Socinianism. An unhappy event caused him to resign the ministry more thau twenty years before his death, although he continued to preach occasionally. During several of the last years of his life he was blind, and became gradually weaker until he expired March 31, 1814, in the eighty-seventh year of his age. As a preacher, it cannot be said that he was ever popular — he was too cool and dispassionate in his discussion: in his exhortations to christians he was often said to excel, and was very close and searching; in church discipline he was strict and exact. A short time before his death, he seemed fixed in deep thought for some time, and at length exclaimed with peculiar energy — " O what a dreadful, horrible thing is Socinianism! that system takes away all the ground of a poor sinner's hope."

Jacob Brewin was born at Eavenstone, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. He had a sense of his obligation to God from his earliest remembrance; and while yet a child obtained the knowledge of his Redeemer. Soon after his marriage he removed to Odstone, near Barton, where he occu- pied the place of principal gardener to a gentleman in the vicinity. His consistent piety rendered his presence distasteful to the lady of the house, and he was discarded; but soon obtained another situation in the same neighbourhood. His removal to Odstone had brought him in contact with the General Baptists at Barton: he and his wife were baptized and joiued the church in 1789. He was soon called to preach : this employment excited the displeasure of his master, who dis- missed him from his service. About 1797, he was unanimously chosen assistant minister to Mr. Deacon, and as Mr. D. declined in life, the supply of Barlestone and Bagworth devolved chiefly on Mr. Brewin : his labours were blessed, and a meetinghouse was erected for the Bagworth and Thornton branch of the church, principally through his own efforts. As his end approached, he felt happy in the prospect of death : having commended his soul to God, he fell asleep in Jesus, Feb. 23, 1816. His intellect was strong and sterling: his manner of preaching was not prepossessing, but the matter of his discourses was excellent. He was a christian of the primitive order; and his deportment was so exemplary, that pious christians would say, " I wish I was more like friend Brewin."

Samuel Deacon, junior, was the eldest son of Samuel Deacon, late pastor of the church at Barton. He was born at Ratby, Feb. 6, 1746, and when eleven years old went into farmers' service. In 1761 he was apprenticed to Joseph Donisthorpe (watchmaker), of Nor- manton, one of the first preachers. He was baptized at Barton, in 1766. He afterwards removed to Leicester to work at his trade, in which he became eminently proficient. A few weeks after his marriage (in 1771) he returned to Barton. His first sermon was preached Aug. 1, 1777, from Rev. vii. 9: in 1779 he received a unanimous call to the pastoral office, and was ordained co-pastor with his father. He devoted himself to the work with diligence and ardour. His ministry was highly acceptable and useful : -while the church at home was edified, he was instrumental in establishing the cause in many surroundiug villages. On the 18th of February, 1816,

218 THE NEW CONNEXION.

be preached his farewell sermon to his people, when he was so enfeebled as to be obliged to be assisted np the pulpit stairs: he departed to his rest the second of March following, in the seventieth year of his age; having sustained the office of pastor nearly forty years. Mr. D. was rather low in stature, and his features were not prepossessing : this gave occasion to some one in the early part of his life to ridicule him; when Mr. D. replied—

The carcase that you laugh at so, Is not Sam Deacon, you must know ; But 'tis tlie carriage — the machine That Samuel Deacon rideth in.

His mental powers were of a superior order, his quickness of apprehen- sion was remarkable, and his judgment generally correct. — As a christian his piety was deep, sincere, and unaffected. — As an author he was witty, interesting, sensible, and instructive. — As a minister he was laborious, zealous, and successful ; he preached like one who felt the value of im- mortal souls; and though there was at times somethiog rather ludicrous in some of his remarks, which excited risibility in his hearers, yet he was by no means light or trifling himself; his manner was in general searching and impressive. His disinterestedness and liberality may be inferred from the fact that in the course of his ministry, besides preach- ing without remuneration, he probably gave away ฃ1000. Though not perfect, he was a good man, and a good minister of Jesus Christ.

Dan Taylor was born at Sour-milk-hall, Northowram, near Halifax, Yorkshire, Dec. 21, 1738. Before five years of age he was sent to work in a coal-mine with his father: in this occupation he spent many suc- ceeding years; descending into the pit early in the morning, and con- tinuing there until late in the afternoon, during the winter season he seldom saw the light of the sun except on the Lord's-day. But this did not damp his ardour in the pursuit of knowledge, every leisure hour that he could command was sedulously devoted to the acquisition of useful learning; so intent was be on this object, that he soon began to take a book with him into the coal-mine, and improved every occasional intermission of labour to enrich his mind. Without instructers, with little money to purchase books, his fame for learning spread through the neighbourhood. His serious impressions were of an early date; when about fifteen years of age he became a regular attendant on the worship of the methodists, and soon after he had attained his twentieth year he was received into communion with them. He was soon urged to preach, and delivered his first sermon in a dwelling-house at Hipperholm, near Halifax, Sept. 1701. But being dissatisfied with Mr. Wesley's mode of explaining some important parts of doctrine, and being convinced that the New Testament gave no countenance to the scheme of discipline which he had imposed on his followers, Mr. Taylor withdrew from all connexion with them. (See page 173.) Being settled over the newly formed church at Wadsworth, (now Birchcliffe,) he was most assiduous in his attention to ministerial duties, and unremitting in his endeavours to improve in every department of knowledge that could assist in his sacred work. The part he took in the formation of the New Connexion has been already stated. (Page 170.) His efforts in preaching the gospel, founding churches, and watering them, in Yorkshire, were almost in-

THE OBITUARY. 219

credible. He presided over the church at Wad 6 worth (Birchcliffe) until 1783, when he settled at Halfax. About this time the General Baptist cause in London was in a state of great declension, and appeared hasten- ing towards extinction : the society in Church-lane, in 1784, addressed letters to D. Taylor, W. Thompson, and G. Birley, requesting them to seek for a suitable minister ; their pastor, J. Brittain, being in a great measure disabled by the infirmities of age. The application made a deep impression on Mr. Taylor's mind; the importance of having an able minister stationed in London was deeply felt, too, by the leading friends of the Connexion : after much discussion, Mr. T. acceded to the invitation of the church and the advice of the Association, re- moved to London, and was received into connexion with the church June 8, 1785. Here he remained till the close of life. Mr. T. had long urged the importance of establishing an academy for young ministers: when at length it was determined by the Association to make the attempt, Mr. T. was earnestly requested to accept the office of tutor ; this he de- clined, until he saw the plan in danger of being abandoned, when he consented to undertake the office, and au academy was opened January, 1798. At the same time it was resolved to publish a denominational periodical: when the question of superintendence was proposed, all, as usual, looked to Mr. T. : this work he also undertook, and the same month, witnessed the opening of the academy, and the publication of the first number of "The General Baptist Magazine." He retained the tutorship until 1812. (See Academy.) His mental powers exhibited symptoms of decreasing vigour after his seventieth year, and his body became more susceptible of the attacks of disease. About the middle of November, 1816, he felt considerably indisposed ; but was able to preach a funeral sermon on Lord's-day, the 24th: the next day he walked out, in the night was restless, and complained of pain. In the afternoon of the succeding day, he dressed himself, and walked down stairs : while tea was being prepared, he took his pipe and sat down to read. He was observed to be uneasy, said he felt " an aching under his breast," and falling back in his chair, expired without a struggle or a sigh. This was Nov. 26, 181G, in the seventy-eighth year ot his age. Thus peacefully did this veteran in the Redeemer's service lay aside his armour and enter into his rest. Many of the dis- senting ministers in London and in various other places publicly noticed the event in terms strongly expressive of esteem for his character. In the New Connexion, his removal was felt to be a common loss : most of the ministers, if not all, paid a tribute of respect by preaching funeral sermons.

Mr. Taylor's body was of extraordinary strength : low in stature, but muscular and robust, he was able to support an unusual degree of corporeal exertion. His mind was active, vigorous, and enterprising ; and having ascertained the path of duty, he was remarkable for decision, perseverance, intrepidity, and an inflexible principle of integrity. His intellectual faculties were of a superior order; their principal characteristics were clearness, strength, and solidity. His attainments were very con- siderable ; he read the scriptures in their original languages with dili- gence and care, and was familiar with most of the valuable authors on theology. "As a theologian," observes one who was well acquainted

220 THE NEW CONNEXION.

with him, "I sincerely think he had few equals: his general, extensive, and critical knowledge of the scriptures rendered him truly eminent." As an author he was distinguished by clearness of method, perspicuity of style, and strength of reasoning, joined to an evident desire to benefit the reader. "Steady to his principles," remarks Mr. Kello, an inde- pendent minister, " and acting according to his light in the word of God, he was strenuous in their defence. On different occasions he stood forth in defence of revealed truths highly important in the chris- tian scheme, when they have been assailed by adversaries; and nobly has he defended them by weapons furnished him by the word of God.'' As a tutor he was exact, laborious, candid, gentle, and fatherly; loved by his pupils for his excellencies and respected for his talents. Mr. T.'s preaching was plain, serious, and edifying; and under particular circumstances rose to a high degree of excellence : his appearance in the pulpit was dignified, and "his strong masculine eloquence was delight- fully charming to serious and judicious hearers." " As a christian Mr. T.'s profession and deportment were uniform and consistent. One trait of his character as a christian demands particular mention, viz., his great humility ... he always appeared as one emptied of self, and devoted to the service and glory of God. ... A christian in deed and not in word only, we now remember him."* Having been, under God, the principal instrument in the formation of the New Connexion, he always stood ready, throughout the whole of his future life, todevote his labour, his influence, his talents, and his property, to the promotion of its interests. His labours cares, and travels, for this purpose, were arduous, and incessant. During the course of his ministry, he assisted at thirty-eight ordinations ; attended fifty-three Associations, and probably two hundred Conferences ; took part in the opening of many meeting-houses ; preached, upon a very moderate computation, nearly twenty thousand discourses; and published more than forty religious works, besides Circular Letters.

When it is remembered that Mr. Taylor worked in a coal-mine from five to twenty. four years of age, and that an occasional attendance at the school of Mr. Knight, of Halifax, when about twenty years of age, was the only opportunity he enjoyed of the tuition of a living precep- tor, it will be readily conceived that his extensive attainments were the result of intense application. He exemplified the advice which he afterwards gave to his pupils — " In all things be resolved to conquer ; and persevere till you have conquered. Without this you may be a gaudy butterfly; but never, like the bee, will your hive bear examining."

John Tabratt was born at Kirk Ireton, Derbyshire, Dec. 6, 1737. He was apprenticed to a tailor and staymaker when nine years of age ; on the completion of his term of service, he quitted his master's house in search of Work. Being unacquainted with any locality in which he might be successful, he planted his stick perpendicularly on the ground, resolved to proceed in the direction indicated by its fall. It fell towards the south, and thither' he travelled on until he reached Ratcliffon Soar, near Kegworth, where he obtained employment. While residing here, he was induced to attend the meetings held by the Barton preachers at Kegworth, &c: he received the word, and was baptized in the river Soar,

• Mr. Kello.

THE OBITUARY. 221

at the age of seventeen. The next year he began to preach ; his appear- ance at that time was so very juvenile, that Mr. Kendrick persuaded him to wear a wig, in which he frequently preached for several years. When the Barton society was divided, Mr. Tarratt and Mr. N. Pickering were ordained joint pastors over tbe church at Kegworth and Castle Douington. Mr. Tarratt assisted at the formation of the New Connexion, and took part in the ordination of the first General Baptist minister at Notting- ham. He laboured zealously at Kegworth until 1799, when some unpleasant circumstances in the church induced him to resign his office. About 180 L, he was invited to supply the General Baptist church at Deal, in Kent; he served that society for twelve months, and then removed to Hythe, in the same county, where he continued to preach for about three years. On leaving Hythe, he returned to Kegworth and joined the church at Sutton Boniugtou: his efforts were still exerted in the cause of Christ until the infirmities of age incapacitated him for labour. He died Dec. 5, 1817, aged seventy-nine years. Mr. Tarratt' s pulpit talents were of a superior order: a fine voice — a strong memory — a feeling heart — and a mind that naturally formed bold, clear, and simple ideas. Indefatigable in his great work, his exertions had extended to most parts of the Connexion; and his labours were made eminently useful in turning sinners to God. His mental powers began to decay somewhat early; his youthful vivacity disappeared, and his services became less popular. This, in connexion with some embarrassment, seemed to becloud his retirement from his office : but those who knew him best are persuaded that he now shines as the stars in the kingdom of his father.

Bemjamin Pollard was born at Swithland, Leicestershire, April 30, 1754: his father was parish clerk, but having heard Joseph Donisthorpe preach, he was baptized and joined the church at Loughborough. Benjamin was apprenticed to a stonemason, and during his apprentice- ship, attended the meetings of the General Baptists with regularity. In 1777 he was baptized and entered the church at Loughborough. It was soon discovered that he possessed gifts for preaching: in 1779, he was appointed assistant preacher. The pastor of the church (Mr. Grimley) dyiug in 1787, Mr. Pollard was invited to succeed him : he accepted the invitation and was ordained Nov. 27, 1787. For some time after the divisiou of the Loughborough church into two societies, Mr. P. preached and administered the ordinances alternately at Loughborough and Quorn- don ; but was regarded as the pastor of the church at Quorndon. He was the honoured instrument of introducing the General Baptist cause into several neighbouring villages ; and contributed much to the success of the gospel at Nottingham and Leicester. At one period his views respecting some important truths of the gospel were clouded, and his mind, perplexed by artful reasonings, was much distressed: but he after- wards regained his confidence. A violent cold brought on a cough which led to his dissolution : as his end approached, his graces gained strength and shone with increased lustre. When the time of his departure was at hand, he desired his son-in-law to pray with him : he added his solemn " amen" to the prayer, and when his friends rose from their knees, his eyes were steadily fixed upward : in a few moments he expired with- out a groan, April C. 1818, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. Mr,

222 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Pollard was a man of considerable talent ; his imagination was warm, vigorous, and uncommonly fertile. As a public speaker, he possessed a strong, clear, sonorous voice, aud his fluency of expression was peculiar; his action, too — dictated by a warm and affectionate heart was bold, expressive, and usually appropriate: from a combination of the whole there resulted a torrent of native eloquence not easily to be resisted. His character was marked by uprightness aud punctuality; calumny herself could find no blot: bis greatest defect seems to have been oc- casional precipitancy of judgment. As a minister he was zealous, ac- tive, and persevering : in his visits he ordered his conversation so as to administer grace to the hearers, and left the sound of his master's feet behind him.

John Tayloh, brother to Dan Taylor, was born June 16, 1743 : he was in early life a member of the Independent church at Halifax ; in 1771 he joined the General Baptist church at Wadswortb. In a short time he was called to the work of the miuistry: Nov. 28, 1772, he preached in the house of Mr. Bairstow and thus laid the foundation of the General Baptist cause at Queenshead, which was then destitute of the means of grace. In 1773, Mr. T. was ordained pastor over the newly formed church at Queenshead; here he coutinued to labour with diligence, fidelity, aiid acceptance, for more than forty-six years. In the former part of his course, he laboured hard in the cause of the Saviour and endured much fatigue : but for many years previous to his death, feeble- ness of constitution, weakness of sight, and other concomitants of old age, rendered him incapable of active exertion. He died Dec. 2G, 1818, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. Mr. Taylor possessed considerable native talent, but enjoyed very little opportunity of cultivating his intel- lectual powers: he, however, had a strong desire for knowledge; and when set at liberty from secular occupations, his application to reading and study was intense. He was distinguished for piety, devotion, and spiritual-miudedness : one who knew him well, observes — " Mr. T. was the most pious man I ever knew; perhaps there are few such praying men left in the world. . . . He divided the New Connexion into five parts; and set apart five days in each week for presenting them successively before the Lord in earnest supplication and prayer." He was an able minister of the New Testament: though not so polished as some, he was more solid and wise than many who have been very popular; all his preaching was designed and adapted to save souls and glorify God.

Joseph Freeston was born at Grimston, Leicestershire, Feb. 13, 1763. He was sent early to the grammar school in his native village : having made good progress in his studies, he was taken by Mr. Helmsley as an assistant in his school at Melton Mowbray. He coutinued there until 1779, when he was recalled to his native village and chosen master of the grammar school at Grimston. Here he became acquainted with the General Baptists : approving of their faith and discipline, he determined to unite himself with. them. This determination led to his dismissal from the superintendence of the school. He was baptized, and joined the church at Loughborough ; and, encouraged by the friends at that place, he removed thither and opened a school. His first essay at preaching was at Rothley : a few weeks afterwards he was regularly-called

THE OBITUARY. 223

to tbe work of the ministry. In 1784, Mr. F. accepted an invitation to minister to the church at Wisbech : he remained until 1799, when he removed to Hinckley to take the oversight of the church there. For many years his labours were crowned with great success; but for some years before his death the cause declined. Mr. F. was subject to a ner- vous complaint which induced seasons of gloom and dejection, painful to himself and his friends. His infirmities increased until death removed his spirit, Nov. 30, 1819, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. He discharged the duties of the ministerial office with ability, diligence and fidelity. Robert Hall remarks respecting him — "his religion was entirely of a practical and experimental character" . . . [his publications] " will per- petuate and enrol his name among the most useful practical writers of the present clay" ..." the natural temperament of my revered friend inclined in some degree, I have been informed, to the irascible; but who ever beheld him betrayed for a moment into language or deportment incompatible with the meekness of the gospel" ..." habitual spiri- tuality of mind remarkably distinguished him, in which very few whom I have had the happiness of knowing appeared to equal, none to surpass.'*

John Green was born at Sheepshead, 1755. A sermon he heard from Mr. Freeston, preached in a barn in his native village, was blest to his conversion. He joined the church at Loughborough, whither he removed in a few years and commenced business as a carpenter and builder. When about forty years of age, he began to be occasionally employed in supplying destitute churches ; he, at length, accepted the invitation of the church at Long Whatton to become their minister. His course as a minister was short, but useful ; many by his instrumentality were brought to a knowledge of the truth. Some time before his death, it was mani- fest that his health was declining; as his end approached his mind evidently became more heavenly, and his preaching more fervent and impressive. He was undisturbed in his confidence, and rejoiced in the prospect of his departure, which took place Jan. G, 1819, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. His talents were solid rather than brilliant; his 6ermons were peculiarly evangelical; ami his address was natural and impressive. His heart glowed with love to God, and he evinced an ardent desire to be useful to his fellow-creatures.

John Spencer was awakened to a sense of his spiritual danger when about twenty- seven years of age ; by the advice of a pious ueighbour, he for some time attended in rotation at the worship of the Methodists, the Particular Baptists, and the General Baptists. He, however, soon settled with the last, and joined the church at Birchcliffe, where he was called to the work of the ministry In 1792, he removed to the church at Shore, and continued to serve them as their minister for twenty-seven years. In his old age he was afflicted with asthma, which frequently prevented him from preaching. He died April 16, 1819, in the seventy- seventh year of his age. During his affliction, his mind was pleasingly supported by the truths he had preached ; and lie enjoyed unshaken confidence to the eud. He read very few books besides the bible: as a preacher he was very plain ; confining himself to the essentials of Chris- tianity, he exhibited the gospel freely, and very usefully explained christian experience.

224

THE NEW CONNEXION.

James Smart was for some years minister of tlie church at Sutton Cold- field. Iu 1815, he went to reside in Wales, but returned to Warwickshire in 1818. After that period he preached partly at Sutton, and partly at the places adjacent to Birmingham ; frequently walking more than twenty miles and preaching twice on the Lord's day. His last illness was short : it found him waiting for his change, which occurred July 27, 1819, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He was a man of strong confidence in the Redeemer, of deep humility and unostentatious piety: his public dis- courses were plain, and evidently dictated by love to the souls of his hearers.

John Kingsforb was born in 1765, at a village about four miles from Canterbury, Kent. His family were Geueral Baptists; a relative, Samp- son Kingsford, was pastor of the General Baptist church at Canterbury : Mr. K. was baptized and admitted a member of this church in 1782. At the close of his apprenticeship he removed to London, where he formed an intimacy with Mr. Dan Taylor, which ripened into a lasting friendship. In 1785, he went to reside in Buckinghamshire, and was called by the church at Chesham to preach the gospel. In 1787, Mr. K. received an invitation to become the assistant minister to Mr. Mills, pastor of the ancient General Baptist church at Portsmouth. Many of the old churches had at that period imbibed pernicious doctrines: Ports- mouth had not escaped ; for Mr. Mills denied the divinity of the adorable Saviour and the doctrines connected with it. A small meeting-house was erected in Clareuce-street, Portsea, by this church, and opened in 1798; Mr K. laboured here with diligence and success. As the differ- ence of sentiment increased, a separation took place, and seventeen were formed into a church in Clarence-street, of which Mr. Kingsford was elected pastor. He continued to labour here with exemplary dili- gence and pleasing success, until his death, May 0, 1820: he was then fifty-five years of age. His afflictions were heavy, but his mind was pre- served calm and perfectly resigned to the will of his Heavenly Father. Mr. Kingsford's opportunities for mental improvement were few: but he was endowed with strong intellectual faculties, possessed a sound, clear, and manly judgment, and had studied the bible with consider- able care. His disinterestedness was exemplary — his manners were plain and unaffected — his conversation was entertaining and instructive — his public discourses were full of important matter, delivered in a style unadorned, but very impressive, aud with an earnestness that arresti-d the attention and reached the hearts of his hearers.

225

SECTION IV. FOURTH PERIOD, FROM 1820 TO 1846.

(Including part of 1847.)

ZEAL RE-KINDLED.

The commencement of this period (1821) is an important era in General Baptist history. " It is a subject of no small congratulation," remarks the Circular Letter, " that the holy- missionary flame has at length burst forth in our Connexion, that as a body we have roused ourselves from the torpid insen- sibility into which we were sunk, and have applied ourselves to action." While the first General Baptist missionaries were traversing the mighty waters, " boldly aspiring at the conver- sion of the idolatrous hindoo from the abominations and cruelties of paganism to the worship of the Everlasting God," the associated brethren at home were re-organizing the society for promoting the "equally important work of reclaiming British heathens from the error of their ways, and inducing them to become followers of the Lamb." The awakened zeal of the Connexion thus developed itself in active exertions to subserve the best interests of men at home and abroad.

CARE FOR THE CHURCHES.

While efforts were made to extend the boundaries of Zion, considerable anxiety was manifested for the improvement of the existing churches in piety and discipline. This anxiety is evident from the subjects selected for the annual addresses to the churches, such as — the importance of meetings for prayer and religious intercourse — the nature and importance of church discipline — the evidence of real conversion — the best means of promoting unity of exertion in the Connexion, &c. These addresses abound with matter of sterling value, and evince a holy earnestness for the "increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love." " If," says one,f "you feel con- vinced that when you come to die and meet your God, you will think all faith weak, all love cold, all diligence careless- ness, all labour idleness, and all piety hardly worth the name, compared with that faith, and love, and zeal, and activity, and piety, which the eternal God, the eternal Saviour, an immortal soul, and an endless heaven demand, — if you will think so, — and will you not as surely as you are born to die ? 0, then, aim at nobler piety than that which satisfies so many !"

t Circular Letter, 1822.

226

AN HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE

Of the Churches ichich joined the New Connexion of General Baptists during the FOURTH PERIOD: viz. from 1820 to 1846.

Churches.

M. houses

/.

5>

"

■d

■d

E 3

"a

- "P.

o

a

Xanies.

5 S

Periodical

number

of members.

Manchester

1 1820: 8:1821: 16:1825:

F. Beardsall 1834 1842 rn 18251 15 1835! .. J. F. Farrent 1844 1845jrnT830 62 1840 94 The northern chm*ches carried on: \ |l845|160

preachiug here for some years with but little success : it was afterwards adopted as a Home Mission station. The church has been subject to many fluctuations. The num- ber was diminished in 1836 by the formation of the church at Stockport.

t Norwich ..11821: 9:1821: 9:1820: :S. Wigg .. ..:1821:1821:in:

Prospect place A meeting-house was built here, in which Mr. Wigg gathered a

Ismail church. After his removal to Leicester, Mr. Le Maire preached

a few times in this building, when he and the people removed to Crook's place, and shortly after joined the Particular Baptists.

Lincoln

1822: 5:1822: 5:1701:

E. Kingsford 18241 1829|rn 18251 24] 18351 24 S.Wright ..,1830 * Il830 29 1840 48 A church existed here in 1651, but be-| | I 1 18451 36

came extinct ; and the property (a meeting-house, large burying-ground, and some cottages) was alienated. In 1819, the association recovered the property : after which supplies were sent and a church formed.

Smalley

11822:90:1822: 90|1790|1817|G.W.PurceIl -I Kilburn |l832[ W. Fogg

This was a branch of Ilkeston church : i J. Wilders the increase of members in this locality, I J. Felkin and its distance from Ilkeston, suggested the propriety of forming a distinct society

182211830

1825i 99

1831 1835

in

1830!l23

1839 1844

a.

184411847

rn

1

1835 108 1840 128 1845 173

Belper 1 1823:96:1823: 96:1819:

IW. Smedley 1822

G. Pike .... 1825

The cause was introduced by the friends E. Stenson . . 1S31

atDuflield, in 1817: it continued a branch E. Ingham.. 1838

of Duffield until the date in the table. J. Dunkley il845

Coventry.... 1 1822: 9:1823: 14:1825:

J. Peggs.... 1828 J T Bannister 1835

1824 rn 1827; in 1832 in 1842 1 d. 1846,rn

1834 in 1840 rn

1844 d.

1825

1825

GO! 1835 1840

18 45

18.35

1840 18 45

It is probable that Coventry has never C E Keighley,1842 been without General Baptists from the[J. Lewitt ..11844 time of the commonwealth. (Page 149.) The present church was originated, chiefly, by the Warwickshire conference. In 1827, the church, being " greatly torn by dissen- sion," was dissolved and re-formed.

Macclesfield 11823:11:1823: ll:p822:

J. Preston . . E. Kenney.. J. Lindley .. G. Maddeys

A meeting-house being on sale here, it was purchased by the association in 1822. A church was hastily gathered : in consequence of its corrupt state, it was dissolved in 1826, and more carefully reconstructed.

1823 1826'rn 1828 1842! in 1842 ! 1844lrn 18461 * I

1825 106 1830 112

1835 1840 1845

Magdalen and, 1823: 5:1823: 5118401 Stowbridgej Stowbridge .. 1 18251

,8. Wright . T. Ewen.. . I J. C. Smith

1182611828

in 1825!

9118351

9 1840:

18341844

ag,1830

|l840| *

1 1

1 18451

Mr. Eatcliffe, a member of F]ee^, removed to Magdalen in 1818, and introduced preaching into these villages, assisted by Mr. Scott and others. Mr. E. continued to preach until 1834, when he removed nearer to Norwich.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

227

joined Hinckley church.

Churches,

t Nuneaton .

MINISTERS.

Names.

Periodical

number

of members.

A few persons were baptized by Mr. Green, of Barton, and formed into a church in 1823 : the greater part of the members soon afterwards

1828 J. Goadby 1840, ■~ 1830! This church was originated! 1843 by a division of the society in Friar-lane. Considerable exertions have been made by the members to establish the cause, and prosperity has attended their efforts.

Leicester 11823:48:1824: 53 1824 Dover-street j

Whetstone !h828

1826

*

18251 60 1830 123

1835 1840 1845

t Syston ,

1822:10:1824: 22:1828:

E. Stenson..|1831|1834|rnll825| 22)18351 43 I |1830| 37ll840| 15 The cause was introduced into Queniborough by the friends at Quorndon and Bothley, in 1820. After the formation of the church at Queniborough, their labours were ex- tended to Syston, and the church assumed the name of Syston and Queniborough. The introduction of antinomianism at Syston led to the withdrawal of the members at Queniborough, &c. : the cause withered, and the meeting-house was transferred to the Particular Baptists. (See Queniborough.)

t Tipton 11824: 4:1824: 41 Preaching was introduced here under the sanction

-I of the Warwickshire conference. Messrs. Passmore,

Ford, and Whitehead have been the ministers. Some unpleasant occurrences retarded the prosperity of the cause, and the church is lost sight of after 1830. The meet- ing-house has since been occupied by the Particular Baptists.

Whittlese a

1823:10:1824: 14: 1830:1841 1 J. Wood — H. Rose

1829118391 inl 1825j 13|1835[ 46 1840 1845 in 1830 19 1840

There was formerly a General Baptist T. Lee |1846| * | | I1845| 71

meeting-house here, and land attached to it, which has become private property. The present interest was founded by the Lincolnshire conference, assisted by a worthy General Baptist family, who removed from Bourn into the neighbourhood ; ai piety, steadfastness, and zeal, contributed largely to its success.

Leicester, 11823: 5:1825: 17:1823:1843|T. Gamble . Carley-street This church was gathered W. Finn... 1 by Mr. T. Gamble, whose) J. F. Winks.

11823 1836 d.|1830) 36118401 44 1836)1841 in 1835 50 1845 45 18431 * I

ardent labours for its prosperity were continued gratuitously until his death.

tBirmingham|1823;12;1825; 12;

Edmund-st.| The cause here was begun by the friends in Lombard-street; the church was dissolved in 1827.

Burton-on- Trent ..

J. Amner ..

1825

1827

1830

78

1840

G. Nay lor . .

1830

1831

1835

48

1845

S. Reeve

1833

1834

J. Staddon..

1837

1845

in

J. Peggs

1846

*

11825:11:1825: 15:1824: This place was adopted

las a station by the Home Mission committee, who purchased pre- mises for a meeting-house, and for a time mainly supported the cause. Preaching is maintained at Stretton, Walton,' and Repton.

t East Haltonl 1824; ;1825; 12; ;1830; 11;1835; 16

I This church was formed by a separation from Killingholme ; in 1839 the members were re-united to Killingholme. W. Tutty was the minister for some time.

Allerton .. .. 1 1825:15:1826: 25:1825: |J.Shackleton|1828|1833|rn|1830l 57118401 54

■ I J. Ingham.. 1 18351 *| Il835| 54ll845| 76

The cause was introduced by the church at Queenshead, and carried on by them for several years with considerable success.

q2

228

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

M. houses

Periodical

number

of members.

t Preston.. .. I

1830! 12118401

1835 12 I

A meeting-house being on sale here, was purchased and opened in 1825 by the Home Mission committee. The cause has not been prosperous and the meeting-house has been sold. The name is discontinued in the minutes after 1841.

Boughton ..|1827;35;1827; 34;1827;

IW.Stubbings] 1835, 1839|rn: 18301 43118401 48

I I I Il835| 34|1845| 44

The friends at Retford carried on preaching in this neighbourhood for several years.

Mr. Shipston was very industrious in this good work, and had the pleasure of

church formed and a meeting-house built.

t Ashbourne

;1827; 12;

|W. Fogg.... 1 18291 1831 1 in! 181 — |W. Finn.... 1 18341 1836|re| This church was formed by the exertions of the friends at Brook-street, Derby. It disappears from the minutes in 1840.

tMersham ..11826; 6;1827; 6; ; ; J. King ;1826;

I The friends at Norwich carried on preaching at this place, and a small church was formed. In a year or two they ceased to send any account to the association, and in 1831, the name is inserted for the last time,

Clayton

|1828;14;1829; 35;1830; lJohn Taylor 1183211836 rn|1830] 3511840] 86

Jos. Taylor 1841 1843 rn 1835 72 1845 118

This church was formed of individuals I R. Hogg |1845| *| ill

who separated from the society at Queenshead for that purpose, and one from AUerton.

Longford, 11826;24;1829; 78;1827;1829

Union-place This church was formed

|by individuals who seceded

from the old society at Longford.

Northampton! 1829;11;1829; U;p830;

The settlement of some Leicestershire General Baptists in this place led to the introduction of the cause. The midland churches made considerable exertions to establish a society

W. Warner . J. Dunkley . J. Shaw . . .

W. Brand .. J. J. Poulter W. Jarrom . .

T.White

H. Rose

1826 1837 1837 1841 1843

L831

1S37 1839 L842

184o

rn ; 1830 rn'1835

1835 rn 1838 rn'1835 1841 |rn| 1844 rn

89 1840 123 105 1845 133

L84Q

1845

t Netherseal

1829;50;1829; 59118261 1 1840

;S.Shakespear;1834;184O;nf;1830; 64;1835; 70

The friends here formed a branch of Austrey church until it was thought expe- dient to establish a distinct society. In 1840 it was incorporated with Measham.

Coningsby ,.||1651;

);$79I17201 11813

J. Lupton . . C. Warwick G. Boyce . . W. Thomas J. Stevenson

F. Cameron W. Smedley

G. Pickance G. Judd ....

S. Reeve.. .. R Hardy Preaching was begim here in 1828, by G. Staples . . Messrs. Bissill, Payne, and Rogers, under J. Somerville

John Lupton was minister of Tattershall in 1651. (See page 118.) The first entry in the Coningsby church book is signed "John Lupton, 1657", and the society is mentioned as " the congregation at Con- ingsby and Tattershall."

t Stamford .. 1 1829; 6;1830; 9;1835;

the direction of the South Lincolnshire conference. Much excitement was "cre- ated by the first baptism. (See page 235.)

J. Els-y .... W. Pentney

|| 65111670

a.

1672

17381800

a.

180l!l804

rn

1804 1810

m

1812 1822

in

1822 1829

rn

1829 1830

in

1831

*

1830

1833

rn

1838

to

1843

1843' 1846

1

in

18351 7711845; 54 1840| 66| I

The venerable Gilbert Boyce was the last me- ssenger of the Lincolnshire churches.

18351 10118451 29 1840| 17[ ' I

Erased from the minutes by the association in 1846.

t Not 99 as stated in the minutes. (G. Judd.)

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

229

J. Garratt ..| 18341 1845 rn 1835 30 1845j 39 1840 31 1 I

Mr. G. Pike, then minister at Belper, introduced preaching here in 1826. The friends at Crich withdrew from Belper in 1828, and united with the church at Derby, of which they continued a branch until they were formed into a distinct society.

Wolverhamp- 118311 4 18311 61183811846 ton 1 18431 8|1844| 32|

Two or three General Baptists from Leicestershire removed hither and introduced the cause. It has been subject to many vicissitudes ; the meeting-house was closed and the church disorganized. In 1843 the place was re-opened, and eight of the former members re-constituted the church, which rapidly increased under Mr. Shore.

Churches.

1 1

T3

"3 o <o M

2

-

M. houses

1

3

-a

^rich

1830;20;1831; 31;1839;

Names.

Periodical

number

of members.

R.Green

183111834

rn

1835

15

F. Boot

1840 1841

rn

1840

14

M. Shore

1844 1847

rn

J. Burrows..

18471 *

1845

G4

Market Har- borough ..

:10:1831: 15:1831:1840|F. Beardsall 1183318341 in|1835| 4011845! 84

J. Buckley.. 1837 1843 1840 74 R. Miller.... 1 18451 * I

Mr. T. Stevenson, sen. commenced preaching here imder the direction of the Home Mission in 1829 ; the inhabitants were friendly, and the prospect was cheering. Mr. Buckley resigned to labour in the Foreign Mission.

1832:15:1832: 15:1831:1840|JFernyhough|l832|1835l se 18351 63118451380 1 J. Burns ..18351 *| 1840 2321

London, Mary-le-bone

Preaching was introduced into Paddington, by the church in Commer- ist cial-road: Mr. AVallis was indefatigable in his exertions to establish the cause — preaching and watching over the members (first in Praed-street, then in North Wharf-road), until they had a meeting-house and a minister. The zeal and liberality of Mr. Wileman greatly promoted its interests. (See Edward-street.)

Derby, 11830:15:1832: 20118311 Sacheverel-st | Littleover |

IS. Ayrton A. Smith |R. Stanion

11831 118421 in|1835jl06 1845 145 1842 1845 se 1840 180 1845 *

Circumstances led to the withdrawal of a few members from Brook-street, who united their efforts and planted a church in this locality. (See Brook-street.)

Isleham

11812: 3:1832: 7011811 1813 1841 | Isleham Fen |p842|

J. Farrent . .

R. Compton

J.Cotton..

T.Lee

S. Stenson . .

1813

1815

rn

1835

79

1845

1815

1834

d.

1840 112

1836

1842

rn

1843

1846

m

1846

*

114

A few per- sons living at isleham separated from the Particular Baptist church at Soham, in

1808, because the minister had become a unitarian. They began to hold meetings for reading and prayer, as General Baptists, and the Lord prospered them. Mr. Norman was one of the three ; to his piety and generosity the interest, in a great degree, owes its rise and advancement,

Bradford (1832:11:1833: 22:1837: )R. Ingham..

* 118351 30,18451235

I Il840|l3ll

The Yorkshire conference introduced the cause into this town in 1831, when a large room was hired, and opened for worship by Mr. R. Ingham. A larger room was after- wards taken, and opened by T. Hudson and Dr. Steadman. Mr. Hinchcliffe was for several years a frequent and efficient supply.

t Barnstaple 1 1833:15:1834: 321 Mr. Miller of Loughborough removed hither, and 1 erected a meeting-house. A church was formed, but

was soon dissolved.

230

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

*

m

M. houses

"d

|

O

S

o

O

s

■2

a

Names.

Cradley .... 1 1834:27:1835: 37:1835:

JG. Cosens.. .. 118371 18391m F Chamberlain! 18401 18451 in

Periodical

number

of members.

1840r377l845T63

n

Mr. Tunnicliff and a few of his friends commenced preaching on Cradley heath in 1834 ; they met with encouragement and the cause was established.

t Perth.

:1835: 60:

I J. Burns . — Blake .

11835! inl 1840 64 18451 64 Il837|rn| \ I

This society was gathered by the united labours of a few ministers who carried on a Christian Mission." After the removal of Mr. Blake, the church adopted the disci- pline of the Scotch Baptists, and consequently withdrew from the G. B. association.

Alfretonand 11833: 7:1835: 28118381 Ripley ...J Eipley 1 1846

: J. Burrows..: 1833: 1847: in: 1840: 55:1845: 55

A few friends from Nottingham having removed to Alfreton, felt desirous of introducing the G. B. cause, and applied to the church at Sutton-in-Ashfield for ministerial aid. This was afforded, and preaching was commen- ced in the open air in 1831. A room was afterwards hired; in 1833, a room was also hired at Ripley, and opened for divine worship by Mr. Pickering of Nottingham.

Rocester ....11834:11:1836: 22:1837:

:J. Sutcliffe..:1834: *

:1840: 21:1845: 23

Mr. Sutcliffe, a member of the church at Birchcliffe, settled here as a schoolmaster he soon began to preach the gospel, and was instrumental in gathering a church.

t Aylesbury

:1837: ll:unk.: :G. Cosens ..:1837:

There were many General Baptists in this neighbourhood in the 1 7th century. The old meeting-house is standing, but few General Baptists were left in the town: inl837 ; the cause was somewhat revived. The name is now erased from the minutes.

t London, Edward-st.

1835:40:1837:

:J.Ferneyhough:1835;1840;in;1840; 93;

Mr. Ferneyhough and a number of members seceded from Mary-le- bone, and formed this church; a place of worship was hired in Edward-street, which, after Mr. Ferneyhough's removal to Nottingham, was abandoned. (See Praed-street.)

Stockport ..|1836:18;1837; 19;

Harrison ;1840; * ; ;1840; 38;1845; 35

The cause here originated from Manchester and Staley-bridge ; the church has not a place of Avorship of its own. It has been supplied chiefly by Mr. Hesketh of Man- chester, Mr. Harrison, and Mr. Johnson.

t Tiverton .. |1837;13;1838; 14;

;D. Gathorp ;1837;

;1840; 8;

When Mr. Gathorp left Tarporley, he began to preach at Tiverton and was instru- mental in turning some from the error of their ways ; these were formed into a church by brethren Hollinrake and Butler. In 1843 it was incorporated with Tarporley.

. 1 1835; ;1838;156f This church was formed by members of Stoney-street,

INottingham, residing at Basford, Bulwell, and Huck-

nall. The church was soon dissolved in consequence of some unpleasant circumstances, and the members returned to the parent society. W. Bray was the minister.

,.11743; ;1840; 22; ;1839;W. White ..;1838;

:1843; 17:1845; 25

This church had become almost extinct ; there being only three members in January, 1838. That year they experienced a pleasing revival.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

231

Churches.

3 g

a a

S ซ

MINISTERS.

Periodical

number

of members.

1 1839:1 1-.1840; 40;1842;

T.H.Hudson 184111844 T. Horsfleld |l845|

11843 105118451 93

Several members of G. B. churches having resided here for some time as sheep with out a shepheTd, met together and agreed to hold meetings for religious worship. At these meetings an address was delivered by one of the brethren, and the hearers in- creased so as to render a larger room necessary. Since then the cause has been sus tained "by the Home Mission. T. Hudson joined the Foreign Mission.

Castleacre (formerly Wendling)

1840;21;1840; 21

Holme Hale . .

JGrt. Dunham

Barney

1841 1840 1840 1843

W. Dennis.. 11840 1846 rn 1843 6811845 103 J. Stutterd..|l846 * I I

Preaching was introduced into Wendling Great Dunham, Castleacre, &c, by Mr. J,

Wherry. Great success attended his labours, and three meeting-houses were soon erected.

Measham |1840!|176;1840;176

and Netherseal Netherseal

1811 1841 1840

1-23

G. Staples ..;1840;

;1843;223;1845;236

For many years Mr. Goadby of Ashby la- boured here with success. In 1840, the Mea- sham friends separated from Ashby, and, uniting with the church at Netherseal formed a distinct society.

Lou

Sutton I1840;46;1840;63;jl818|

! .1841

|T.Burditt.. I184011845) in|1843i 98118451 92 !H. L. Tuck |l847l * I I | I Long Sutton was a branch of Fleet church. After the death of Mr. Rogers, Mr. Burditt from Stepney college was invited to supply for a time ; his preaching was much approved of by the friends at Long Sutton, and as there was a difference of opinion as to the propriety of Mr. Burditt's assuming the pastorate of the whole church, an inde- pendent society was formed at Sutton, of which Mr. B.was unanimously invited to take the oversight.

Warsop

1841:36:1841

36|h818| |h829l

;1843; 36:1845; 33

This constituted a branch of Mansfield church for about twenty-one years. At length it was thought desirable to form a distinct society. It has been supplied by brethren from various churches.

London, |1841-,102:i841:129:p84kl841:W.Underwood:1841: * : :1843:165:1845:181 Praed- street

1 Immediately after the removal of Mr. Ferneyhough from Edward- street, the Tabernacle in Praed-street (erected in 1818) was offered for sale and purchased with funds furnished by Mr. Wileman. The greater part of those who had worshipped in Edward-street, and about forty members regularly dismissed from New Church-street, united in the formation of this society. Before the close of the year, the increase of the congregation rendered it necessary to erect galleries.

Leeds j 1841 il5;1841; 21|b840i

! Ip843|

jT.H. Hudson 1841 1 184 1 |rn[ 18431 19 18451 37 |J. Tunnicliff 1842)1846 rn as thought to be a desii able situ 1 R. Horsfleld 1 18461 * I

Mr. Hudson was engaged as a home missionary. The Yorkshire, Castle Donington, and Derby

This ation for a Home Mission station and sucreeded in gathering a church

districts of the mission united their efforts to establish the cause, and purchased a commodious meeting-house in Byron-street.

'London, | ; ; 1842; 21; : ;J. Preston .. ; ; ; ; ;1845; 18

Eden-street,

1843, This church was gathered by Mr. Preston a short time before it was

Euston-square received mto the association.

i Re-opened.

232

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

Churches.

ซe

(j

s

a

M. houses

d

■d

S 8

2

s M

1

Periodical

number

of members.

f- Kirton

11840; 9;1842; 16;1840; ;W. Stubbings; 1840; 1844;rn; 1843; 16;1845; 18

Mr. Stubbings, then pastor of the church at Boughton, commenced preaching here in the open air in 18.37. When the meeting-house was erected, most of the respectable inhabitants contributed towards the expense, and conveyed the materials gratui- tously. The minutes for 1846 state that the church is broken up and the meeting- house let.

Stoke-on- |1841;10;1842; US', ; j ; ; ; ;1843; 21;1845; 26

Trent

1 A number of individuals, members of G. B. churches, having settled

in this neighbourhood, hired, a room, which was opened for worship with "the good wishes of christians of other denominations." It has been supplied chiefly by ihe Cheshire and Lancashire conference.

Queni borough

and Thrussington.

(See Systom)

1822;10;1842; 18118381 ; ; ; ; :1843; 32;1845; 46

Thrussington 1829

1 1 843 j This branch (18 members) withdrew from Syston in 1835; and were received as above. It has had no settled minister.

Colwell .... 1 1834;19;1843; 48;1836;

IB. Cole |W. Eogers

|1836jl839|chJ1845| 551

! The ninpteen were members of the P. B. church ; but holding G. B. sentiments they withdrew and formed themselves into a church, and called Mr. Cole, one of their number, to the ministry. He soon began to preach calvinistic doctrines, when the deacons and some of the members withdrew, and worshipped in a private house until Mr. C. left: after his removal they returned, and the trustees put them possession of the meeting-house.

Lyndhurst ..||1680; ;1843; 52;unk;

We have no account of the formation of this church : the above date is, proba- bly, nearly correct.

Congleton ..11843; 7;l?43; 13;p841;

— Jarvis ....

d.

1845

52

— Jackman

1715

1755

a.

A. Aldridge

1782

1812

d.

— Clarke ..

1811

1823

rn

J.Hall ....

1825

1830

d.

J. Heathcote

1831

1841

in

E. Compton

1841

*

E. Stenson ..

1842

1844

1845

15

C. Crowther

1846

*

and minister's

hoi

ise (

on

nerly

Ot'C

lady Huntingdon's connexion) being on sale, was purchased. Mr. Pedley commenced preaching in the meeting-house in July, 1841. Mr. Stenson was engaged by the Home Mission to supply it until 1844.

Chesterfield. . |1842;13;1843; 22;

|W. Goodliffe 1 18451 1846|in|l845| 191

A few members of General Baptist churches in neighbouring counties came to reside at Chesterfield; these were collected together and assisted by the N. D. Home Mis- sion. A room was hired and fitted up for worship, in which preaching has been main- tained by ministers connected with the H. M. society.

Fenstanton 1 1841; 12; 1842; 12;unk;

IG. White [S. Ratcliffe

I184111844jrn|l845| 10|

This name is celebrated in General Baptist history : after the removal of the place of worship to St. Ives, and the assumption of that name by the society, preaching continued to be maintained at Fenstanton and Warboys in conjunction with St. Ives ; and ultimately a distinct church was formed. (See St. Ives.,) *

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLE.

233

Hathern....jl840;21;l844; 26

Preaching has been maintained here for more than sixty years : the friends m> et in a hired place of wor- ship, and, for several years, formed a branch of Sutton Bonington. When they formed.themselves into a distinct ehurch, Jos. Coddington was chosen tlder.

ludlem J1814; 5;1844; 36;1840;

|J. S. Thurs-I

I field ! 1 832 * |

This was a Particular Baptist church: in 1835, a majority of the members being convinced that the doctrines held by the General Baptists were more in accordance with the word of God, several who were hyper-calvinists left the society, and it be came a General Baptist church.

Churches.

M. houses

MINISTERS.

|

■d

•a

<8

Periodical

c?

> o

number

i

Names.

02

1

— o

3

of members.

Pinchbeck

[1844: 8;1844; 13J1818I ; A. Simons..; 1844; * | This church was ■ J 1844!gathered by Mr. Simons. (See page 237.)

o seceded from

Vine-street, |184l;24;l844; 30;1844; ; Ad. Smith..; 1846; * ;

Leicester..

1 This society was formed by a number of members

Archdeacon-lane, and commenced preaching in a destitute part of the town.

Ramsgate ..I , ;1844; 12;1724;i:

R. Chilton . .

1732 1751

J. Bush ....

1732

S. Gowlland

11776

G. Kingsfoid

178711793

rn

TChristopher

1793 1840

Df

J. Packer ..

1840 1 *

Origin unknown. It was, probably, branch of the ancient church at Sandwich and Deal. A meeting-house at Birching ton, now occupied by the primitive . ruethodists, belongs to this society : the deed of conveyance bears date 1768.

Brook-street, |1845;110;1845;114; ; ;Am. Smith ;1845;

Derby....

1 This church was formed of members who (with the minister) separated

from the society in Sacheverel-street : having obtained permission to worship in the meeting-house in Brook-street, formerly ocoupied by the church now assembling in Mary's-gate, ihey assumed the name

Wheelock Heath .

11823; 3; 1845; 6911660! Brookhouse

Green

1842

ID. Gathorp.. 1 1823. 18321m

J. Howarth.. 1832 1834|d. |R. Pedley ..|l834|

Mr. Pedley was the first person baptized in this neighbourhood, by D. Gathorp : he and two sisters were formed into a church. The meeting-house was built by the presbyterians, and came into the possession of the baptists in 1800,

London,

Charles-street ;

Paddington

1846;16;1846; 16;h846;

;J. Batey ....;1846; *

A meeting-house in this densely populated neighbourhood being vacated by the P B.'s was taken by Mr. Batey, an occasional preacher in the society at New Church-street : he and some others were dismissed, and a church was formed.

Walsall

1845;70;1846; 76,1847;

IR. Hamilton 1845! *

Mr. H. was pastor of a Particular Baptist church : but as the sentiments entertained by him and a number of the members were in accordance with those held by the G. B. churches, they thought it their duty to unite with that body.

234

SHORT NOTES.

AMERICAN AND WELSH GENERAL BAPTISTS.

The Association agreed in 1824, that a correspondence should be opened with the brethren in America: Mr. A. Tay- lor was requested to act as agent, and to publish in the " Reposi- tory" such extracts from their communications as he might deem interesting aud adapted to be useful.

The first baptist church in America was formed in the town of Providence, Rhode Island, about the year 1640: it was gathered by the labours of Messrs. John Brown, Thomas Olney, William Wigendine, and Gregory Dexter. At the close of the seventeenth century, thirteen churches had been formed : these were unanimous in rejecting the Calvinist doctrines, and were, in fact, a body of General Bap- tist churches. During the first eighty years of their existence, there were raised up amongst them fifty-seven able, laborious, and useful preachers : the publications which were issued, prove the authors to have been men of real talent and of considerable literary attainments.* The first " Freewill" or General Baptist church in New Hampshire was formed in 1780. In 1833, Mr. Sutton, of the English General Baptist missionary society, made an extensive tour among the American churches: a foreign missionary society was organized, and when Mr. Sutton sailed for India in 1835, he was accompanied by Messrs. Noyes and Phillips, the first missionaries of the new society. In 1844, the body of American General Baptists comprised 1201 churches; 797 ordained ministers; and 60,735 commu- nicants. They support a religious paper, maintain sabbath- schools, and have a flourishing academy to prepare young men for the ministry, at Parsonfield, in the State of Maine. It is pleasing to add, that anti-slavery principles are avowed by the whole community. — In 1827, Mr. Goadby, of Ashby, was de- puted to visit the General Baptists in Wales : our revered brother, acccompanied by Mr. J. F. Winks, took a journey into the principality', and inserted a report of his researches in the " Repository" for October. From that report it appears they were few and poor, and in some localities unscriptural senti-

* Jenks' Short Narrative.

SHORT NOTES. 235

ments were held : it concludes with the significant observation, " I trust, I felt sincerely thankful that the New Connexion of General Baptists in England are not infected in their churches with the noxious leaven of Socinianism. And may the Lord ever preserve us from it ! Amen."

OUT-OF-DOOR PREACHING.

Much activity was manifested about 1826 and subsequent years, in preaching the gospel in the open air. Associated with this primitive method of proclaiming the message of sal- vation, we find the names of Pickering, Pike, Stevenson of Loughborough, Yates, Goadby, T. Stevenson of Leicester, A. Smith, Peggs, Payne, Stocks, Butler, Winks, Heathcote, Beardsall, Jones, &c. These services were frequently attended by crowds of hearers: tracts were occasionally given away which were received with the greatest eagerness. At Derby, especially, they were the means of increasing the congregations at the meeting-house ; and various instances are recorded of the conversion of deathless spirits, resulting from the divine blessing on these exertions.

BAPTISM AT STAMFORD.

Considerable attention was excited towards the subject of adult baptism, by its administration in rivers and open places. At Stamford, the first baptism awakened great interest : the preceding week it was the popular theme of conversation, and many were the opinions respecting the manner of performing the ceremony. Some thought the candidates would be dipt three times ; others that merely the heads would be immersed ; many w r ere at a loss to conceive what would be done. The " Stamford Mercury" observed in a leading article — " The curiosity of the public is greatly excited, as it is believed to be more than a hundred years since an event of this kind occurred in Stamford." The visit of the baptists created almost as great a sensation as that of Paul and Silas at Thessalonica, of whom it was said " these men that have turned the world upside down are come hither also." Mr. Bissill preached in the meeting- room (Sep. 20, 1829), after which the friends repaired to the river Welland. As at Thessalonica, " certain lewd fellows of the baser sort gathered a company" from whom some disturb- ance was feared. A hymn was sung; "and if ever music soothed, this did, for it had the effect of comparatively quieting

236

THE NEW CONNEXION.

the populace. . . . A most attentive, if not "expressive silence' prevailed from the commencement to the conciusipn of the six immersions, and the demeanour of the multitude had so changed from ' lively to severe' that it may almost virtually be said that ' those who went to scoff, remained to pray.' "f

It is supposed that four thousand persons were present on this occasion : many were struck with a solemn awe, and con- fessed that religion was important and the baptists were right. In the afternoon and evening, Mr. Wigg, of Leicester, preached to crowded congregations in the meeting-room.

OUTRAGE ON MR. PEGGS.

The outrages perpetrated on the first preachers of the New Connexion have been detailed : the scenes then exhibited have, happily, become less frequent ; yet, in some instances, similar proceedings have been adopted. On Tuesday evening, June 9, 1835, Mr. Peggs, of Bourne, impelled by that ardent de- sire for the welfare of souls by which he has ever been charac- terized, repaired to the village of Hackonby, near Bourne, and took his stand on the green, for the purpose of proclaim- ing the message of mercy. He attempted in vain to preach : the constable and several farmers encouraged the boys to annoy and assault him. The ancient watchword of the enemies of Christianity — "crucify him" — was adopted on this occasion, and promptly answered by the yells and hooting of boys, far- mers' servants, and others, headed by several of their masters, who resided in the village. Stones, hard clay, rotten eggs, &c, were thrown, the chair near which the preacher stood was kicked by the constable into the road, and indecencies were practised which shocked the modesty of the congregation. Attempts were afterwards made, but with similar results.

INDEPENDENCE OF THE CHURCHES.

In 1835, a series of rules was prepared and laid before the Association, intended "to cement, harmonize, and improve the Connexion." This document was printed, in order that the churches might carefully consider its provisions, and trans- mit their views of them to the next Association. The publica- tion of the plan elicited an animated discussion in the " Reposi- tory" — the denominational periodical ; and some parts of it were thought to be highly objectionable. The ground of ob-

t Stamford News.

SHORT NOTES. 237

jection was their alleged interference with the independence of the churches. The rules were, consequently, revised so as to remove the cause of objection; being then generally approved by the churches, they were adopted as the constitution of the Association. f The jealous care with which the churches cherish their scriptural independence, is strikingly evinced by the circumstances connected with this case : while in the vari- ous letters sent to the Association, were fully recognized those high and permanent obligations under which the Lord Jesus has laid his followers, to do what they can for the further- ance of his kingdom in the world.

REVIVAL MEETINGS.

Among other means adopted for promoting the pros- perity of the body, was that of holding frequent religious servi- ces, the principal features of which were special prayer-meet- ings and direct and pointed addresses to different classes of characters. Such services were held in many parts of the Connexion ; in some instances, the results were of a very pleas- ing nature.

CHURCH GATHERED BY A CONVERTED JEW.

In 1839, Mr. Alex. Simons, a Jew of very respectable connexions in Prussia, was baptized by Mr. Cameron, at Louth, having embraced the christian faith, and be- come convinced of the scripturalness of divine truth as ex- hibited by the General Baptists. Mr. S. continued for some yeaTS in his vocation as a " travelling Jew," and was very fre- quently engaged in preaching the gospel in different parts of the Connexion. In 1843, he was induced to preach at Pinch- beck, Lincolnshire : much attention was awakened in the neigh- bourhood, many attended to hear the word, and it was thought that if Mr. S. could settle there, a respectable cause might be raised. After prayerful deliberation, he resolved to do so, and commenced his stated labours in Jan., 1844. The preaching- place became too small to accommodate the numbers that crowded to hear the word : a gentleman offered a piece of land as the site for a new meeting-house, and ten pounds towards the erection. A building, capable of seating 400 persons, was speedily erected. In September, Mr. S. observes — " Our prospects are very cheering, the meeting-house has been filled

t See Chapter III. Section I.

238

THE NEW CONNEXION.

ever since the opening : we have also a good sabbath-school of ninety-six children. What hath the Lord wrought in so short a time ! altogether it is a marvellous work."

CENTENARY AT BARTON.

In the year 1745, as we have seen, seven humble individuals were formed into a church at Barton. Though the infant cause was planted amid the violence of a storm of persecution — though ruffians banded against it, and the civil magistrate con- nived at the outrages perpetiated — yet it lived ! A hundred years have passed away : during which it has flourished, and received into its fellowship and trained up for immortal glory considerably more than a thousand deathless spirits ! Be- sides this, six churches have been planted by its direct efforts — these have given birth to nearly twenty more — others have originated in a union of effort of the Barton preachers with brethren of other churches — in fact, almost all the churches of the General Baptists in the midland counties, amounting to nearly ten thousand members, are indebted to the labours of the Barton church. Thus has " the small one become a strong people." Surely the hand of the Lord hath done this ! On Thursday, May 15, 1845, Centenary Services were held at Barton to give thanks to the name of the Lord. From Hinckley, Loughborough, Leicester, Nottingham, Melbourne, Measham, &c, a considerable number of friends attended, for whose accommodation in obtaining refreshment, an uninhabited mansion was kindly lent by the Right Hon. Earl Howe. At six o'clock in the morning a prayer meeting was held. At half-past ten, public service commenced ; Mr.. Deny gave out appropriate hymns, Mr. Tyers read the scriptures and prayed, and Mr. Goadby preached from I Sam. vii. 12. In the afteT- noon, a public meeting was held : Mr. Derry presided ; Mr. Cotton read an historical memorial of the church from its com- mencement to 1845. Effective and interesting addresses were then delivered by Messrs. T. Stevenson, Winks, Tyers, Goadby, and Stubbins, missionary. In the evening, Mr. Smith, of Hinckley, read the scriptures and prayed, and Mr. Wallis, tutor of the academy, delivered a discourse from 1 Peter i. 24, 25. Mr. Wood concluded with prayer. The emotions excited on this day were of no ordinary kind : the place of assembly ap- peared like holy ground ; every object associated with the early history of the cause was regarded with a feeling almost

SHORT NOTES. 239

approaching to veneration. The house in which the gospel was first preached at Barton is not standing, but in the ceiling of that which is reared on the same spot, is the very beam which supported the first congregation. Near the meeting- house is an apple-tree brought from Melbourne by Mr. S. Deacon nearly a century ago, and planted by himself. In the grave-yard repose the mouldering dust of the first seven. On each side of the pulpit in the meeting-house are monumental tablets to the memory of the venerable Samuel Deacon the elder, and of Samuel Deacon, his son, and successor in the pastoral office. On this occasion the meeting-house was adorned with devices beautifully executed in leaves and sprigs of laurel. Over the pulpit was displayed, " Hitherto hath the Cord helped us" — " The little one shall become a thousand :" — in front of the platform, " His banner over us is love." The discourses and addresses were highly appropriate to the occa- sion : the congregation was dense : the services were delight- ful, refreshing, hallowing: and the people retired "joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness of the Lord to his people."

A STRIKING CONTRAST.

" Them that honour me," saith the Lord, " I will honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed." How highly has Barton been honoured ! It is as a field which the Lord hath blessed. Osbaston, on the contrary, a contiguous village, whose inhabitants made a bonfire in L743, and declared "they would burn the Holy Ghost with the methodists," j has remained like a barren desert. Various attempts have been made to introduce the preaching of the word — but they have been unsuccessful ; and, during the hundred years' existence of the Barton society, there has not been one person admitted into the church from Osbaston ! On the Lord's-day after the centenary services, one of its inhabitants put on Christ by baptism. How solemnly instructive is this fact ! How striking an illustration of the exhortation to " grieve not the Spirit !"

COMPARATIVE INCREASE OF MEMBERS.

During this " Period" considerable zeal and liberality have been manifested in the erection and enlargement of meeting- houses — several interests have been resuscitated from a state

t "Methodists" was applied to the Barton christians as a term of reproach and scorn.

240

THE NEW CONNEXION.

of torpor and sterility to activity and fruitfulness — and 53 churches have been added. The time included in the follow- ing table is divided into periods of ten years — from 1774 to 1844. The difference between the number of members in the first and last year of each period, is taken as the total increase in ten years : if we calculate the amount of increase as accrueing from the number of members at the commencement of each period, the ratio will be thus —

Total

Total in- 1

Increase per

Average yearly

Date.

crease in

cent, in ten

increase per

ten years.

years.

cent.

1445

in 1774

yielded

610

42i

4ฃ nearly

2055

.. 1784

1112

54

5^ nearly

3176

.. 1794

....

734

23

2\ nearly f

3910

. . 1804

....

2171

55f

H

GOBI

.. 1814

2960

48^

4f

9041

.. 1824

2722

30

3

11763

. . 1834

5806

49 J nearly

5 nearly

17569

. . 1844

The fraction does not in every case represent the exact result ; the nearest fourth is taken as being more generally intelligible, and sufficiently near the truth to shew the compara- tive increase.

From this table it appears that the smallest increase was between 1794 and 1804, and the next ten years, viz., from 1804 to 1814 present the greatest increase ; and that, out of seven periods, there are only two in which the ratio of increase has been greater than during the ten years from 1834 to 1844. In the latter period, the numerical increase was nearly 20 per cent, greater than in the preceding ten years.

Since 1840, the yearly increase has been at the following ratio —

Year 1841 I 1842 I 1843 I 1844 I 1845 I 1846

Increase per cent. 5 | 3| | 4ฃ | 3 | 1ฃ | 1ง

The average yearly increase during these five years has been about 3 per cent.

THE PAST ANT) THE FUTURE.

The following extracts from the centenary discourses and addresses will form an appropriate conclusion to this portion of history : —

" ItJ; becomes us, on this occasion, to exercise increased confidence

IN THE GREAT PRINCIPLES OF NONCONFORMITY. This churchง has Stood,

X Mr. Wallis.

ง Barton.

SHORT NOTES. 241

and acted, and gone on increasing, for one hundred years, without the aid of the civil government. Like a tree planted by the divine hand, it has grown to an admirable height, weathered every storm of persecu- tion, and shot out its luxuriant branches, as if it would ultimately fill the whole land. Let this fact demonstrate the value of independency; and let us every one remember that the church of Christ, when separate from the state, is not only exempt from many corrupting influences, but enjoys more freedom, more power to do good, and unspeakably more ability to exercise discipline, and reform its own errors." — Mr. Stevenson adverted to the power exercised by this church in forming the public mind. " Its influence was felt even in Leicester: he could speak for his own church, and doubtless it was so with others. Those who had joined them from Barton were all sound in their principles : and there was one feature which he had particularly observed — that was, the lively interest which, as private members, they took in the welfare of the church." — Mr. Goadby remarked, "a leading characteristic of the Barton church has been brotherly love. I lived here, and through mercy was added to the church. Oh, I remember the persons and revere the piety of several distinguished christians in this region. Fox, Massey, Truman, and many others, whose piety and zeal, whose habitual devo- tion, are to my mind as ointment poured forth ! ' I challenge you,' said an eminent minister, the Rev. W. Felkin, in 1824, ' to go to any church and find such a circle of holy, spiritually-minded, christian people, as may be found in that church : they are the excellent of the earth.' " — Mr. Winks " would remind the young of one thing, which Mr. Stevenson had alluded to emphatically — that the great secret of the success which had attended our fathers was their faith. They lived indifferent times; they had not the advantages which were possessed now ; but he believed they were men of greater faith." — Mr. Wallis concluded his discourse by observing that his text "urges us to call in the aid of Omnipotence by persevering prayer. If, while we commence this second century with augmented diligence, we combine with it a deeper sense of our dependence on divine operation ; if, while we cultivate, as a denomi- nation, more of a devotional spirit, more spirituality of mind, we evince the spirit of enterprise and liberality in the diffusion of the gospel, the heavens themselves will open, and such copious effusions of divine influence will be vouchsafed, as will cause ' the wilderness and solitary place to be glad for us, and the desert to rejoice and blossom aa the rose.' "

242

When the mind glances over the events of this period as the departing years record their history, it cannot fail to note, with serious thoughtfuhiess, the ravages made by death among the ministers of the Connexion. More than fifty standard-bearers have quitted the field and " entered into rest." Among these how many honoured names are found, the " Obituary" will shew. How many whose sterling talent, steadfast piety, matured judgment, prudent counsel, and active exertions, have largely contributed to the stability and extension of the body ! Others, too, who had just entered on their work, whose abilities, and attainments, and piety, inspired the anticipation of protracted usefulness, have departed with the fathers to the world of spirits. The void thus created is painfully felt, and many mementos will long remind us of our loss.

John Deacon was the youngest son of Samuel Deacon, senior, and frequently, when a boy, was the companion of his father in his laborious excursions. He joined the church at Barton in early life ; and at the expiration of his apprenticeship was placed under Mr. D. Taylor, where he prosecuted his studies with great diligence. On his return from the academy he was invited to labour in the church at Friar-lane, Leicester, which was then nearly extinct. By the blessing of God on his exertions the society was greatly revived: he continued his ministry for several years, until a cloud unhappily overshadowed him, and he was separated from the church. After some time he was restored, and resumed the duties of the pastoral office, which he discharged with unremitting zeal and activity until he was confined to his bed. With declining years his piety and zeal for Christ seemed to increase ; and the great Head of the Church blessed his latter days in a peculiar manner by rendering his services eminently useful. The meeting-house was twice enlarged during his ministry; to defray the expenses of which he travelled thou- sands of miles, frequently on foot. His death was occasioned by a stricture in the bowels, March 10, 1821 : he expired calmly in the full assurance of faith. During his affliction he was frequently visited by Mr. Robert Hall, of Harvey-lane, by whose affectionate and fervent prayers and pious conversation he was much refreshed. He was a warm and sincere friend,.and a laborious and faitbful minister.

Cornelius Gregory, of Tarporley, began his christian course among the methodists, but afterwards united with the church under the care of Mr. Smith, who had recently left tbe Particular Baptists and embraced what was then styled " the general faith." He succeeded Mr. Smith in.

THE OBITUARY. 243

the ministry; but the interest gradually declined until the church became extinct. Mr. G. continued to preach, though without much apparent success, till 1817, when ministers from a distance visited Tarporley and laid the foundation of the present church. He died Oct 19, 1822, at the age of eighty-four. He possessed a strong mind, though not much improved by cultivation. In private life he maintained an honourable character, and was much esteemed by those who knew him.

Richard Thurman was born at Woodhouse, near Loughborough : when young he enlisted for a soldier, and after he left the army settled in the neighbourhood of Loughborough. Here he heard the General Baptist preachers, under whose ministry he was converted to God. When the division of the Loughborough society took place, Mr. T. settled at Leake, and was ordained pastor of the church there in 1782. At the division of the Leake church, he removed to Broughton, where he con- tinued his pastoral duties until he became superannuated. He died at Wirneswould, Jan. 10, 1823, at the age of eighty-five. Mr. T. was an humble, pious, consistent christian ; exemplifying by his life the power of that gospel he so earnestly recommended to others : his labours in the word and doctrine were arduous, and attended with considerable success.

George Birley was born at Bradwell, in the Peak of Derbyshire: his parents were worthy supporters of the General Baptist cause. George was for some time a member of the church at Ashford in the Peak ; but in 1705, removed to assist Mr. Dan Taylor in his school, and united with the church at Birchcliffe. There he was called to the work of the ministry. In 17C8, he left Yorkshire, and engaged as an assis- tant in the boarding-school of Mr. John Ryland, of Northampton. Mr. Birley still continued a member of the church at Birchcliffe, and was frequently employed in preaching to destitute congregations — especially atMouhon, Spratton, Burton-Latimer, and Stoney Stratford. After the decease of Mr. Biggs, of St. Ives, the friends there requested Mr. Birley to pay them a visit. This he did : the invitation was repeated, and in a short time it was agreed he should spend one Lord's-day in each month with them. He continued his monthly services for several years, during the greater part of which an earnest and unanimous desire was ex- pressed for his settlement with the church. At length he yielded to the entreaty; and in May, 1777, removed to St. Ives. He was ordained in Oct., 1786, when the address to the church was given by Mr. R. Robin- son, of Cambridge, and the charge to the minister by Mr. Dan Taylor. For a time there were pleasing symptoms of prosperity; from about 1809 Mr. B.'s health failed, and he was in some measure laid aside from preaching. He died in 1824. Mr. B. lived on terms of intimate friendship with Dan Taylor: he was also personally acquainted with Andrew Fuller, and when the latter published his " Gospel of Christ worthy of all acceptation," Mr. B. put it into the hands of Mr. T. earnestly requesting him to favour him with his remarks on it. The letters of Mr. Taylor in reply to the treatise were addressed to Mr. Birley. Mr. B. was a man of considerable learning, acuteness, and energy : but there is reason to believe that the disposition embodied in the first five words in I Tim. vi. 10 " hindered the gospel of Christ" during the latter part of his life.

r2

244 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Thomas Wesley was born at Newton Linford, near Leicester: in his nineteenth year he professed to have received the truth, and was bap- tized at Rotbley. He soon began to exercise his abilities in preaching, and when the society at Rotbley and Woodhouse divided, the latter church invited him to assume the pastoral office, on the duties of which he entered in 1810. Mr. W. continued his ministerial labours at Wood- house until near the end of 1816, when he resigned his office, as there was not that perfect unanimity relative to his services which he desired. His occasional assistance was still afforded until 1824: indulging the hope of being more extensively useful, he was, at his own request, dis- missed to the church in Dover-street, Leicester. To that infant cause he afforded important and efficient aid. During several years previous to his death he suffered much from an internal disease ; but he bore his sufferings with exemplary patience. His death occurred in 1824. Mr. Wesley's talents as a preacher were respectable ; his matter was solid and scriptural, and his manner deeply serious. His character was consistent with his profession; aud to the close of life his confidence in the Saviour was entire and unwavering.

Joseph Ellis joined the General Baptists at Queenshead soon after the establishment of the interest there. Being possessed of a strong, though uncultivated mind and great natural intrepidity, his brethren soon encouraged him to exercise his gifts among them ; and in 1784, called him to the ministry. In 1793, he was invited to serve the friends at Halifax, after the removal of Mr. Burgess ; and in 1796, was ordained to the pastoral office, in which he continued for nearly thirty years. Tuwards the close of life his faculties decayed, and he was laid aside from his work. He died August 13, 1825, aged seventy-six. Mr. E. had clear views of the leading doctrines of Christianity, boldly and plainly- avowed and defended them, aud felt their power on his own heart. He was never popular as a minister, though, among those who usually were his hearers, his acceptance and success were, perhaps, superior to those that might have attended a more polished orator. Warmly attached to the New Connexion, he laboured much to promote its prosperity. Before his death, he observed to one of his friends — "I feel solid peace and tranquillity ; my tranquillity arises from a dependence on my Redeemer, who is able to save unto the uttermost. He is my all in all."

William Felkin was born at Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, in 1772 : his parents were members of the established church, but left that body and became pious and exemplary members of the church at Kirk Hallam. William was brought to the saving knowledge of the truth in 1790, chiefly through the instrumentality of a discourse by Mr. W. Corah, from John iii. 16. He was employed with his father as a framework-knitter until 1794, when he married and settled at Ilkeston : in 1804, he opened a school, (at Kegworth,) to the duties of which he attended through the rest of his days. After the removal of Mr. Goddard from Ilkeston, Mr. Felkin, then in his twenty-third year,, was called to preach occasionally: his first sermon was delivered in 1795, from Luke x. 22. He represents himself as having entered the ministry without learning, books, or even time for study: in 1798, he was favoured with instruction for a few months from Mr. D. Taylor; but the acquisitions for which he was distinguished

THE OBITUARY. 245

in maturer years, were chiefly the result of reading and meditation pursued during the ordinary hours of sleep. He continued to minister in holy things at Ilkeston and Smalley until 1800, when, not obtaining adequate support, and his health being impaired by labour and study, he accepted an invitation from Kegworth and Diseworth church, where he was ordained to the pastoral office the following year. His ministry was attended with considerable success; but some dissatisfaction in the church induced him to resign his office in 1810. For several succeeding years he served the society at Archdeacon-lane, Leicester, though he still resided at Kegworth : in 1814, he yielded to the unanimous request of the friends at Kegworth and resumed his former station among them. After the re-union, a pleasing degree of harmony prevailed, and he was mainly instrumental in procuring the erection of a new meeting-house on a more eligible site. His ministry finally ceased in the Kegworth church in 1818, owiug to the supposed calvinistic tendency of his sermons. He continued to supply various destitute churches until the spring of 1824 : for several years previous to his death he was very feeble ; the narrowness of his worldly circumstances, severe trials in his family, and violent attacks of asthma, having worn down his strength, he exchanged the cares of earth for the rest of heaven, July 3, 1824, in the fifty-second year of his age. Our venerable brother Pickering, of Notting- ham, has kindly furnished interesting information respecting Mr. Felkin, from which a few extracts are selected, marked as quotations. "In re- gard to Mr. Felkin's character as a christian, I am happy to say that there was much gravity in his deportment, and his conversation was sensible and edifying : there was also a spirituality and an unction in what proceeded from his lips, which 1 have frequently witnessed with satisfaction and pleasure. There was a dignity in his person ; and I am aware that by some he was thought to be distant and high : but as I never saw anything of this kind, I cannot pretend to say that this was the case. As it respects the views of my esteemed friend, of the great truths of the gospel, I think I may say they were perfectly satisfactory — thoroughly evangelical. I believe his greatest favourite, as a preacher, was tbe immortal Doddridge : in familiar conversation with him about preachers, I have witnessed, when Doddridge was named he would be in raptures." " In regard to his talents as a preacher, I apprehend there could hardly be a diversity of opinion. No one, I think, could hear him without being convinced of his superior talents and powers: nor could he be heard with close attention without exciting emotions of pleasure and wonder. He was manifestly in the possession of clear conceptions of the subject before him, and his productions evinced that he was very familiar with the laws of logic. His thoughts were very select and ap- propriate — his language was chaste and insinuating — and there was to be discovered much feeling of the importance of the work in which he was engaged, and a very anxious solicitude to be the successful instrument to accomplish the end he had in view. I never heard him but with admiration ; and I believe he seldom delivered a discourse without tears. If there was any particular fault in his sermons, perhaps they were too long, and his thoughts sometimes spun out so fine as to impair their strength. But had it pleased the great head of the church to spare him and set him in a place suited to his remarkable talents and abilities, he

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would have been a bright ornament of the church of Christ, and emi- nently useful in extending his kingdom and confirming his people." He was remarkable for perspicacity ; the perplexity in which the breth- ren in conference have been involved by difficult cases, has ofien been removed by his penetration and judgment. His advice, often sought, was given with frankness, and generally with propriety. Though Mr. F. never used notes in the pulpit, he has left behind him upwards of two thousand discourses, written in short hand, full and accurate, with char- acteristic care and neatness. He was a devoted friend to missions ; his best sermons were in advocacy of that sacred cause. His affection and sympathy were ever in lively exercise towards his ministerial brethren; and he was most loved by those who knew him best.

John Sexton was grandson of Mr. Thomas Sexton, the faithful and useful pastor of the ancient church at Chesham and Berkhampstead. He joined the church in his youth, and began to preach in the villages in 1795. He supplied the churches at Wendover and Ford for a consider- able time ; travelling tweuty miles on the sabbath-day on foot and preaching three times. He removed to Ford in the year 1814, and was ordained to the pastoral office in May, 18 16. The cause revived under his ministry, additions were made to the church, and much comfort was enjoyed. He lived in harmony and affection with his people, with the inhabitants of the place, and with the ministers and churches around. After a short indisposition of six days, he sunk into the arms of death, Nov. 23, 1825, aged fifty years.

John Smedley was baptized and joined the church at Melbourne when about twenty years of age. He was for some time a ruling elder iu that church: there he first exercised his gifts as a preacher in conjunction with the venerable Francis Smith, whose warm and lasting friendship he enjoyed. About 1795, he was chosen pastor of the church at Eetford : his labours were generally approved and successful, and the church con- tinued to enjoy a considerable measure of prosperity till the close of his life. He died Feb. 25, 1826, at the age of seventy-nine, having exercised the pastoral office at Gamston and Retford nearly thirty years. Mr. Smedley's talents for preaching were not great: there was, however, a degree of originality about him which excited and fixed attention. He was a decided General Baptist: the distinguishing doctrines of the New Connexion were cordially espoused by him ; these he plainly preached, and defended according to his ability. The great doctrine of "the cross of Christ" was the prominent theme of his ministry, and that doctrine sustained his own soul when nature failed.

Daniel Hosmar commenced his religious course early, and pursued it with uniform steadiness to the close of life. He was in fellowship with the church at Smarden and Staplehurst more than thirty years, and sustained the office of elder more than twenty. He was a useful minis- ter: his love for souls was great, and manifested itself in the earnest- ness of his entreaties to sinners to flee from the wrath to come, and his exhortations to professors to abound in the work of the Lord. He lived under a constant sense of the importance of godliness; while his whole dependence for acceptance with God was built on the sure fbunda-

THE OBITUARY. 247

Hon laid in the gospel. He died Feb. 12, 1827, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.

John Cramp was born at Exhall, near Coventry, in April, 1702. A concern for his soul was excited under the ministry of Mr. G. H hiding, of Longford: he was baptized and received into the church there when about seventeen years of age. His first address was delivered in a house in Okesbury-laue, from Matthew xxiii. 33; at this place he continued to preach lor several years with acceptance and usefulness. The painful removal of the pastor from Longford, left the church in destitute circum- stances: Mr. C. was requested to supply the pulpit; and as his ministry was generally approved, the neighbouring supplies gradually ceased, and he became the stated minister. Sensible of the disadvantage under which he laboured through the want of a proper education, he was sent in 1792, to spend a few weeks with Mr. Thomas Pickering, of Castle Donington, that he might enjoy the benefit of his instructions. After his return his labours became increasingly useful ; and July 11, 1806, he was ordained to the pastoral office. For many succeeding years Mr. C. was the subject of frequent and long bodily indisposition ; but it was evident to all his friends that after these afflictions, he preached with increased piety and fervour. After suffering some years from a compli- cation of disorders, his spirit was released July 9, 1827, in the sixty- fifth year of his age. He was tranquil in the prospect of death : he ob- served, " my soul is happy in the Lord my God ... it is fixed on the rock that never faiieth." He was a sincere follower of the meek and lowly Jesus, and acted uniformly as a plain, faithful, and steady am- bassador of Christ. His sermons were pregnant with the most affecting views of the love of the Saviour, and of the purifying influence which the grand themes of redemption ought to have on the conduct and character of christians.

Joseph Scott was brought first to serious reflection on the impor- tance of salvation by a godly woman named Griffi'hs, who was in the habit of reading the scriptures to a few pious neighbours. He first be- gan to preach under the roof of Mrs. Griffiths, and soon extended his labours to other places. In 1778, he entered the countess of Hunting- don's college, and by her ladyship's appointment went to Chatteris in 1782. About this time, he began to doubt the truth of some of the calvinistic doctrines, and was convinced of the propriety of believers' bap- tism. In 1785, he and about thirty others were baptized at Wisbech and formed into a church, and thus was established the General Baptist society at Chatteris. He continued in the pastoral office in this church for nearly thirty years. A short time before his death, his physician said to him, " Sir, you are happy ;" he replied with emphasis, " Happy ! yes, I have been seeking after this happiness ever since I was nineteen." He gently yielded up his spirit Aug. 31, 1827, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. Mr. S. was a man of prayer, a lover of his bible, and sincerely desirous of promoting the best interests of others.

Joshua Mundv Cropper was born of pious parents at Oxford, Dec. 10, 1807 : between the age of eight and ten years he had many serious convictions; frequently when rolling about his marbles he would burst into tears at the thought of his condition. He became truly converted,

248 THE NEW CONNEXION.

and was baptized at Derby, June 26, 1825. Soon after tbis be was ad- mitted on probation as a missionary student: be applied witb consider- able diligence to study, and soon became an acceptable and useful preacber. Tbe private journal wbicb he kept from 1825 to 1827, evinces the depth of his piety and the ardour of his devotion. Respect- ing a visit to his friends at Oxford in July, 1826, he records — " what a difference is there between this visit and my visit three years ago ! And who has wrought this wondrous change ? tis thou my God, my friend, my all; yes to thee, to thee be all the praise ascribed! 'tis thou who hast done this wondrous thing." Mr. C. was solemnly designated to the great work of a missionary, at Archdeacon-lane, Leicester, April 25, 1827, and arrived at Calcutta Dec. 22. He was at first stationed at Pooree with Mr. B amp ton, where he commenced his labours with ardour, and gave hope of extensive usefulness. But that hope was disappointed : in one of his missionary journies his horse sunk in the mud, compelling him to dismount, and walk through the water to the bank. The cold, probably, brought on the jungle fever which terminated his life: he died Dec. 8, 1828, happy in Jesus, trusting for mercy on his atoning blood. Mr. Lacey observes respecting Mr. C. — " He was dear, very dear to us all: his amiable disposition had attached our hearts to him with the strongest affection, and this was doubly strengthened by the pro- mising and important character he sustained to the dear and sacred cause." His exertions, though short, were doubtless abundant, perhaps too abundant for his strength; and "his labour is not in vain in the Lord." " He is an excellent specimen," says Mr. Lacey, "of a short, brilliant, useful career. The fervour of his piety, the natural energy of his constitution, and his noble daring in every good work, are worthy of honourable record."

Robert Smith, son of Francis Smith, of Melbourne, was born at that place Dec. 9, 1760. The pious exhortations of his father seem never to have been forgotten: after much and long mental conflict, he was ena- bled to believe in Christ with the heart, and was baptized at Lough- borough in 1782, in the twenty-second year of his age. In 1783, he was encouraged to expound the scriptures at prayer- meetings, and to preach in the adjacent villages: in a short time afterwards, he was ap- pointed to deliver a discourse at Loughborough, in order that the church might form an opinion of his qualification for the work of the ministry : the venerable John Grimley was preseut on this occasion; and, after the close of the service, told Mr. S. there were so many blunders in his sermon that he did not know where to begin to correct them. " Well, then," said the young preacher, " I'll try no more." "Nay," replied his pastor, " thou must not say so, thou must try again." Mr. Smith acquiesced in the decision, and during the year preached more than sixty sermons. In compliance with an invitation from Nottingham, and in conformity with the advice of the Association, he removed thither in 1784, and was or.lained April 1, 1788. He laboured assiduously in the work of the ministry; was instant in season and out of season; and " the hand of the Lord was with him :" from 1784 to 1816, six hundred and sixty were added to the church by baptism : in July, 1786, he bap- tized thirty-two persons in the river Trent. About 1816, a young man

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was introduced as an assistant preacher: shortly after his arrival, some circumstances transpired affecting the moral character of this individual ; Mr. Smith and many of the more experienced brethren thought it their duty to oppose his employment in the work of the ministry. But the majority of the church adhered to the young man, and deplorable alter- cations ensued: a division of the church took place; Mr. S. and about one hundred and fifty of his friends formed a separate society, and after- wards erected a meeting-house in Broad-street. Through the whole of this trying scene, Mr Smith's conduct was honourable to his piety, his sincerity, and his fortitude. Mr. S. had long been afflicted with an asthma; towards the close of the summer of 1828, his strength seemed to be gradually declining; his asthmatic complaint became very distress- ing, and symptoms of dropsy began to appear. His last sermon was delivered only three weeks before his death, and he was then anticipating the rest that remains to the people of God. His mind was peaceful and happy in the prospect of dissolution: the last words he was heard to say, were, "Come Lord Jesus." He thus departed for glory, Jan. 11, 1829, aged sixty-eight years. As a preacher, Mr. Smith's talents were highly appreciated by the Connexion; for he was frecmeutly employed on public occasions. The effect of his preaching was very much aided by the strength of his feelings; his whole heart was in his subject, and his hearers could scarcely fail to be impressed as well as instructed. His zeal for the interests of true religion was fervent and uniform : he attended every Association, except two, during the whole course of his ministry; his soundness of judgment rendered him very useful in the active part he took in the discussions and labours of those annual meet- ings; and his general efforts contributed, in no inconsiderable degree, to the advancement of the General Baptist cause. Mr. Smith, in his natural temper, was somewhat reserved, yet he possessed an affectionate and sympathising heart: sincerity appeared in all his words and actions, and the predominance of this virtue, perhaps, sometimes imparted to his expressions a certain bluntness of manner which might be un- pleasant: but his christian humility was ever apparent, and this grace shone more conspicuously towards the latter part of his life.

Johx Allsop was born at Hinckley in the year 1793 : he was baptized at that place by Mr. Hoe, of Wimeswould, in the summer of 1819. His desires to promote the everlasting welfare of others appear to have com- menced soon after he became a christian. Before he was twenty years of age, his mind was much impressed and occupied with the subject of missions : at this time he intended to offer himself to the Loudon missionary society. In the year 1821, he was admitted as a student in the Wisbech academy; but left that institution before the com- pletion of the usual period of study, in consequence of the pressing solicitations of the church at Quorndon. With the consent of the com- mittee of the academy, he there commenced his stated labours in the ministry. When Mr. Sutton proceeded to Orissa, Mr. Allsop's mind appears to have been again directed to the subject of missionary labour: in 1827, he offered his services to the General Baptist missionary society, his offer was accepted with considerable satisfaction, and pre- parations were soon made for his departure to Jamaica as the scene of

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his future exertions. In April of that year be was ordained, and, with Mrs. A., sailed for Jamaica in July. After spending some time atLucea, where Mr. Hudson was then employed, they finally settled at Blank River as their station. Mr. Allsop's labours in Jamaica were attended by the divine blessing: a number of persons were brought, uuder his instructions, to embrace the glorious gospel. On Wednesday, Sept. 9, 1829, he set out for Lucea, and proceeded to the Cruse, about sixteen miles from Black River : on Thursday he continued his journey, a distance of about thirty-five miles; in consequence of some disappointment in his arrangements, he had to proceed the whole distance without partaking of any substantial refreshment. Travelling so many hours under a burn- ing sun, without food, is supposed to have brought on an attack of fever, of which he died on the following Monday, Sept 14, 1829, before he had completed his thirty-sixth year. His removal at that critical period was a severe loss to the society, and deranged all its plans for West Indian operations. Mr. A. was an humble, modest, consistent follower of the Lamb, and delighted in preaching Christ as the hope of the sinner. In a letter to Mr. Butler, now of Slack, he observes—" 0, my friend, I never saw so much value, such transcendent and incomprehensible worth in the discoveries, the truths, the promises, the prospects of the gospel, as I see now. The situation of a missionary is powerfully calcu- lated to beget and promote a spirit of more intense and serious inquiry into the realities of religion, into the certainty, the stability, and the blessed consequences of the doctrine of the cross ; and thus to make him more than ever satisfied with the foundation on which he stands and re- joices in hope of glory." This was the source of his support and conso- lation amid his labours, and this was his passport to the world of bliss.

William Taylor was born at Wolverhampton, Sep. 16, 1749: when about the age of eighteen he became a member of the methodist con- nexion : his fervent piety attracted the notice of his christian friends and he was soon entered on the list of regular local preachers. Being at Birmingham occasionally on the Lord's-day, he heard Mr. A. Austin, of Sutton Coldfield, who, at that time, preached in an upper room at B. Approving of Mr. A's. ministry, he very frequently attended, though he had to travel a distance of fourteen miles. At length one of the friends entered into conversation with him, and afterwards introduced him to Mr. Austin, by whom he was, in a short time, baptized in a pond near Sutton Coldfield. That chinch enjoyed his occasional labours for several years : he also preached at Birmingham and in his own house at Wolver- hampton. He accepted an invitation to serve the church at Boston in 1795 ; his services gave general satisfaction, the church considerably revived, and he was ordained March 23, 1797. He continued to dis- charge the duties of his pastoral office, with but few intermissions, even up to the last sabbath he spent on earth. During his last illness'he ex- pressed his peace of mind, his resignation to the will of God, and his unshaken reliance on the efficacy of the Saviour's atonement. His chauge came July 31, 1830, in the eighty-first year of his age. Mr. Taylor's person was tall and commanding, his general aspect was grave, and his demeanour solemn and dignified. He was distinguished for sincerity, meekness, and spirituality of mind: many, who were no frieruls to reli-

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gion, were often heard to say, if there was one good man in the place, that one was Mr. Taylor. As a minister, he was gifted with those peculiar attributes of mind which fitted him more for usefulness than popularity. The clearness and fidelity with which he enforced from the pulpit the truths of experimental and practical piety, and the solemn and affecting manner in which he would wrestle with God in prayer, discovered his deep and ardent solicitude for the salvation of all who were committed to his charge.

William Bampton was horn at Bourne, Lincolnshire, in the year 1787. In his thirteenth year he left his father's dwelling and obtaiued a situa- tion at Boston: here, he continued for some time negligent of his spiritual interests; but having been accustomed to attend on the minis- try of Mr. Binns at Bourne, he was induced to attend that of Mr. W. Taylor at Boston, whom he afterwards regarded as a father in the gospel. Soon after he joined the church at Boston, he was unanimously called to exercise his abilities in the ministry. During the affliction of Mr. Bis- sill, pastor of the church at Sutterton,'Mr. Bampton was invited to be an assistant minister: with this invitation he complied, and removed to Sutterton in 1811. He laboured here three years, when he took the over- sight of the church at Gosbertou ; still, however, continuing his morning services at Sutterton. In 1818, he settled at Great Yarmouth : this was the scene of patient, persevering, and useful labour, until he offered him- self to the Missionary Society in Jan. 1820. So high was the estimation in which he was held by his brethren, that, on the receipt of his letter, a committee-meeting was immediately summoned, and his offer was unani- mously accepted. His ordination took place at Loughborough, May 15, 1821. (See Sketch of Orissa Mission.) In conjunction with Mr. Peggs, he commenced the operations of the General Baptist mission at Cuttack. After mature deliberation, Mr. B. left Cuttack to form a new station at Pooree, the site of the temple of Juggernaut. His firm, temperate, and regular habits, and particularly his well-disciplined mind, rendered him peculiarly suitable to go on the forlorn hope, and plant the bauner of the cross within the precincts of Juggernaut's temple. Here his trials, diffi- culties, and discouragements, were great; the exhibitions of poverty, misery, sickness, death, and brutal exposure of the dead, were enough to appal any heart but that of a man well-taught in the school of Christ. But in the strength of the Lord he persevered, and here did our departed brother and his estimable wife — of temper attuned to that of her beloved parftier — reside for seven years, relinquishing the station only with his life. In 1828, his health began to fail ; a voyage was recommended by the doctor, and Mr. and Mrs. B. left Pooree for Calcutta and Balasore. In 1829, they returned by sea to Pooree, and Mr. Bampton's health for a short time seemed to improve, but soon failed again, and continued gradually to decline till Dec. 17, 1830, when he exchanged the labours and reproaches of earth for the peace aud triumph of heaven. There are some circum- stances in the history of Mr. B. which deserve honourable mention. Of those who have laboured in Orissa, he was the first who offered himself to the Missionary Society: — hew r as the first protestant missionary who took a determined position before the bulwarks of Juggernaut : — it was his dis- tinguished honour to baptize Erun, the " first fruit" of the mission in

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Orissa. He was pre-eminent in the stern but sterling graces of the mis- sionary character : nothing could deter him from the path of duty. Yet he was peculiarly anxious to conciliate the natives : one mode of attempt- ing this was by laying aside his English dress and assuming the native costume. Respecting this he observed— " My object in thus metamor- phosing myself is not to please myself, as some have supposed, for I am more comfortable in my English clothes, but my object is to conciliate the people in order to promote their salvation ; and, defective as T am sure I feel myself to be in zeal for this vast object, I also feel, as I have two or three times told the people, that I should not hesitate to cut off my own hand, if it would in that respect be of any use." Though the advan- tages of this proceeding were questioned by some, yet, no one doubted the purity and benevolence of his motives. For an account of the ex- tent of his labours the reader is referred to the " Sketch of the Orissa Mission." So far as earnest, faithful, persevering labours for the salva- tion of the hindoos can render a man worthy of esteem and admiration, William Bampton ranks with the foremost christian philanthropists, and deserves to be had in everlasting remembrance.

Silas Stenson was born at Sawley, Derbyshire, April 25, 1805, and joined the church at Castle Donington before he was sixteen years of age. At the termination of his studies at the academy, he accepted an invitation from the church at Retford: his stated labours commenced there in 1827, and in 1829 he was ordained to the pastoral office. But his career was short; in the autumn of 1830 he was partially laid aside by indisposition, and toward the approach of winter his minis- terial duties were altogether suspended. His strength gradually failed until Sep. 11, 1831, when his spirit obtained its freedom, in the twenty- seventh year of his age. The services of Mr. Stenson were very accep- table to the people, his views of gospel truth were clear and scriptural, and his efforts were blest. With his dying lips he testified how precious the Saviour was in his estimation.

Joseph Barbow was born at Kegworth, July 15, 1762. Early in life he had religious impressions, and regularly attended the ministry of Mr. Tarratt. Previous to the year 1791, he removed to Derby, where he was baptized, being one of the nine who constituted the first General Baptist church in that town. Mr. B. was one of the most active in exertions to obtain a meeting-house : he subscribed i!50 towards the object, and per- formed work, by drawing materials, to the amount of .ฃ50 more. He was frequently called upon to exercise his gifts in prayer and expounding the scriptures. In 1807, his attention was directed to Duffield, where he was successful in establishing the cause. He afterwards extended his labours to Shottle, then to Wirksworth ; a church was formed at the latter place, and Mr. B. took up his residence at Steeple House, between Wirks- worth and Cromford, which enabled him the better to watch over the rising interest. He exercised the ministerial duties in this society for several years, and. spent much time in visiting from house to house — a work for which he was admirably qualified. Having entered a second time into the marriage state, he removed to Loscoe, which, in a great measure, interrupted his intercourse with the Wirksworth church. He was called to put off his earthly tabernacle, Dec. 1, 1831, beitfg cheered

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in the prospect of death, with the consolation and hope derived from the precious truths of the gospel. Mr. B. was not a man of much talent; but was frank, generous, and zealous, displaying much warmth of heart and affectionateness of manner, in inviting sinners to the cross. He has been heard to say, that he had himself introduced preaching into seven- teen different places. He gave much of his time to God, was warmly at- tached to the institutions of the denomination, and, at his decease, left a considerable sum to their funds. Though subject to infirmities, "he was a faithful man, and feared God above many:" perhaps few individu- als, with his measure of mental and pecuniary ability, have done more good.

David Chesman entered the church at Kirton in his seventeenth year. Two years after, he was called to preach, and continued to labour occa- sionally until he removed to Epworth. He accepted the pastoral office in the church at Epworth and Butterwick, which office he sustained for nineteen years, when a paralytic stroke terminated his life and his labours. He died Aug. 25, 1832, aged seventy-two years. He constantly adorned his profession, and by his removal the church lost a good minister.

John Farrent was born at Palgrave, in Suffolk, Dec. 15, 1783. He was designed to be a surgeon, but before the completion of his medical studies, he devoted his attention to theology and became a preacher among the Wesleyans. Having, at length, obtained scriptural views on baptism, he was baptized in the open air at Forncett St. Peters, in 1812. After labouring in various parts of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire, he settled as pastor of the church at Isleham. He finally removed hence to London, in 1817, aud, early in the following year, accepted the pastor- ship of the church in Great Suffolk street. Here he continued until his death, Dec. 4, 1832, being then in the forty-ninth year of his age.

John Birch was for many years a local preacher in the Wesleyan con- nexion; he came occasionally into the company of General Baptists, one of whom, a member of the church at Fleet, he married. After serious examination of the word of God, he was baptized at Fleet in 1819 : shortly after, he was called to supply the branch of that church at Gedney Hill ; and in a few months, he and the members residing in that neighbourhood were dismissed and formed into a separate society, to the pastoral care of which he was ordained in Aug., 1820. He was often much afflicted, and, for some years, his health declined: he died Sep. 21, 1833, aged sixty-three. He occupied the lowly position of a day-labourer; yet his talents for preachiug were respectable and useful, he enjoyed a large measure of esteem, and maintained a consistent and honourable charac- ter through life.

George Dean attended the ministry of Mr. Burgess, at Haley Hill, and was baptized by him April 21, 1789. About 1800 he was called forth to preach the gospel, and very frequently supplied the Yorkshire churches. When his assistance was required on the Lord's day, scarcely any thing could detain him: he often walked eight, ten, or twelve miles before the morning service. In 1810, he accepted the invitation of the church at Burnley to become their regular minister. After the erection of the meeting-house at Lineholme, he received a call from the church

254 THE NEW CONNEXION.

there with which he complied, and was publicly set apart to the pastoral office in 181!). Mr. Dean discharged the duties of a pastor with dili- gence and acceptance : though his success was not commensurate with his wishes, yet his character for piety, sincerity, and integrity, stood high in the estimation of all classes. The manner of his removal was a source of distress to his friends: — On Monday evening, Dec 17, 1833, a girl had been at his house, and when she left, as the night was dark and the river near his house was swollen with the heavy rains, he took a lantern and walked with the child over the bridge : he gave her the lantern and returned ; but in the dark, he missed the end of the bridge, stepped into the flood, was taken down by the stream, and his body was not found for six weeks. Thus suddenly were his duties terminated in the sixty-fourth year of his age. The intellectual powers of Mr. D. were somewhat superior; his pious worth was great; and his heart was deeply imbued with divine love. He felt a holy pleasure in performing even arduous services for the spiritual welfare of others: the awful conditiou of impenitent sinners called forth his tenderest sympathies; and when he spoke to them of the Saviour, his tone, his whole maimer, indicated that his mind was absorbed in the concern that they might be made partakers of eternal life.

John Underwood was born at Wimeswould, Oct. 22, 1805. Very early in life he was the subject of occasional convictions of sin ; when not more than ten years of age his mind was seriously impressed by a ser- mon from Mr. Pike. But these convictions became gradually enfeebled by the lapse of time, and natural depravity resumed its power. At length old things passed away and all things became new, and he was baptized Aug. 19, 1822, and united to the church at Wimeswould. Soon after this period, Mr. U. removed to Loughborough, and while there was called to preach the gospel. In 1826, he was admitted a student in the education society, and, at the close of his academical course, accepted an invitation from Boston to become assistant minister to Mr. W. Taylor. His stated labours commenced here in Jan., 1830; but, in July, Mr. Taylor was called to his reward and the whole work of the ministry de- volved on Mr. U. In a short time his health became so affected as to cause a suspension of his labours. After the resumption of his duties he was called to pass through deep waters : in May, 1832, his beloved wife began to be seriously afflicted ; before the close of the year her spirit took its flight to the mansions of bliss, whither it was followed in February by an only babe. In August, 1833, Mr. U. was ordained to the pastoral office, and on the following Lord's-day a number of persons were baptized, whom Mr. U. received into the church. This was the first and last time he was permitted to engage in this part of his pastoral duties : in Sep. he became seriously ill; after lingering in a state of excruciating pain, his soul forsook its tabernacle Feb. 0, 1834, in the twenty-ninth year of his age. Mr. U. was naturally thoughtful and studious : his talents were of an order highly respectable: his judgment was remarkable for its soundness and the general correctness of its results; and an inflexible adherence to what he believed to be truth and righteousnes formed a prominent feature in his character. His piety was sincere and ardent, and his love to God supreme. '

THE OBITUARY. 255

Edward Sexton was born at Chesham in 1750 : he was grandson of E. Sexton, who laboured in the service of the church fifty-seven years. Edward was awakened from his spiritual slumber by a sermon from his grandfather from Matt. xxv. 10. He looked on his past negligence with fear; and concluded there was no mercy for him. In this state he called on his grandfather, and, on entering the room, was thus accosted by the venerable minister — " Edward, 1 know not what the Lord means to do with you, but I have had a remarkable dream respecting you." His impressions, however, did not immediately result in conversion : he was afterwards the subject of much distress of mind. But he found peace; and was baptized at Chesham, May 24, 177G, and in 1780 was called to the work of the ministry. When he entered on his ministerial duties, the church was in a low state, in consequence of the prevalence of errors derogatory to the character and offices of Christ He resolved to know nothing among them save Jesus Christ the crucified ; and to preach him faithfully, fully, and perseveringly. By this means the cause of God and truth revived, and continued in a flourishing state until he finished his course. His illness was of short duration: he peacefully departed Feb. 11, 1804, in tiie seventy-eighth year of his age, having served the church fifty years. Mr. Sexton possessed considerable mental power: he was an original thinker, and in discussing some sub- jects would enter on a train of thought at once novel, interesting, and instructive. In conversation he abounded in anecdote, and was very happy in illustrating the value of great moral principles by shew- ing their operatiou in the familiar scenes and occurrences of life. He was diligent in his calling; frequently walking fifteen or twenty miles on the Lord's day and preaching three times: he was inde- fatigable in visiting the sick : and while he fed his flock with knowledge and understanding, endeavoured to increase its number by preaching the gospel to all around.

William Jones was born at Enderby, Leicestershire, Jan. 12, 1762 : from childhood he was accustomed to attend the parish church. The circumstances connected with his conversion are not known: he was baptized either at Hinckley or Thurlastou, and was a member of the G. B. church at the latter place about the year 1703 or 4. His youth- ful days were spent (it is supposed) in farmers' service : in 1808, he re- moved to Fleckney, as farm-bailiff to Mr. J. Clarke; while in this oflQce he discharged its duties so as to obtain the full confidence of his em- ployer. In 1821, he resigned his stewardship and hired a small farm, which he occupied till his death. At the time of his removal to Fleckney, there were residing there two or three members of the ancient G. B. church at Smeeton, by whom religious services had occasionally been held at F. ; with these Mr. J. united in efforts to establish regular preaching : prayer- meetings were also commenced, at which Mr. J. began to give a " word of exhortation." In 1809, a few persons were baptized, and about the same time Mr. J. began to preach ; the frequency of his engagements as a preacher gradually increased, until he became the regular minister both at Smeeton and Fleckney. He continued his ministerial duties until Lord's day, March 16, 1834: during the week he was seized with erysipelas which terminated his mortal existence April 20, 1834, at the

256 THE NEW CONNEXION.

age of seventy-two years. His preaching was very plain and homely, " calculated as well to convince the sinner as to edify the saint" . . . " and all his pulpit labours were followed out by a holy and consistent life:" his greatest defect appears to have been a proneuess to self-will. In the cause of Christ he manifested unabating zeal— the result of a strong love to God and an ardent desire for the welfare of men. His labours were gratuitous during the whole period of his ministry : his worthy widow, too, evinced her continued attachment to the same cause by bequeathing a sum sufficient to clear off the whole of the debt re- maining on the meeting-house.

Joseph Binns was born atNorthowram, Yorkshire, Nov. 14,1759: and was baptized at Qtteenshead, Aug. 20, 1786. In 1790, he removed to Gosberton, and laboured for the church until 1795. In that year he complied with a request to take the pastoral oversight of the church at Bourne : he was ordained, April 19, 1790. At the commence- ment of Mr. Binns' ministry the state of the church at Bourne was very painful, great irregularity had prevailed, and the number of members was reduced to four. He was zealous in the maintenance of pure discipline and apostolic order, laboured diligently in preaching the word, and a pleasing revival ensued. He licensed houses in the surrounding villages and regularly preached in them for many years with encouraging success; while the prudence and piety under which he acted gave a character of permanence to the fruits of his faith. His usefulness continued until a short time previous to his death. His last sermon was preached with im- pressive energy and faithfulness, on the first Lord's-day in June, 1834; on the 15th of the same month, he was called to enter into the joy of his Lord : he was then in the seventy-fifth year of his age, and hud sustained the pas- toral office in the same church nearly thirty-nine years. Mr. Binns was strongly attached to the denomination to which he belonged: in one of his intervals of reason, even on his death-bed, he turned to a member of the church and said — " Will you stand by the General Baptist cause in this place so long as it retains its principles ?" He was a plain, upright man, possessing considerable strength of mind; in conversation, he was apt to indulge in trite, sententious, facetious rem arks. Strenuous in his sup- port of soundness of doctrine and purity of discipline, the smallest devia- tion from scripture in attending to divine ordinances gave him pain, for he justly thought that the principle which admits of one innovation would admit of a hundred, and that the ordinances of Christ are like the stars of the firmament, infinitely above the reach of improvement from man. He was steadfast and consistent in the discharge of his duties, and will- ing to bear hardships in the cause of Christ.

Robert Compton was born at Witbeybrook, Feb. 21, 1780 : about the sixteenth year of his age he became the subject of a saving change, and was baptized at Hinckley in 1797. Mr. C. began to preach in 1805, and his zealous labours, while in connexion with the Hinckley church, were very successfulj and contributed to the extension of the cause. In 1815, he received an invitation from the church at Isleham, and was ordained Oct. 29, 1817. The various duties of the pastoral office were performed by him with steady faithfulness until the close of life. In 1832, he was unable to preach for some months, but afterwards resumed "his labours.

THE OBITUARY. 257

In 1834, he was evidently sinking under a disease of a pulmonary nature which had, for a considerable time, been making inroads on his consti- tution. As death approached, he was asked if Christ was precious to him ; he replied, " more than anything else; the world is nothing to me now: death has lost his sting, and the grave has no terrors." He departed in peace, August 5, 1834, aged fifty-four years. As a preacher Mr. C. was simple, affectionate, and energetic : as a pastor, diligent, faith- ful, and kind; zeal for his master's cause and love to the souls of men, characterized his public ministry. " There was a combination of ex- cellences, in our departed brother," remarks Mr. Reynolds, the Particu- lar baptist minister, " a happy temperament of mind, calm and unmoved by events that would have weighed down most men ; forgetting the things which are behind and reaching forth unto those which are before."

James Stallard Thompson was born at Bristol, Feb. 23, 1800: when only twelve years of age he joined the Wesleyan society, and in 1819 became a methodist local preacher. In 1820, he was baptized and joined the church at Norwich, over which his uncle, Mr. W. Thompson, was pastor : the following year he entered the academy at Wisbech, where he continued his studies with little intermission until Dec, 1823. After leaving the academy, Mr. T. supplied the pulpit at Manchester for six months, after which he laboured for a few months at Yarmouth. Early in the year 1825, the church at Gosberton invited him to serve them : after a short probation, he complied with their request to continue among them as their minister. His success here was not great, although his labours were not altogether in vain : the cause of Christ lay near his heart, and often, after the duties of the sabbath were ended, did he weep on account of the limited measure of prosperity he was permitted to witness : prior to his removal, however, things began to assume a brighter appearance. In 1830, the church at Market Harborough gave him a unanimous invitation to the pastorate, and he arrived there on Wednes- day. But the time of his departure was at hand : on Saturday, at mid- night, he was seized with affliction, he lingered through the succeeding week, and as the next sabbath (April 10) dawned, his spirit ascended to the world of glory. A friend who knew him well, observes — " his benevo- lence was great, his sincerity unchangeable, his advice generally appro- propriate : in a word he was a faithful friend, esteemed by all, but most by those who knew him best."

Thomas Gamble was born June 14, 1789, at Belgrave, near Leicester: he was baptized at Friar lane, Leicester, in September, 1806. It was not long before his talents were called into exercise; for several years he preached the gospel in the adjacent villages. He afterwards removed to Cauldwell in Derbyshire, where he pre- sided over the church four years: thence he removed to Nottingham, where he appears to have been placed in difficult and distressing circum- stances. In a short time he returned to Leicester, and in the summer of 1822, began to preach in Wharf-street: his exertions here resulted in the formation of a church and the erection of a meeting-house in Carley- street. Over the interests of this society he watched with parental solicitude, and anxiously sought by every means in his power to promote

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258 THE NEW CONNEXION.

its spiritual welfare — labouring gratuitously in the ministerial office,, until he was unfitted for its duties by a severe affliction which not only affected his body but considerably impaired his mind. He died Dec. 19, 183G, aged forty-seven years. As a minister, Mr. Gamble strove to preach the word of truth with plainness and affection, making known the glad tidings of salvation through a crucified Redeemer ; and amid all the chequered scenes through which he had to pass, he continued to evince a strong and growing attachment both to the cause and people of God.

William Atterby was born at Great Carlton, Lincolnshire, in 1742. He entered early into farmers' service, and grew to manhood regardless of his spiritual interests ; at length, some worldly disappointment led him to seek relief in the knowledge and enjoyment of religion. Some time after this he went to live with a farmer, a General Baptist, at Maltby, in whose house public service was held when a preacher could be obtaiued. Here he several times heard Mr. W. Thompson of Boston, also Mr. Francis Smith of Melbourne: he was deeply impressed with a sense of his condemned state, but found no rest until he heard Mr. Dun Taylor at Maltby. By a discourse from Mr. Taylor he was made acquainted with the saving excellency of Christ : his fears were removed, and he found joy and peace in believing. When he returned home, he committed to the flames some books which had been very agreeable to him, but which he now perceived to be worse than unprofitable : hence- forth the book of God became his constant delight. He proposed him- self for fellowship with the church at Maltby, and was baptized by Mr. Thompson in 1773. After the lapse of some years he was called to preach: in 1796-7, he laboured at Kirton-in-Lindsey with considerable acceptance; the church ihere invited him to become their pastor, and he was ordained over them in October 1798. In 1800 he removed to Kil- lingholme: he continued in the ministry here about ten years, when, on account of a division in the church and some other circumstances, he resigned his charge, but continued to preach occasionally in different places in the neighbourhood. In April 1820, he removed to Louth and united himself to the church there, of which he continued a useful, beloved, and revered member until the time of his death. He preached occasionally at Louth, and oftentimes with gieat acceptance. A con- siderable congregation assembled on the evening of the day on which he completed the ninetieth year of his age, and were delighted to hear from him a well-arranged and excel ent sermon from Acts xxvi. 22. 23. For several years before his death he was deprived of his sight : the loss was a great one, yet he often expressed his thankfulness that he was bereft of sight and not of hearing. In his last illness his mind was tranquil and happy: exhausted nature sunk under the weight of years and infirmities, and he departed to his rest June 22, 1837, in the ninety fifth year of his age. His constant attendance on the means of grace through all the years of his residence at Louth, even after he had passed ninety years, was exemplary to all : his frequent visits, especially in seasons of afflic- tion, were exceedingly useful. His sympathy, his counsels, his devout supplications to God, and, where it was required, his cheerful contribu- tions to the necessities of the saints, caused thanksgiving to God to be offered by many.

THE OBITUARY. 259

Thomas Hoe was born the 4th of May, 1775. From early childhood he was the subject of serious impressions, which exerted more or less influence over him until the age of seventeen, when he was converted, under the ministry of Mr. Thurman, and joined the church at Broughton and Hose. Here he was employed, as opportunity offered, in calling sinners to repentance. In 1802, he commenced the work of the regular ministry at Wimeswould. He preached with much success until 1824, when, on the demise of his father, he removed, and became pastor of the church at Hose and Broughton. He continued to labour in this church with general acceptance and usefulness until a short time prior to his death, when he was disabled by infirmity: he died May 1st, 1838, in the sixty-third year of his age. As a preacher he was plain, faithful, animated, and eminently evangelical: there is reason to hope he was made the honoured and happy instrument of awakening from the sleep of sin, great numbers who will be his crown of rejoicing in the day of the Lord Jesus. Mr. Hoe, with Mr. Kello, Independent minister, pre- ceded the corpse at the funeral of Dan Taylor.

Thomas Bogeks was born at Nottingham, Sept. 1, 1774: his grand- father, Thomas Bogers, of Smalley, was one of those who opened the door for the preaching of the gospel by Mr. John Tarratt ; and his father and mother were both baptized by the same minister. Thomas was baptized by Mr. Bobert Smith, May 6, 1792, and joined the church at Nottingham. During bis connexion with this society he was much employed in preaching the gospel : that his ministry was highly useful is apparent from the fact that this was a period of unprecedented pros- perity, a considerable portion of the converts attributing their change to his labours. In 1803, he removed to Beeston : here he opened a board- ing-school, and fitted up his school-room for public worship. A church was formed in March, J 804, which rapidly increased in numbers. (See page 202.) May 20, 1807, Mr. Bogers was ordained to the pastoral office; aud continued his exertions with unwearied diligence until 1814, when he accepted an invitation from Fleet church, and removed thither in August. It was with great reluctance he quitted the scene of his first pastoral labours ; necessity alone compelled him to sever the bond he had formed with the Beeston church. Mr. Bogers applied himself with renewed devotedness to the discharge of his duties in his new and impor- tant station : success attended his ministry; in the last entry he made, Aug. 30, 1839, it is recorded — "I have never known a year of greater prosperity since 1 came to Fleet." In the same month, his bowels be- came irritated ; the symptoms of disease gradually increased. On the first Lord's day in October he administered the* Lord's supper for the last time ; when the thought that he was about to leave his beloved peo- ple finally, seemed to fill his mind. From this time his distressing malady gained strength : on the 4th of Dec. he chose the text which was to be the basis of his funeral sermon : a young friend shortly after- wards came into the room, to whom he put forth his hand and said, " Charles, I'm quite happy." Dec. 6., 1839, on some friend entering the room. Mr. B. pointed to an easy chair, intimating his wish to be placed in it; when, his desire being accomplished, he quietly and calmly expired. The talents of Mr. Bogers were decidedly respectable :

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260 THE NEW CONNEXION.

his manner of preaching was ever affectionate and suasive, and at times deeply impressive : the richness, freshness, and variety of his well- digested sermons convinced his stated hearers that tbey were peculiarly favoured of God, to enjoy the labours of so able and worthy a minister of Christ. He was a warm friend to the Connexion : its prosperity, the purity and order of its churches, and the advancement of its institutions, lay near his heart. At the annual Associations, he was ever welcomed as a dear and valued friend and brother by the whole of the ministers assembled. Perhaps his greatest defect was an occasional irritability of temper under severe provocation ; yet he was not vindictive : his life was holy, spiritual, and devoted — his end, serene and happy.

Joseph Hobbs was born in London, Nov. 29, 1764, and was baptized in Worship- street, March 21, 1790. In 1793, he removed to Chatham to assist Mr. Neale in the work of the ministry : after the death of Mr. N., he was invited to take the pastoral oversight of the people, and was ordained in 1795. For about seven years after this Mr. Hobbs continued to labour at Chatham, and numerous were the tokens of divine approba- tion with which his ministry was attended. But throughout this period, he was much perplexed and harassed by a unitarian deacon of the church and some of the members holding the same sentiments, who sometimes endeavoured to introduce Socinian preachers into the pulpit, and at length refused to contribute to his pecuniary support. These opponents ultimately obtained possession of tbe meetinghouse, and Mr. Hobbs was compelled to quit this scene of his ministerial labours : he and his friends withdrew, and formed themselves into a distinct society at the house of one of the members, about 1800. The piety of his character and the extent of his usefulness were so well known, that his services were earnestly sought by other congregations in the vicinity. In 1802, he removed to the church at Berkhampstead, where he continued to preach the gospel for thirty-eigbtyears; labouring in uninterrupted harmony with Messrs. E. and J. Sexton till they exchanged the toils of earth for the rest of heaven. In this sphere of duty his services became increas- ingly acceptable and useful : during the last few years of his ministry his success was greater than it had been in former years. His last illness was occasioned by sitting in his wet clothes when attending at the opening of a small place of worship at Northchurch : he was attacked with a violent inflammation of the chest, under which he died Sep. 26, 1840, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He held a distinguished place in the affections of his people, and obtained the respect of persons of every class who became acquainted with his worth. Barely can it be said of any man with greater truth that he was " ready to every good work." During his affliction he was fully resigned to the will of God, and enjoyed tokens of his favour: the day before his death, he.repeated with great delight his favourite lines —

" 'Tis Jesus the first and the last, Whose Spirit shall guide us safe home ;

We'll praise him for all that is past, And trust him for all that's to come." His last words were, " happy in Christ, but weak in myself."

Thomas Stevenson was. born at Hickliug, in Nottinghamshire, February, 1779: at the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to Mr. Storer,

THE OBITUARY. 261

carpenter, at Barrow-npon-Soar. Here he attended class among the metho- dists, and assisted in meetings for social prayer. The General Baptists from Quorndon opened a house for preaching at Barrow, and the subject of baptism was discussed in his presence : wishing to prove believers' baptism unscriptural, Mr. S. repeatedly examined the New Testament to find arguments against it. But his efforts resulted in the conviction that the practice he was opposing was enjoined by the word of God, and he began, in consequence, to attend the General Baptist meeting-house at Quorndon, where he was baptized and received under the pastoral care of Mr. Pollard. At the termination of his apprenticeship he removed to Leake : there he began to preach, and excited considerable attention by tbe freedom and energy of his discourses. In 1806, he began business ou his own account at Leicester, and joined tbe church at Friar-lane. His preaching here attracted public notice: Mr. Simpson, minister at Archdeacon-lane, having invited him to occupy his pulpit on one occasion, was so delighted with his services as to urge him at once to become the minister of the church. In the same year Mr. Stevenson accepted the pastorate in that society. During his residence in Leicester, he often preached for Mr. Robert Hall, and derived great advantage and improve- ment from the society and conversation of Mr. Hall and Mr. Thomas Mitchell. The success of his exertions was considerable: when he began to preach at Archdeacon-lane in 1800, the number of members was thirty-eight: when he left in 1811, it was nearly one hundred and twenty. Having laboured here more than five years, he removed to the church at Loughborough, where his popularity as a minister attained its summit. In the year 1836, at the request of several ministers and influ- ential friends in the midland counties, he engaged in the tutorship of an educational society, formed for the purpose of preparing young men for the christian ministry. So efficiently did he discharge the duties of this importaut office, that when it was agreed by the Association to merge the two academies, Mr. S. was appointed tutor of the united institute. Soon after his attainment to this distinguished and responsible position, domestic afflictions of a most distressing character plunged his soul in deep anguish. He recovered in a great degree from this shock ; but having, with his debilitated frame, to perform the double duty of pastor and tutor, his constitution gradually gave way. He was occasionally laid entirely aside: on his recovery from these relapses, his ministry became still more serious, spiritual, and monitory; he appeared to address his congregation as from the borders of the eternal world. The disease of which he died assumed a more alarming form towards the close of 1840; in January and February he rallied, and began to preach again; but in May, the malady acquired fresh strength, and July 10, 1841, his sum- mons came, and his spirit departed, in the sixty-second year of his age. The disposition of Mr. S. was generous and benevolent: his heart was naturally affectionate ; and his enlarged views of the love of God were such as tended, through grace, to expand his affections and render him truly philanthropic. Intense study and arduous labour had rendered his nervous system exquisitely susceptible, and his temper was somewhat hasty : yet he was abundantly willing, on reflection, to heal the wound which he might incautiously have made. As a minister of Christ he was endowed with talents of a distinguished order : in his sermons there were

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a clearness of conception, a beauty of arrangement, and an elegance and fervour of expression, which comparatively few attain. His soul was in the words he uttered, and often did the touching power of his eloquence call forth the tears of his audience. As a pastor, he identified himself witb the people of his charge, and was unremitting in his attention to their welfare. As a tutor, his method of tuition was one whieh imposed great labour and toil on himself, and he excelled in the tact with which he brought out the faculties of the students, and stimulated them to self- improvement. With respect to the general result of his varied services, a venerable father in the ministry observed he had " done more to improve the tone and character of our Connexion than any man who had gone before him."

Joseph Goadby was born at Market Bosworth, Aug. 16, 1774 : his father was parish-clerk, and sometimes during his absence from home, Joseph was called to officiate in his stead. " On one or two of these oc- casions," he observes, " I had to say ' Amen' at the christening of a child : 1 recollect feeling even then a secret dislike to the ceremony." In 1793, Mr. Goadby's mind was deeply impressed by several affecting dreams; in one of which he thought a grave personage stood near his bedside, held towards him an opened book and intimated — "Young man, you are in a wrong path, you must turn from it." These awakening visitations not only led him to think of another world, but were accom- panied with a degree of spiritual light. At length he attended the ministry of Mr. Deacon, of Barton, where he was baptized in Dec, 1793. The subject of the christian ministry often occupied Mr. Goadby's mind: he and two or three other members of the church at Barton commenced a prayer- meeting at Bosworth, when they alternately read and expounded some portion of scripture. Mr. G. also occasionally supplied for the Independents at Welsborough. Mr. Deacon had heard of these exercises, and being suddenly seized with sickness in the spring of 1797, he desired his young friend to supply his place at Barton. From this time he was mostly engaged in the sacred work every Lord's-day. In July, 1798, he went to the academy, and after receiving instructions from D. Taylor for six months, returned to Ashby, where he determined to abide, in consequence of the earnest and affectionate solicitations of the people, although he received invitations from other important churches. There was no place of worship belonging to the Ashby and Packington section except an old barn fitted up at P. The cause, however, gradually improved ; and in 1807, a friendly separation was effected between the Melbourne and Packington branches, and Mr. Goadby was ordained to the pastoral office over the church at Ashby and Packington, Sep. 26, 1808. The labours of Mr. G. were arduous and successful ; he intro- duced the gospel into various places in the vicinity, and his own church continued peaceful and prosperous. For several years he was the sub- ject of a wasting diarrhoea, which caused intense pain and gradually re- duced his strength ; though his labours were but seldom interrupted. His last sermon was preached at Ashby, on Lord's-day, May 16, 1841, from Rom. viii. 28. The following Lord's-day, the ordinance of baptism was administered at Ashby, and Mr. G. had just strength enough to enable him to preside at the Lord's table : his appearance presented such evi-

THE OBITUARY. S>63

dence of his approaching end, that his affectionate people burst into a simultaneous flood of tears. From this period his decline was more rapid : Aug. 4, 1841, he tranquilly expired, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. Mr. G. was eminently pious : he was instant in prayer, and ever seemed to carry about with him a high sense of religion, and an habitual reverence of God. Frank, open, and ingenuous in his nature, artifice had no part in his conduct: he was a man of stern integrity and uprightness. He was habitually modest and unassuming: in the social circle " cheerful but not light, serious but not sad." His intellectual powers were decidedly above mediocrity: his perceptive faculties were clear, his imagination was lively, and his capacity for reflection and judgment sound and vigorous. He was mighty in the scriptures: his manner of preaching was solemn, affectionate, and faithful : a rich vein of evangelical sentiment, combined with a luxuriance of appropriate scripture quotations, were well-known characteristics of his sermons. He cherisbed a zealous concern for every institution which tended to advance the kingdom of Christ ; and as a christian and a minister was higbly and deservedly esteemed.

William Tutty was born about the year 1790. He was the subject of serious impressions in early life, and united with the General Bap- tists at East Halton ; among them he preached the gospel for many years, and was highly esteemed as a good minister of Jesus Christ. About 1832, he was called by the church at Killingholme to be their minister, in which office he continued to serve them until incapaci- tated by affliction. A short time before his death he observed—" My hope and glorying is in the cross of Christ, which gives me peace, and sometimes a foretaste of the joys above." He died in peace, Sep. 26, 1841. Mr. Tutty worked with his own hands to minister to his necessi- ties and those of his family: sometimes he laboured during the week at the distance of eight or ten miles from home, and, returning on Saturday evening, walked nine or ten miles and preached three sermons on the sabbath, and departed to his daily toil early next morning. He was a zealous defender of the leading doctrines of the General Baptists, and earnestly desirous of promoting vital godliness in the hearts of his people.

Francis Beardsall was born in Yorkshire : in the 20th year of his age be was converted under the ministry of the Wesleyans, and shortly after began to labour in the neigbbouring villages as a local preacher. He soon became convinced of the scriptural authority of believers' bap- tism, and being prompt and persevering in following out all his convic- tions, he immediately complied with his sense of its obligation. This led to the relinquishment of his connexion with the Wesleyans, and to an application for admission into the midland education society. He sustained the pastoral office in the church at Harborough for a short time : tbence he removed to Manchester, where he served the church in Oak-street for about nine years. Conceiving himself to be called upon to leave his charge, he embarked for America, intending to settle as the pastor of a baptist church: but he died on the passage, June 24, 1842, and was buried the same evening, " in the deep dark waters." Mr. B. was distinguished for his ardent and indefatigable advocacy of the

264 THE NEW CONNEXION.

temperance cause. He was possessed of considerable talent, which was employed with energy and devotedness: for zeal and perseverance he had few equals.

Joseph Jarrom was born at Disewortb, a small village in Leicester- shire, on the 7th of October, 1774. Here he resided until he arrived at manhood, and received his first and only scholastic instruction in the parish school. Being required by his parents from early years to attend closely to agricultural pursuits, it was only during the winter months that he could avail himself even of tbe limited advantages of this rural institution : but possessing an ardent desire for varied information, lie diligently improved his hours of leisure by reading and conversa- tion. He attended the ministry of Mr. John Tarratt, which was chiefly instrumental in effecting his conversion : he was baptized in the river Soar, May 31, 1795, and united with the church at Kegworth and Diseworth. It was soon perceived that he possessed abilities which would render him useful in the promotion of re- ligion: he was encouraged to conduct prayer-meetings— expound the scriptures — deliver addresses — and, ultimately, to preach. His services proving generally acceptable, he was advised to devote himself entirely to the great work of the christian ministry. In compliance with this advice, he entered the academy under Mr. Dan Taylor, in August, 1799. He did did not, however, long enjoy the advantage of this institution : the church at Louth being without a minister, he was sent to supply it in March, 1801, and continued to labour there from nine to twelve months. On his way thither he had preached at Wisbech which was then destitute of a pastor: his services on that occasion were so highly appreciated by the church as to induce an invitation to settle with them. To this he acceded ; and preached his first sermon at W. January 3, 1802, from 1 Cor. iii. 11. The cause at that time was exceedingly low, but so improved under his ministry that the meeting-house in Place's-yard be- came too small ; and in 1803, the present place of worship was erected. May 22, 1804, he was publicly set apart to the pastoral office ; in the in- teresting services connected with the ordination, were engaged Mr. Goadby, Mr. Burgess, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. Taylor, of Boston, Mr. D. Taylor, Mr. Binns, and Mr. Pollard. In addition to his ministerial duties, in which he laboriously exerted himself, Mr. Jarrom was confined during the week by his school: in both these departments of labour he was encouragingly successful, and enjoyed evident tokens of divine approbation. In 1813, Mr. Jarrom was unanimously appointed tutor of the academy, which was transferred from London to Wisbech. For a series of years his arduous duties were performed with increasing success: at length he experienced an indisposition, and a diminished capability for that mental exertion which had hitherto been peculiar to him, for which he could not well account. At Christmas, 1834, a fear — which unhappily proved too well grounded — was excited that the organs of the heart were not in a sound and healthy state* In April, 1835, he was seized with an unusually severe attack of gout in the right foot: the gout suddenly quitted his foot, and the heart became alarmingly affected. From this period he was un- able to preach, except occasionally; yet, with some assistance, he con- inued to attend to his academical duties almost as before. The continu-

THE OBITUARY. 265

ance and increase of his affliction obliged him to resign the pastorate in 183S, and afterwards the tutorship of the academy which he had con- ducted upwards of twenty years. During the Christinas of that year, his family were more than once assembled at his bedside expecting his speedy removal: it was not, however, until three years after this that his change came. On September 5, 1842, he calmly fell asleep in Jesus, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. Though originally in a very obscure station in life, and destitute, until after the period of youth, of all educa- tional advantages, Mr. Jarrom became, by the exertion of his robust in- tellect in severe study, a man of no mean literary attainment, a profound and critical theologian, one of the ablest ministers of the New Connexion, and a valuable instructer of others for the christian ministry. His cast of mind was purely intellectual in the strictest sense of the word: a devoted lover of truth, he pursued it with unusual boldness whithersoever that pursuit might lead him; but contented himself with a clear apprehension of it in his own mind, and with a perfectly correct and intelligent method in the communication of it to others. Hence his style of writing, preach- ing, and talking, though accurate and perspicuous, was singularly desti- tute of ornament. As a tutor, he was indefatigable and effective : his sound, discriminating judgment, his extensive acquirements, his deep and varied learning, were highly beneficial to those who studied under his direction. As a christian writer, too, he attained to no unenviable reputation. Mr. Jarrom's preaching was eminently instructive, and happily equi-distant in its character from the barren, doctrinal discussions of some, and the mere legal morality of others. His articulation was remarkably deliberate, which gave the impression of constant thought- fulness and extreme caution ; yet, frequently, as he advanced into the subject under consideration, this disappeared and was succeeded by a readiness of utterance, a force of expression, a liveliness of manner, pro- ducing a powerful influence which astonished, delighted, and profited all who heard him. Few men were more respected than Mr. Jarrom for a uniform consistency of character as a minister, a friend, and a mem- ber of society : indeed, the respect of those who were privileged with his intimate acquaintance deepened into veneration. Even the ungodly and profane were abashed in his presence : there was a staid gravity in his appearance at which transgressors seemed, as it were instinctively, to quail. One who knew him well, observes — " Order and propriety marked every part of his course, both ministerial and secular, while the whole man was adorned with a 'beauty of holiness* which constitutes him a worthy model for the emulation of surviving friends. He was a dissenter without bigotry, a controversialist without acrimony, a moralist without asceti- cism, a saint without hypocrisy, and a man without guile."

Richard Ingham was born in the neighbourhood of Heptonstall Yorkshire, March 24, 1787. His father possessed considerable pro- perty, and Richard was favoured with early opportunities for enrich- ing his mind with classical and scientific knowledge. When a boy he attended the grammar school at Heptonstall : having finished his course of preparatory study, be sustained the office of classical tutor in two very respectable seminaries. After three years he obtained an exhibi- tion to Merton College, Oxford. Here he obtained a scholarship; and

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the first prize was awarded him for his superiority in mathematics. During the long summer vacations, he resided at his father's house, and attended the preaching of the General Baptists at Slack and Birchcliffe ; his mother being a member of the latter, and his eldest brother a deacon in the former church. A sermon by Mr. Taylor from the words " What is truth ?" — conversation with Mr. Hollinrake — and a careful perusal of Towgood on dissent, led him to think seriously on the subject of reli- gion, and induced him to abandon the idea of entering the established church. After some time he offered himself for fellowship with the church at Slack : the statement of his experience was sent to the church from the university of Oxford. Before he quitted the college, Mr. I. thought it his duty to acquaint the warden, Dr. Vaughan, with his rea- sons for leaving. Dr. Vaughan's reply does honour to both parties : "he was sorry," he said, " to lose him from the college, but as he believed he acted from conscience, he must let it alone." While there, Mr. I. was employed to read prayers, for which he received a small salary: he solicited this office for a young man lately come to the university from the neighbourhood of Heptonstall. The Dr. replied, he would confer the office on the young man for the respect he had for him (Mr. I.). He was baptized at Slack, April 24, 1810, and the next month was called forth to preach. He spent a short time at the academy under Mr. Tay- lor: and in 1812 was invited to Duffield. In 1822, he succeeded Mr. J. Taylor at Slack, where, for twelve years, he laboured with approba- tion and success. In 1834, he removed to Nottingham, to serve the church in Broad-street: his success here was less than at any other place; and in 1838 he removed to Belper. During the four years Mr. I. laboured at this place, the number of members increased from 5 1 to 110. His removal was sudden: on Tuesday, Sept. 13th, 1842, he assisted at the ordination of Mr. Stanion at Melbourne — on the 17th, arrived at the house of his nephew, in Bradford (as a deputation to the Yorkshire churches in behalf of the Foreign Mission), where he was attacked with inflammation of the pleura, of which he died. When his powers of utterance had so far failed that he could but articu- late two or three syllables between the intervals of breathing, he ob- served — " I feel happy in mind, having confidence in the mercy of God through the Son of his love ; so that you see the foundation of my hope " In this happy frame of mind he continued until Thursday morning, Oct. 6th, when he closed his eyes and calmly fell asleep in Jesus. Mr. Ingham was distinguished for sound learning, solid talent, eminent piety, and great usefulness: but, withal, he was modest and unassuming in his deportment. As a minister, he was intelligent, laborious, and successful : his discourses were usually the result of close thought, and were characterized by good sense, a lucid arrangement, appropriate illustration, and a rich vein of evangelical sentiment. His ministry was most popular where he was best known. As a pastor, he was much beloved; and as a christian, highly esteemed by his friends and neigh- bours. He was ' sometimes warm and somewhat hasty in resenting dis- order and sin ; over such imperfections he mourned and wept. But his name is untarnished : for more than thirty years he sustained an un- sullied reputation; living under the influence of that holy religion in the faith of which he died in peace.

THE OBITUARY. 267

George Hardstaff was born in 1771, and made his first attempt at preachmg when about eighteen years of age. He continued to labour occasionally in many villages in Nottinghamshire, until 178!); when be became tbe stated minister of the ancient church at Kirkby WooJhouse, and was ordained to the pastoral office in 1799. In 1818, be promoted the erection of a new meeting house at Kirkby village, besides enlarging the one at Kirkby Woodhouse in which Abraham Booth preached before his removal to Sutton Ashfield. In 1839, he was laid aside by an afflic- tion which seriously affected his mental powers. Tbis affliction was protracted; but his mind was " stayed, trusting m the Lord." He died November 10, 1842, in tbe seventy-first year of his age ; having sustained the pastoral office fifty years. He was an active, laborious man, and much respected by his people.

Thomas Grant was born at Burbage, near Hinckley, Jan. 25, 1817 : he was apprenticed, at the age of thirteen, to an individual in his native village, who was a member of the Wesleyan society. At the age of nineteen, Mr. Grant became united with that body of christians, and began to preach a short time afterwards: but becoming convinced of the truth of the sentiments of the General Baptists respecting the ordi- nance of baptism, he and his master were baptized at Hinckley, August 7, 1836. He soon manifested a desire to become a missionary, and was received by the committee towards the latter end of 1840. On the 1st of June, 1841, he was solemnly set apart to his work: on the 17th, he bade farewell to his native country ; and on the 2Cth of November, the " Pekin," in which he sailed, cast anchor in the Hoogly near Calcutta. With com- mendable diligence and considerable success, Mr. G. applied himself to the study of Oriya, after his arrival at Cuttack. He frequently visited the bazaar with Mr. Lacey, and in the autumn of 1842. went a missionary tour with Mr. Wilkinson and some of the native preachers. Before he returned home, he had symptoms of illness: he afterwards partially recovered, but on Saturday, Feb. 4, 1843, was suddenly seized with the pains of death, and in about half an hour his liberated spirit winged its way to the regions of the blessed. He was a pious young man, desirous of promoting the cause of the Kedeemer.

Thomas Gunning was pastor of the church at Downton for a short period. While preaching on Lord's-day, Feb. 19th, the violence of a cough ruptured a blood vessel. From the effects of this he died March 3, 1843.

Charles B Talbot was born at Mildenhall, Suffolk, Oct. 29,

1806. About the year 1827, he heard Mr. Compton at Isleham, and was much impressed with tbe sermon : on the 10th of May he was baptized by Mr. C. in a river near Isleham ferry. In 1831, Mr. Talbot was ad- mitted as a student in the Wisbech academy : when his term of study was completed, he removed to Wendover to supply the church at that place. The acceptableness of his ministry was soon apparent in the increase of the congregations and the conversion of sinners. On the 9th of October, 1834, he was ordained to the pastoral office. Mr. T. was of a weak con- stitution : for several years he exhibited symptoms of decline, and in 1836 and 1841 was laid aside from his labours. Some months previous to his death he was unable to preach, during which he appeared to be

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ripening for glory. A short time before his departure he said — " I am happy, I am happy; I am going home; we shall meet there. He is a faithful God." While his end was fast approaching, he made an effort to write to his friends ; but had proceeded with little more than two lines when he fell asleep in Christ, Sep. 29, 1843, aged thirty-seven years. Mr. T. was a christian of genuine piety, possessing an ardent desiret'or the promotion of true religion ; and, considering the comparatively limited sphere in which he moved, his labours were productive of most happy results. He was highly and universally esteemed ; at his funeral the pall was borne by six ministers; and when his funeral sermon was preached, the Independent meetinghouse and even the Episcopal church were closed out of respect to his memory.

John Bissill was born at Harlaxton, near Grantham ; in early life he became a member of the church at Kuipton, by which he was called to the ministry. During his connexion with this society, he extendtd his preaching excursions to Hose, and shared in the labours and persecutions which attended the introduction of the General Baptist cause into that village. In 1799, he entered the academy under Mr. D. Taylor; and in the spring of 1800 accepted an invitation to settle with the church at Leake and Wimeswould. His ministry at Wimeswould and in the neighbourhood was such as to lead many to glorify God on his account : but his stay was short; in !802, he removed to Sutterton in Lincolnshire, and the church at Gosberton invited him to become their minister. Complying with this invitation, he laboured in the ministry with diligence, and was ordained to the pastoral office Oct. 24. 1805. Toward the close of 1807, he was obliged by indisposition to suspend his exertions: this suspension was soon followed by a division in the church. The branch at Sutterton— which had been raised by Mr. Bissill's instrumentality — • withdrawing from Gosberton in 1808, invited Mr. B. to take the pastorate. His subsequent labours were chiefly directed to the promotion of the interests of the church at Sutterton, and to the extension of the cause in the adjacent villages. Frequent attacks of illness, however, interrupted his efforts for the spread of the gospel ; and, during several of the latter years of his life, he was incapable of exertion in the ministry : at length he resigned the pastoral office, and fixed his residence at Boston. Here he made considerable efforts by the employment of a town missionary, and the services of another minister, to do good to those around him. Jan. 18th, he was seized with an attack of paralysis: from this time he gradually sunk, until Jan. 23, 1844, when he was called to his rest. Every part of his character bore testimony to the fact that he was a holy man of God, That he possessed considerable abilities for the christian ministry is acknowledged by all who knew him : he was frequently called to take part in public services, and was often heard with delight. On some points he entertained views different from those of the denomination in general; but the great doctrines of the gospel were tenaciously held and faithfully proclaimed. Disinterested- ness in the work of the ministry, and unbounded hospitality to all the dis- ciples of Christ, secured for him a large measure of esteem and affection.

Charles Edwin Keighley was born at Keighley, Yorkshire, Nov, 10, 1816. He joined the church at Queeushead in the eighteenth year

THE OBITUARY. 269

of his age, and entered the academy at Loughborough in 1839. In 1842, he became the minister of tbe church at Coventry ; here he laboured with zeal and devotedness until May, 1844, when his sensitive frame was invaded by an attack of bilious fever, which early brought on delirium, relieved only by few and transient lucid intervals. He departed to be with Christ May 35th. The preaching of our departed brother was marked by earnestness, fluency, and feeling. He was much beloved, and his loss was felt by all who knew him.

John Wilders, son of W. Wilders (former pastor of the G. B. church at Kegworth), was born at Sutton Bonington, Nottinghamshire, December 22, 1807. An unusual gravity marked his childhood, and he very early be- came fond of reading. While a boy he might often be seen surrounded by a juvenile audience, listening with deep interest to his narration of some piece of real or fictitious history which he had stored in his memory. As he approached to manhood, the religious impressions that had been made on his mind by the Spirit of God through the instructions of a pious mother, resulted in conversion to God, and in 1827, he was baptized and received into the church at Sutton. As he was known to possess a culti- vated mind, furnished with a considerable amount ot valuable knowledge, he was soon called to exercise his talents at prayer-meetings : always diffident, it was not without much excitement that he entered on these engagements. On his removal with his father to Kegworth, in 1831, he was more frequently employed in giving the word of exhortation; and, shortly after, the church requested him to preach as often as opportuni- ties were presented. In 1837, he entered the academy at Wisbech as a student for the ministry, where he continued about a year. After supply- ing the church at Hinckley six months, he accepted an invitation to the pastorate of the church at Smalley, which office he sustained until his removal from the footstool of mercy on earth to the throne of glory in heaven. The death of a beloved wife, after a union of only a few months, appears to have given a severe shock to his feeble frame. During tbe latter part of his life he was greatly debilitated, yet he generally continued his public labours. His death was sudden ; while engaged in the tuition of a young gentleman whose education he was superintending preparatory to his entering a university, he was seized with a violent coughing which ruptured a blood vessel, and in a quarter of an hour his spirit took its flight to the region of immortality: this was August 20, 1844, in the thirty-seventh year of his age. The history of Mr. W. furnishes a striking example of the successful result of endea- vours at self-improvement. From boyhood until the age of thirty (when he entered the academy) he worked in the stocking frame ; in addition to which he taught an evening school during the last two or three years of that period. Destitute of the guidance ot a tutor, in the midst of cares and toils by which he earned his daily bread, he engaged in the pursuit of knowledge with undaunted resolution, and continued his efforts with untiring perseverance. At the age of fourteen, the languages attracted his regard: he began with the Latin, and was soon able to read any of the classic writers of ancient Borne : French was next acquired : he then turned his attention to the Greek, of which he became master, and perused many of the best writings in that tongue. Feeling a strong

270 THE NEW CONNEXION.

desire to read the Old Testament in tbe original language, he made him- self familiar with Hebrew, which he read with great facility and accuracy. Having made these acquisitions, some otber languages appeared com- paratively easy: the Italian was quickly acquired: tben tbe German; at tbe time of bis death he was studying Eichorn, Michaelis, and the most eminent German critics. He had also some knowledge of the Syriac and the Spanish ; and had intended to study the Arabic and Sanscrit. These languages were acquired, as he himself stated, " that a door might be opened to foreign and ancient literature." In bis youth he was fond of botany ; he not only obtained a theoretic acquaintance with it as a science, but spent much time in examining plants and herbs, and arrang- ing them according to their classes. Mathematics were not left unex- plored. At the period of his death he was engaged in teaching Algehra, Geometry, and Trigonometry, in connexion with the languages, to tbe young gentleman above alluded to. Nor were the treasures of English literature neglected : his knowledge of English law was such as to enable him to give a satisfactory reply to most ordinary questions on that sub- ject ; be carefully read most of our best authors, and was minutelv familiar with British history. These acquirements were, of course, the result of years of laborious diligence : it was a common practice with him to rise at three or four o'clock in the summer, and, offering up his soul to God, to spend two or three hours in the field with his book. As a minister of the gospel, he was intent on doing good, he earnestly desired, and prayed, and laboured for a revival of the work of God among the people of his charge, and was permitted to see its commencement — within two years after bis death, eighty-four were added to the church by baptism. In his preaching and pastoral visits, he kept prominently to view the great principle involved in " Christ crucified :" bis preaching was evangelical, and calculated to edify and build up tbe believer as well as to lead the sinuer to Christ : his sermons were short, frequently not exceeding twenty minutes — his words few and well chosen. His piety was sincere and his character irreproachable, even tbe enemies of the cause of Christ were constrained to acknowledge that be was a truly good man. By the fireside he was an interesting companion, his conversa- tion was always profitable. A judicious member of the church observes, " those who knew him best, revered and loved him most: though dead, he will long live in the hearts and affections of the people among whom he laboured."

Thomas Orton was a native of Ibstock, in tbe county of Leicester. Being under the necessity of leaving his parental roof when a mere child, his education was neglected : it is said that he learned to read in the situation in which he was hired to drive plough. From a child he was thoughtful and studious— and soon became fond of reading. An accident at the plough, which, it was thought, would incapacitate liiin for employment in husbandry, led to his apprenticeship to Mr. Webster, of Barton, a custom-weaver, and a pious deacon of the Barton church. While here it was his privilege to sit under the ministry of Samuel Deacon : he embraced the truth as it is in Jesus, was baptized and united with the G. B. church at Barton, May 25, 1788. He was soon invited to take part in conducting meetings for prayer and exborta-

THE OBITUARY. 271

tion : in these exercises he is said to have given general satisfaction ; and as his moral character was without a blemish and his improvement by studying the word apparent to all, he was called to exercise his taleuts in the pulpit. His labours were highly appreciated, and when, in 1798, the Hugglescote branch became a distinct church, Mr. Orton was chosen its pastor. In the following year he was publicly recognized: Mr. Pollard delivered the charge from 1 Tim. iv. 10, and Mr. R. Smith preached to the people. From this period he had to labour hard for the support of an increasing family, and for the acquisition of such knowledge as was necessary for the acceptable and useful discharge of his pastoral duties. He was usually engaged in preaching five times in one week and six times the following week, besides many extra services. Yet, such was his persevering industry, that before he reached the meridian of life, he had not only attained a good knowledge of his own language, but also of the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. He has been heard to say that lie could read the Greek Testament with as much ease as the English, and he thought with more advantage. His trials by domestic afflictions and painful bereavements were many and severe, and were keenly felt by his sensitive and affectionate mind. The last time he preached was on Lord's day, March^'23, 1845 : " he never," said one who was present, " preached more as if preaching for eternity, than on that day." On the Tuesday following, he complained of being unwell : he was soon taken to his bed, and his afflictions, during his few remaining days, were very heavy. A short time before his death, a brother in the ministry bad an interview with him: after prayer had been offered, he said he wanted to be gone; then looking upwards he cried—" Now, Lord, lettest thou thy servant depart in peace." His desire was speedily granted ; his happy spirit took its flight April 12, 1845, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. Thus died this devoted servant of Christ, after having stood as a pillar in the church more than fifty years. Mr. Orton was a man of deep penetration, a close thinker, au early riser, and a very careful husbander of time. His reading was very extensive, and his mind well stored with useful knowledge. His favourite authors were the puritan divines, with most of whose writings he was familiarly acquainted. Possessing naturally a high and independent spirit, he was yet remarkable for chris- tian humility and meekness. He was accustomed from early life to think and speak much of the justice, majesty, and holiness of the Most High, and to abase himself in the dust before Him. The amazing con- trast, which seemed ever apparent to his mind, between the holiness of God and his own imperfections, kept him truly in the "fear of the Lord all the day long". He was not, however, stoical and gloomy; in his in- tercourse with intimate friends, he was familiar, pleasant, and cheer- ful. His religious views were truly scriptural : his soul abhorred any sentiment derogatory to the dignity, the real divinity of the great Redeemer. His sermons were generally full of unction, of evangelical truth, and practical utility. He fed his people with knowledge and understanding; and kept the great end of preaching constantly in view. His manner in preaching was not prepossessing: but he usually rose in energy with the importance of his subject, and when warmed with the truths he delivered, as was often the case, he became highly animated, and both his manner and his matter were exceedingly impressive. But

272 THE NEW CONNEXION.

in no part of the services of the sanctuary did Mr. 0. appear to more advantage than in expounding the scriptures : great was the pleasure and profit which many derived from his customary courses of exposition. All his stores of knowledge were consecrated to the acquisition and diffusion of divine truth. The God whom he revered, highly honoured him in turning many from darkness to light, and in enabling him to maintain his position in the same neighbourhood for nearly half a century, and discharge the duties of his sacred office with increased rather than diminished acceptance and usefulness. The estimation in which he was held in the locality in which he had so long and so usefully lived, was strikingly apparent in the vast numbers who assembled from the sur- rounding villages, to pay their last tribute of respect to him whose voice had so often been heard directing them to the " Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world."

James Taylor was born in Berry-lane, Halifax, Sep. 2, 1774. He was the son of John Taylor, the worthy and pious minister of the church at Queenshead, Yorkshire. Dan Taylor, the founder of the General Baptist cause in those parts, was his uncle, and Adam Taylor, the author of "The History of the General Baptists," was his senior brother. After his father relinquished his day-school, he engaged in wool -combing, and employed his son James alternately in working and in reading to him such books as he considered likely to prove mutually beneficial. It was his custom, too, to have all his children read a portion of the Bible every night, immediately before they retired to rest. "In this manner," says James, "I had read through it more than twice on my leaving home for the academy." Trained under the watchful eye of pious parents, James was strictly attentive to the duties of religion, and scrupulously conscientious in the practice of morality. " When 1 was about sixteen or seventeen years of age," he states, " I thought seriously of my state, and made more than ordinary profession: no wonder, however, I found myself a pharisee— a legalist, trusting to my own good works. . . . But I was still no christian, though I could talk about religion. . . . Hoping to equal the demands of the law, I saw no immediate need of an atonement." At length, at a social meeting for singing and prayer, a searching hymn was impressed upon his mind by the power of the Holy Spirit, so as to shew him his real condition. " I saw sin," he observes, " in another light, and my own sins to be innumerable : instead of thinking 1 had done nothing mate- rially wrong, I saw plainly that I had done nothing right. . . . The Lord was pleased by his Spirit and word, gradually to draw me from my own works, and to lead me to view the purest of them as filthy rags, whilst the finished righteousness of Christ appeared most complete. In Him I was enabled to trust, and to give up myself to Him." The change being apparent to all who knew him, he was baptized by his father, August 31, 1794. The church, judging of his ministerial qualifications from his devotional exercises at prayer-meetings and their knowledge of his attainments, appointed him to preach before them April 30, 1797. He delivered his first sermon from Proverbs xxv. 25. By the advice of his friends, he applied for admission into the academy, and was received in December 1797, as the first student of the General Baptist academy.

THE OBITUARY. 273

He continued in the institution eighteen months, during which he was an exemplary student, attaining great proficiency in theological acqui- sitions under his tutor, and improving himself in mathematics under his brother. On leaving the academy, by the direction of the committee be spent a fortnight among the midland churches, that they might form an opinion of his qualifications as a minister. In a short time after, he received invitations from the churches at Loughborough and Derby. He laid his case before the midland Conference, which advised him to go to Derby, whither he removed August 13, 1799. Here he opened a school, as the members of the church, few and poor, could contribute but little to his support. Though anew meeting-house was erected, the congrega- tion did not much increase, and but few were added to the church. In 1807, Mr. Taylor accepted the invitation of the newly-formed church at Heptonstall Slack, Yorkshire : here he spent fifteen years. This period was the best and most successful part of his ministerial career : being in the prime of life, he laboured with vigour, the congregation increased, a new meeting-house was built, which, in 1819, was considerably enlarged. In 1822, he accepted the invitation of the Hinckley church, which was then in a very depressed state. Here he laboured until the infirmities of age rendered him incapable of active service. On the Saturday afternoon before his death, he said to his youngest daughter — "Thou dost not know my comfort ;" and on being asked what it was, he replied, " a hope of heaven ;" and shortly after repeated —

" There shall I bathe my weary soul," &c.

The last words he uttered were —

" The sacred pleasures of my soul."

Soon after, he suddenly departed, August 18, 1845, in the seventy-first year of his age. Mr. Taylor was a man of superior abilities and con- siderable learning: though not free from eccentricities, he was a man of godly sincerity; integrity and piety shone through his life. A strict disciplinarian, a strenuous advocate for primitive simplicity of worship, and sufficiently tenacious of his own views on points of order, he had, notwithstanding, a disposition perfectly harmless and affections remarkably tender. His little peculiarities were, in his judgment, associated with great principles ; and he contended for them with earnest- ness because he thought they had a direct bearing on the controversy with the Romish church, on the consistency of dissenters, and the main- tenance of spiritual worship. In his public discourses, he frequently imparted pleasure as well as instruction, by the aptness of the illustra- tions which he drew from familiar objects and passing events: he was also capable of soaring to elevated heights by imagination, and of making most thrilling appeals to the heart and conscience. While not in the least degree an allegorizer of the bible, he could fiud rich veins of truth in those portions of it which, to ordinary minds, present no points of interesting reflection. His ministrations were blessed. He was much beloved by his family and christian friends ; and those who knew him enjoy a full persuasion that he is now uniting with the venerable founders of our denomination, with whom he often laboured, in ascribing to the Saviour the entire glory of his salvation and usefulness.

T

274 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Stephen Taylor was born at Stratford-on-Avon, and in early life united with the Wesleyan denomination. In 1819, he became a member of the General Baptist church in Stoney-street, Nottingham; some years after, he removed to Woodhouse Eaves. In 1827, he accepted the invita- tion of the church at Kothley and Sileby, over which he presided nine years. The last ten years of his life were spent at Duffield, where he died February 22, 1846, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He was much respected, and died in peace.

Charles Mills was for a short time pastor of the church at Bourne, prior to which he had presided over the Baptist society at Upwell, Norfolk. Severe and protracted affliction led to the resignation of his charge at B. ; soon after which he was called to resign his mortal life. He died May 29, 1846, aged thirty-four. His genuine piety and promising talents rendered him useful and acceptable to his people. Though greatly reduced by his painful affliction, the grace of God enabled him to finish his course with resignation and joy.

Thomas Ewen was born at Gedney, Lincolnshire, April 19, 1757. The instructions of a pious grandmother appear to have produced a beneficial effect upon his mind, and he was often seriously impressed at an early age. When about eighteen years old, he was aroused by the preaching of Mr. Proud, of Fleet; and on the 17th of April, 1777, was baptized at Walton Dam. Mr. E. now with considerable energy applied to such studies as were recommended by his esteemed pastor: weekly meetings for prayer and conversation were held by young converts, at which he generally presided until his removal, in 1782, to Sutton St. James, to enter upon a farm. He began to preach in December, 1787, and was frequently engaged in supplying neighbouring churches. The church at Fleet being destitute of a pastor, he was unanimously requested to preach for them : with much reluctance he complied, and continued to labour there until the arrival of Mr. Burgess, in 1791. We next find this active aud zealous christian, in conjunction with two brethren of the Spalding church, supplying the church at Bourne, which was probably preserved from extinction by their labours. About this time the ancient society at Peterborough lost its pastor; these indefatigable brethren supplied the pulpit there with considerable success. While Mr. E. was thus exerting himself for the welfare of others, he was not negligent of his own tem- poral or spiritual concerns: " Not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord." During the above period, he received an invitation from the church at Halifax ; but as he, at that time, was resolved to labour as an itinerant, he declined paying them a probationary visit. Having removed to Walsoken, near Wisbech, he assisted Mr. Freeston in the ministry, and continued his itinerant labours as opportunity offered. The church at March was at this time in a declining state : Mr. E. was invited to supply occasionally; he did so, Bourne and Peterborough also enjoying a portion of his labour. His preaching at March was highly appreciated, and he removed thither with his family in 1797. The increase of hearers was such as to render an enlarged meeting-house desirable. A neat building was erected, and opened in October, 1799. Mr. Freeston had hitherto administered the Lord's-supper to the church, but after his removal to Hinckley, a fresh arrangement was rendered

THE OBITUARY. 275

necessary, and Mr. E. was invited to accept the office and perform the duties of a pastor. He complied with the request, and was ordained : success continued to attend his efforts, until hearing that a few of the members were dissatisfied with his preaching, he resigned the pastorate in 1822, without any sacrifice of mutual love. He now preached frequently at Chatteris, and assisted in establishing a cause at Whittlesea. We next find him serving the church at Gedney Hill: Spalding church also partaking of his labours for about two years. Advanced in years, but with undiminished ardour, he engaged to supply the church at Magdalen and Stowbridge once a fortnight, though at a distance of eighteen miles from his residence. This was the last scene of his exertions: in May, 1841, he baptized twenty converts at Magdalen, and the next day thirteen more in the neighbourhood, the venerable baptist being then upwards of eighty-four years of age. In 1844, increasing infirmity obliged him to desist from ministerial effort. During the last feeble steps of his pilgrim- age he enjoyed much peace and happiness. " To say that I am resigned to the will of God," he remarked to a friend, " is to say too little for my feeling. I am more than resigned: I entirely accord with his will." On one occasion, he said, " I am as happy as I can be : I know not that infinite wisdom and goodness can make me happier without taking me to heaven." He fell asleep in Jesus, July 12, 1846, aged eighty-nine years, sixty-nine of which had been spent in the service of the Lord. Mr. E. was not without faults, but he possessed many excellent qualities. As a minister and servant of Christ, he was humble, ardent, diligent, and faithful ; zealous for the Lord of Hosts, and affectionately desirous of the happiness of the human race. As a friend, he was faithful, affectionate, full of sympathy, and, in an uncommon degree, constant, and that frequently under circumstances that had a tendency to separate very friends.

"AND I HEARD A VOICE FROM HEAVEN SATING UNTO ME, WRITE.

Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth : Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours ; and their works do follow them."

t2

CHAPTER III.

THE ASSOCIATION AND CONFERENCES.

SECTION I.

CONSTITUTION, RULES, AND RESOLUTIONS OF

THE ASSOCIATION.

CONSTITUTION OF THE ASSOCIATION.

Some of the changes which have taken place in the consti- lution of the associated body have been noticed. In conse- quence of some inquiries presented to the annual meeting in 1834, a committee was "appointed to examine into the Minutes of former Associations, for the various rules and regulations therein recorded." This examination led to the preparation of a series of rules by R. Ingham, which were read at the next Association and ordered to be printed in the " Repository" : the churches were requested to transmit their views of them to the next Association. Some of these regulations not meeting with the general approbation of the churches, a committee was appointed to revise them. A considerable number of chuiches having sent their approbation of the revised regulations, and others having objected only to some parts of them, the Associa- tion (1838) considered them seriatim, and the following were decided upon — giving a constitution to the Association: —

1. That this Connexion shall be perpetuated, and that it shall bear the name of " The General Baptists of the New Connexion."

2. That this union shall consist of such christian churches as ap- prove, maintain, and intend to promote, besides other important scrip- tural doctrines, those views of divine truth which were embodied by the founders of the Connexion in 1770, in the six articles by which they wished to draw a line of distinction between themselves and those churches that were denominated General Baptists, but had departed irom the grand peculiarities of the gospel.

3. That it shall be the design of this union to promote the peace, purity, and prosperity of the churches which it shall comprehend ; to ensure to each an equality of rights and privileges ; to afford relief to needy churches burdened with debts on their places of worship ; to take measures for promoting an increase and a succession of pious, gifted, well instructed, and devoted ministers : to assist bereaved ahd destitute

THE ASSOCIATION. 27?

churches in obtaining ministerial aid; and to co-operate in measures; for the general spread of Christianity at home and abioad.

4. That the business of this union shall be transacted by means of an annual meeting, called an Association, consisting of the regular stated and approved ministers of the several churches, and a number of brethren deputed from each church according to the proportion agreed upon at the Association of 181? ; and that these brethren shall deter- mine their own times and places of meeting, choose their own officers, make their own arrangements, and transact the business assigned to

. them in such a manner as shall seem to them most scriptural and eligi- ble, and most likely to advance the glory of Gc^d and the good of the Connexion.

5. That the churches forming the union shall be earnestly requested to make an annual collection for the following objects — viz., the instruc- tion of young men for the ministry, the spread of the gospel at home, the diffusion of it abroad, and the assistance of churches in liquidating the debts on their meeting-houses; and that this last recommendation be considered as complied with when churches annually collect for their own debt.

6. That the monthly publication, called the " General Baptist Re- pository and Missionary Observer," shall be continued, its improvement and circulation promoted, and the profits arising from the sale of it be applied to such purposes as the members of the Association shall deem eligible and appropriate, with the understanding that it shall be subject to the disposal and management of the annual meeting.

7. That the decisions of the Association, in all cases which affect the conditions and character of the union, be final ; that the members of that meeting shall have the power of receiving into the Connexion such churches as apply to them for admission, and give them the necessary information and satisfaction, without the present circuitous method ; and that it be considered the duty of the Association to advise and ad- monish, and if need be, ultimately disown such churches as shall un- happily violate the principles and practices recommended as vitally important by this union.

8. That the Home Mission be carried on according to its present plan, by Districts and Conferences ; that the year be considered as end- ing at the Conference immediately preceding the Association ; that each Conference shall present to the succeeding Association an annual report of all its Home Missionary proceedings ; and that the substance of these reports be printed in the Minutes.

9. That the l-oreign Mission be under the direction, control, and management of the Association ; that, to secure this object, the Associa- tion have the power at any time of appointing persons to investigate the society's affairs, and to suggest any alterations they may deem advisable in its management, which suggestions shall become binding regulations if adopted at a subsequent meeting of the Association ; that the annual meeting shall be held as usual; that, previously to that meeting, the names of persons nominated to fill up the committee shall be reported to the Association, who shall have the power to reject any name and to substitute the name of any other member of the society in its place ; and who shall also have the power, at any annual meeting, of removing

278 THE NEW CONNEXION

either the treasurer or secretary, and appointing such other individual as may be deemed more suitable, in the stead of an officer thus displaced.

10. That the Academy shall be under the control of the annual Asso- ciation, who shall appoint its committee and officers, receive its annual report, and at all times have the power to make such suggestions, and give such directions to the committee, as may be deemed expedient.

11. That the Association shall continue to be held in the districts according to the present rotation ; that the Association shall appoint the place, in each district, where the meeting shall be held, nominate the preachers, hear and decide upon the Circular Letter, and specify the subject and writer for the succeeding year.

12. That every church received into this union shall be expected to comply with these regulations.

SUIiES FOR THE CONSTITUTION AND CONDUCT OF THE ASSOCIATION.

Representatives. — (1.) — Let the persons composing the Association, be such brethren as each church shall depute to represent them, accord- ing to a ratio already in force ; and let them meet on the last Tuesday in June, at ten o'clock, a. m.

A church not exceeding 50 members, mav send two Eepresentatives ; a church from 50 to 100, four; from 100 to 200, five; from 200 to 300, six; from 300 to 400, seven; and so on in like proportion. The stated pastor is, in addition to the above numbers, a Representative ex officio.

(2.) — Let these Representatives sit together in some appropriate part of the building in which they may assemble, and let them proceed to the dispatch of business according to a plan hereafter recommended.

Let the list of Representatives be called over after breakfast on Wednesday and Thursday mornings, and let them be earnestly requested by the Chairman to be regular and punctual in attendance on the business of the Association ; and let the Secretary be directed hot to insert on the list of Representatives the name of any brother who does not answer to the call on one of these occasions. (1837.)

Let other members of sister churches be permitted to be present as hearers or spectators, on condition that they take their seats in the places assigned them by the Association. But let no person who is not a member of the Connexion be allowed to be present without the leave of the meeting, expressed by a vote.

Election of Officers. — (3. ) — For the purpose of order and dispatch, let the brethren constituting the Association elect one Chairman, two Moderators, and one Secretary. Let the first three of these officers be chosen annually and continue in office till the close of each annual meeting; but let the Secretary continue in office three years.

(10.) — Let the officers of the Association— the Chairman, Moderators, and Secretary — be elected at three o'clock on Tuesday afternoon"; until which period the minister of the place where the Association is held shall preside.

Duties of Officers. — Chairman. — Let it be the business of the Chair- man to preside at all the meetings of the Association; to receive, read, or cause to be read, and hand to the Secretary for further use, all States and Cases presented to the meeting; to see that the Regulations be duly observed, and the discussions fairly and candidly conducted ; let him be

THE ASSOCIATION. 279

the person through whom the meeting shall be addressed ; and let him take the sense of the meeting on any Case or Resolution submitted for its decision, and order it to be recorded accordingly.

Moderators. — Let the Moderators sit at a convenient distance from the Chairman, one on his right hand and the other on his left. Let it be their duty to assist the Chairman in maintaining order, keeping the brethren to the point in debate, promoting a fair and equitable discussion, securing a strict observance of the Rules, supporting the authority of the Chair, and occasionally filling the Chair in the unavoidable absence, or for the relief of the Chairman, and at his desire.

Secretary. — Let the duty of the Secretary be to make an immediate list of the Representatives for the use of the Chairman, let it be called over after breakfast on Wednesday and Thursday mornings, and let the name of no brother who does not answer to the call, on one of these occasions, be inserted on the list of Representatives. (See Minutes 1837, p. 17.) Let him also receive, preserve, and arrange for future use, all papers handed to him by the Chairman, minute down each of the Resolu- tions when adopted, keep a faithful record of all the transactions of the meeting, and publish, after its close, such parts as the brethren present shall have appointed. When his three years shall have expired, let another be chosen in his room.

When cases require an expression of the views of the churches respect- ing them, let the Secretary, three months before the Association, remind the churches, by a communication in the " Repository" of the cases which demand their attention. (Minutes 1830.) Let him send a printed schedule to each church in the Connexion, previous to the Association, requesting them to fill it up with a correct account of the statistics of the church. (1839.) Let him insert in the Minutes a short biographical notice of every regular minister in the denomination that has died in the course of the year. (1843.) The Secretary is requested, as promptly as possible after each Association, to apprize by letter all parties who have appointments. (1845.)

Order of Business. — (4.) —Let the following be the order in which the business shall be transacted. Let the meeting commence with sing- ing and prayer, and let the States be read as heretofore. Then let the Cases be taken up in the following order : —

I. Cases arising out of the Association, or belonging peculiarly to it. These will be, — I. Cases of Churches requesting admission into the Connexion ; 2. Cases standing over from the last year ; 3. The Acade- my; 4. The Home and Foreign Missions ; 5. The Monthly Publication; 6. The Circular Letter, with the subject and writer of the next; 7. The place and preachers for the next Association.

II. Cases from Conferences. Let these be considered according to their alphabetical order.

III. Cases from Churches. 1. Such as request ministerial aid, or advice about obtaining a minister ; 2. Such as request advice or pecuniary aid in erecting Meeting-houses, or liquidating their debts ; 3. Cases on miscellaneous subjects. N. B. Let the priority under each of these heads be determined alphabetically.

IV. Cases from individuals belonging to the Connexion. Let these Cases, as well as the others, be submitted in writing, and let them be

280 THE NEW CONNEXION.

signed by the persons in whose name they are submitted. Let no verbal or anonymous cases be received.

(9.) — Let no case from any individual be received, if presented after Thursday, at nine, a. m.

Motions. — (7.) -Let each motion be submitted to the Chairman in writing, and let the exact words of each approved motion be entered in the Association book, and inserted in tbe printed Minutes.

Discussions.— (5.) — Let each representative stand up while speaking, and address the meeting through the Chairman ; let freedom of discussion be allowed ; let no person speak more than twice to a single case, save in the way of explanation, excepting the mover of a resolution, who shall have liberty to reply to opponents ; let all the discussions be carried on fairly and uprightly, and the business be conducted in a spirit of meekness and love, of equality and brotherhood, with a single eye to the glory of God, the good of the Connexion, and the welfare of the Redeemer's cause. Let the rules and maxims inculcated in the New Testament on the mem- bers of single churches, in managing the affairs of their several commu- nities, be considered binding on the members of the Association; and let unanimity, as far as possible, be sought in all the conclusions that may be adopted. Let no measure be carried into effect, but let it be rather deferred, in which the minority is considerable and incapable of acquiescing.

Adjourned Meetings. — (8.) — Let each adjourned meeting be begun and ended with prayer; and when the business shall have been finished, let the Chairman conclude with singing and prayer.

Committees. — Let any committees that may be necessary be appointed on the Wednesday morning. Let them hold their meetings in the even- ing of the same day, in such places as they may deem eligible, while their brethren are engaged in prayer. Thus the whole of the business will be ready for transaction on the morning of Thursday.

(11.) — Let the first person named on any minor committees appointed by the Association, act as secretary, call the members together, take minutes of their proceedings, and report to the ensuing Association. (See Minutes 1841, p. 41.)

Admission of Ministers into the Connexion. — (12.) — Let a committee— consisting of three ministers and three laymen residing in the district in which the ensuing Association shall be held — be appointed annually to examine the principles, character, and credentials, of any minister seeking, in the interval between the annual Associations, to be admitted into the Connexion : and, if satisfactory, recommend him to any destitute church.

Public Services. — (6.) — Let the public services be held as follows : — On Wednesday; Preaching at eleven, A.M. : Missionary Meeting at half-past two, after which a collection shall be made for its funds which is the only public collection allowed at the Association : a public Prayer Meeting in the evening at half-past six: Preaching on Thursday evening at seven.

THE ASSOCIATION. 281

Rotation of the Associations. — (13.) — Let the rotation of the Associations be in the following order-

Leicestershire 1845

Yorkshire 1846

Nottingham and Derby 1847

Lincolnshire 1848

Leicestershire 1849

London 1850

Nottingham and Derby 1851

Lincolushire 1852

And let every Association determine in what place in each District the Association shall next be held, and decide every question relating to itself. (See Min. 1824, p. 20.)

(Note. For tbe sake of perspicuity, the foregoing regulations are placed in a different order from that in which they appear in the Minutes: the enclosed figure (1.) refers to the number of the rule in the Collection printed by order of the Association in 1843— a different order having been adopted here.)

RESOLUTIONS ON ORDER AND DISCIPLINE.

Some of the most important Resolutions that have been adopted by the Association, having reference to the interests of the churches generally, are here inserted : some of these resolutions are important, as embodying the convictions of the fathers of the Connexion — others are interesting, as shewing the progress of opinion among the churches.

Ordination of Ministers. — 1. — If a man be well approved of, as a minister of the gospel, and administers the ordinance of baptism, is it scriptural for hirn to administer the ordinance of the Lord's supper, although unordained ? Answer. — "We apprehend the scriptures are not express on the subject. In some cases of necessity it may not be impro- per. (1794.)

2. Is the method of persons taking upon them the office of pastors without being ordained to that office, sanctioned by primitive precedents, or the New Testament? Answer. — No: and the Association earnestly and affectionately request that the churches and minister^ who have followed this practice, would seriously consider it, and act more spiritu- ally in future. (1815.)

3. Resolved that it is unscriptural for an uriordained person to officiate as a pastor. (1828.)

Ordained Deacons —Does ordination to the deacon's office qualify a persou to administer the ordinance of the Lord's supper? Answer. — Ordination to the deacon's office certainly confers no right to administer that ordinance. (1810.)

Discipline, &c. — Admission of members. — Is it proper to admit a per- son into fellowship whose present situation requires him to be engaged in secular business every Lord's-day till one o'clock ? Answer. — We think, in the circumstances mentioned, it would be wrong to receive tie person into fellowship. (1828.)

Baptizing those who do not unite with the church. — We do not consider it unscriptural for ministers to baptize individuals of whose piety they are satisfied, although they may belong to other denominations. (1839 and 1844.)

282 THE NEW CONNEXION.

Withdrawal of disorderly members. — Suppose a member of a church is found in any sinful practice, and as soon as it is known, withdraws from the church — have they a right to put him away, or is not some disci- pline necessary to be exercised towards him previous to this ? Answer. — In some instances we think that the church may very properly unite in such member's withdrawing, and that difference in circumstances must determine the conduct of the church in cases of that nature. (1795.)

Suspension of members.— Is it scriptural to suspend any person from the ordinance of the Lord's supper, and still permit him to retain his name as a member of the church? Ansxoer. — No. (1805.)

Absent members. — What shall be done with those persons who have removed from us, and we know not where they reside ? Answer. — That those members be considered as withdrawn, and that the churches be requested, at least once a year, to review their lists with reference to such cases. (1841.)

Neglect of the Lord's supper. — What method is to be taken with church- members, who, after having been reproved, still neglect the ordinance of the Lord's supper? Answer. — The minister and church to which such members belong, must judge of their reasons, whether just or not, and take such steps as in other cases of transgression, even to expulsion, if they will not be reclaimed. (1786.)

Marriage with unbelievers. — 1. Has the church, authority from the scriptures to put a person away for this crime only ? Answer. — If the person have in other respects been honourable in conduct, and apparently sincere of heart; and it be evident from circumstances that he or she does sincerely believe such marriage lawful, then try to convince him or her of the impropriety and unlawfuluess of it by scriptural arguments : but if that succeed not, then to leave the matter between God and his or her conscience, and still suffer them to enjoy fellowship. But if it ap- pear that he or she considers it contrary to scripture, then, unless they can be brought to repentance, to exclude them for it. Also, it is recom- mended that the person or persons informed of such marriage being attempted, do make early inquiry respecting the certainty of such an attempt, and to give information to those on whom it is judged incum- bent to take the above-mentioned steps. (1782 and 1793.)

2. What mode of discipline will the Association recommend to be adopted with members of our churches who marry carnal persons? Answer. — We are deeply sensible of the evils arising from unions of this kind, and would seriously admonish young people to be on their guard against them ; but we are not aware of any general rule proper to be adopted in all cases where such unions have already taken place. We think it better to leave the churches to use such measures as circum- stances may require. (1829.)

Infant sprinkling by General Baptists. — It was inquired (1830) what steps ought to be taken in reference to members whose children are sprinked and taught the church catechism, for the purpose of keeping them in a charity school? The subject was deferred, and brother Jarrom was requested to insert an article on it in the Repository. (See June 1831.) The case was resumed the next year: after an interesting discussion, in which such a dereliction of principle, made for mere temporal considerations, was strongly condemned by all parties, it

THE ASSOCIATION. 283

was resolved, " That the Association approves of the sentiments on this subject, written by brother Jarrorn, and in cases of this kind, recommends the coarse he has described in the Repository : — ' First, it is necessary that the minister, or elders, or some leading members, visit them, and explain to them the evil of their conduct and endeavour to reclaim them from it. It is a fault which, in a christian church constituted on gospel principles, ought not to pass unnoticed. . . . Should the method recom- mended fail, the next proper step is, for the church to take the matter into consideration, and to endeavour to rectify the disorder. If the party complained of, hear the church, by forsaking the practice, then the matter in dispute should end ; and the communion and peace of the church be continued to him. But if the evil is continued, notwithstand- ing all the exhortations, the intreaties, and admonitions of the brethren and the church ; I see not what remains to be done, but for him to be excluded."' (1831.)

Members keeping beer-shops. — Is it right for members of a christian church to keep a beer-shop ? Answer. — While we do not wish to impugn the motives, or reflect on the character, of any respectable indi- viduals who may keep beer-shops, yet the evils flowing from them are so truly fearful, so destructive to the peace and order of neighbourhoods, and so demoralizing in their tendency, that this Association can on no account approve of the keeping of these establishments by members of our churches ; and we consider it to be the solemn duty of those who already keep them, immediately to take measures for withdrawing from them. (1837.)

Odd Fellows' societies, #c. — Is it proper for a christian church to receive into its communion, or retain persons as members, who are known to be members of Orange Clubs, Ancient Druids, Odd Fellows, or any of the secret orders that of late have so much prevailed ? Answer. — We believe it entirely unscriptural and antichristian, for a member of a christian church to be connected with Odd Fellows' Clubs, or any clubs of the same description. We think it not proper for christian churches to receive persons into fellowship that belong to such clubs ; nor to allow persons to continue in fellowship that will not renounce their connexion with them. (1835.)

Regium Donum. — 1. Can a dissenting minister, consistently with his duty as such, receive the Regium Donum? Twenty-four answered Yes, and four No. (1813.)

2. Resolved, that as an Association we have nothing to do with the Regium Donum. (1833.)

3. Resolved, that this Association expresses its disapproval of the Regium Donum, or parliamentary grant to dissenting ministers ; they would be grateful for every expression of royal confidence and bounty, but, being persuaded that Christianity is best supported by the voluntary contributions of its friends, cannot sanction, in any form, a grant of money from the public purse for its support. (1837.)

Unconverted persons conducting singing.— Does the language of the New Testament authorize us to invite persons whom we consider to be unconverted, to aid us in singing the praises of God ? Answer. — We

284

THE NEW CONNEXION.

conceive it to be contrary to scripture to invite unconverted and immoral persons to take the lead in singing. (1832.)

Lord's Supper at Associations. — This subject has been several times before the Association. In 1834, the question whether the Lord's supper should be administered at some period during the sitting of the Association, was discussed at some length ; and it was resolved, 1. That it appears to this meeting desirable to celebrate the Lord's supper at some convenient period, at the annual Association. 2. That considering the small majority in favour of this resolution, we proceed no further with it, but lenve it for consideration at the next annual meeting. In 1835, it was postponed sine die.

SECTION II. ANNUAL STATISTICS, &c, OF THE ASSOCIATION.

CIRCULAR LETTERS.

The first Circular Letter was sent from the Association at Loughborough in 1772: it was drawn up during the intervals of the meeting by Mr. Dan Taylor. It seems that no other was sent until 1777 ; when it was unanimously resolved by the Association at Castle Donington — "That an Association letter should be every year drawn up ; and that Mr. D. Taylor write one this year before the ministers separate, on the nature and obligation of church-fellowship."

Explanation of the table. — 1. It will be observed that under the name of the writer of the Circular Letter there is a double column of figures : the figures on the left hand shew the number of churches, those on the right the number of representatives.

2. The last column contains a double row of figures: the top row shews the total number of members; the bottom row the number

BAPTIZED.

3. The figures under the name of the Chairman, beginning at the year 1840, indicate the total number of sabbath- scholars.

Note.— In a few instances the total number of members differs from that in the Minutes: the deficiency in the Minutes is owing to the absence of reports from some of the churches. In such cases the num- bers are given as stated by the editor of the Repository, Vol. ii. p. 80.

STATISTICS OF ASSOCIATIONS.

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THE NEW CONNEXION.

SECTION III. THE CONFERENCES.

Besides the annual Association, quarterly Conferences are held, composed of the ministers and representatives of the churches situated in certain districts.

The Leicestershire Conference commenced soon after the formation of the church at Barton. The persons composing it at that early period were the following ministeis — W. Kendrick, J. Donisthorpe, J. Grimley, S. Deacon, F. Smith, J. Whyatt, and J. Aldridge. The design of the Conference at its commencement was to discuss scriptural subjects in a friendly manner, for mutual instruction and progress in divine knowledge — to attend to difficult cases which occurred respect- ing individuals or the whole body — and lastly, to determine in what part of the district each minister was to labour the next Lord's-day. These meetings were held at Barton and Hugglescote — but chiefly the former. They were at first held weekly, then monthly : after the division of the body into distinct societies, quarterly Conferences were held, iota- ting to the various churches instead of being limited to Barton and Hugglescote. In J 803, two Conferences were formed, called the Leicestershire Conference, and the Nottingham- shire Conference. To cultivate mutual acquaintance and affection, a union Confeience, including both, was annually held alternately at Kegworth and Loughborough. This plan was pursued until 1810, when they re-united and formed the Midland Conference.

Midland Conference. — This Conference is now ( 1846) composed of the following churches —

Ashby and Packington

Barton

Beeston

Billesclon

Bough ton

Broughton and Hose

Burton-on-Trent

Castle Donington

Cauldwell

Derby, Brook- street

Mary's Gate

Sacheverel-street

Earl Shilton

Fleckney and Smeeton

Gainston and Retford

Hathern

Hinckley

Hugglescote

Kegworth &Dise worth

Kirkby Woodhouse

Knipton

Leake & Wimeswould

Leicester, Archdcn.-ln.

Carley-street

Dover-street

Friar-lane

Vine-street .

THE CONFERENCES.

297

Long What ton

Loughborough.

Mansfield

Market Harborough

Measbam

Melbourne & Ticknall

Hotaiion of the Conference. — Barton Conference, June, 1846

1846.

Easter Quorndon.

Whitsuntide. . . .Barton. September ....Ashby. December Leicester.

1847.

Easter Beeston.

Whitsuntide Kegworth.

Septemher .....Melbourne. December Loughborough

1848.

Easter Rothley.

Whitsuntide Leake.

Northampton Nottingham, Broad-st. Stoney-street

Queniborough Quorndon and Wood- house

Eothley and Sileby Sutton-in-Ashfield Sutton Bonington Thurlaston

The following order was adopted at the

1848. September . . . .Hugglescote.

December Nottingham.

1849.

Easter Burton on-Trent.

Whitsuntide. . . .Castle Donington. September ....Hinckley.

December Measham.

1850.

Easter Sutton Bonington.

Whitsuntide. . . .Brougbton. September . . . .Thurlaston.

December Derby.

Time.— Easter Tuesday — Whit Tuesday — last Tuesday in September — last Tuesday in December.

Representatives.— All the regular ministers and officers of the churches shall be considered members of the Conference ; and, in addition to these, each church is entitled to send a representative for every fifty members. (1842.)

Order of business.— Afternoon. — 1. The states of the churches. 2. Read the minutes of the last Conference, and attend to cases arising therefrom. 3. New cases. 4. Appoint the preacher for the next Con- ference. The Secretary is chosen annually.

Public Services. — Morning— Sermon. Evening — Preaching or other service, as appointed by the church where the Conference is held : such church being expected to make arrangement for the evening service.

N.B. At the Conference at Kegworth, June, 1840, it was resolved — that immediately after every Conference, the secretary shall inform the minister who is appointed to preach at the ensuing Conference— that any minister unable to attend to his appointment, shall be expected to acquaint the secretary at least one month before the Conference.

The Lincolnshire Conference was first held in 1791 : the ministers present were — W. Thompson, J. Freeston, — Rusling, — Wright, W. Burgess, and J. Binns. At these meeting's the three following questions were asked — 1. What have we, or any of our members now present, heard or known of us as preachers and of our preaching, since the last meeting ?

2. What difficulties have we to mention ?- can be done to promote religion among us ?

-3. What more

298

THE NEW CONNEXION.

The churches composing this conference are these -

"Boston

Bourne

Castleacre

Chatteris

Coningsby

Fenstanton

Fleet

Gedney-hill

Gosberton

Lincoln

Long Sutton

Louth

Magdalen

Maltby

March

Morcott

Pinchbeck

Peterborough

Spalding

Sutterton

Tydd-St.-Giles

Whittlesea

Wisbech

A branch Conference has been formed, consisting of the Norfolk churches; its meetings to be held half-yearly, on the Thursday before the full moon in April and October.

Conference districts. — At the Bourne Conference in 1841, it was resolved that the churches be arranged into four districts, and that the meeting be held at one place in each district annually :

Northern.

Western.

Central.

Southern.

Coningsby

Spalding

Fleet

March

Boston

Bourne

Sutton

Chatteris

Sutterton

Stamford

Tydd-St.-Giles

Whittlesea

Gosberton

Peterborough

Wisbech J

Gedney-hill

Rotation of the

Conference —

1845.

1846.

1847.

1848.

Bourne

Chatteris

March

Coningsby

Gedney-hill

Spalding

Gosberton

Whittlesea

Sutterton

Boston

Peterborough

Stamford

Sutton

Tydd-St.-Giles

Wisbech

Fleet

The time of holding the Conference is on the Thursday before the full moon in March, June, September, and December.

Order of business. — Afternoon — 1. Reports from the churches. 2. Read the minutes of the last Conference and attend to cases arising therefrom. 3. New cases.

Public services. — Morning — Sermon. Evening— Home Missionary Meeting.

The Conference preacher is chosen according to seniority of ministerial residence in the district.

The Yorkshire Conference was begun in the year 1772, by Messrs. Dan and John Taylor, when there were no other General Baptist ministers in that part of the kingdom. At its commencement, it was confined to ministers ; soon after- wards, the officers of the church were admitted ; and ultimately it was opened to as many of the private members, of the churches as chose to attend. At each meeting three inquiries were made — 1. What have we heard or known of each other as preachers and of our preaching, since the last meeting ? 2. What difficulties have we to mention ? 3. What more can be done to promote religion among us ? Under one or other of these questions, the whole of the business was disposed,

THE CONFERENCES.

299

Churches composing the Conference in 1846 —

Allerton

Clayton

Leeds

Queenshead

Birchcliffe

Halifax

Lineholm

Shore

Bradford

Heptonstll. Slack

Ovenden

Todmorden

Burnley

Rotation of the Conference —

Easter. Wltitsuntide.

Autumn.

Christmas.

1845 Shore Queenshead

Allerton

Heptonstll. Slack

1846 Halifax Bradford

Lineholm

Birchcliffe

1847 Leeds Burnley

Clayton

Heptonstll. Slack

1848 Shore Queenshead

Allerton

Birchcliffe

1849 Bradford Halifax

Lineholm

Heptonstll. Slack

1850 Leeds

Burnley

Clayton

Birchcliffe

Representatives. — The churches send as many representatives as they please.

Order of business. — Afternoon — 1, Cases standing over from the last meeting. 2. Cases from churches. 3. Cases from private members.

4. State of the churches, frequently accompanied by a short address.

5, Appointment of the morning preacher for the next Conference.

Public services. — Morning — Sermon. Evening — Preaching, or other service as decided by the church where the Conference is held.

London.

The London Conference was begun at Chatham in the year 1799, when it was resolved — " that brethren D. Taylor, E. Sexton, J. Shenstone, and J. Hobbs, intend to meet together twice in the year for the purpose of consulting on the most proper methods of promoting the interest of the Lord Jesus Christ/'

This Conference is now (1846) composed of the following churches —

Berkhampstead, Chesham, & Tring Lyndhurst, \ „ Colwell, Isle of Wight Portsea, ) nant

Downton, Wilts Rushall. Wilts

Ford, Bucks Ramsgate

Isleham, Cambridgeshire Sevenoaks

Borough-road \ Smarden

Charles-street Wendover, Bucks

Commercial-road Euston-square New Church-street Praed-street

In 1841, a number of rules were agreed on, relating to " the constitu- tion, order, and objects of this Conference."

Constitution. — That the Conference be composed of representatives from each church in the same proportion as the representatives to the Association.

300

THE NEW CONNEXION.

Order of business. — Afternoon — That the statistics of each church he presented in writing — that the reports from the sabbath-schools be given in the same manner as from the churches.

Public services. — Evening — That meetings for addresses and prayer be held in preference to sermon-services.

The Warwickshire Conference was reorganized in July 1838, having been discontinued since 1834.

It is composed of the following churches — Austrey

Birmingham, Lombard-street Birmingham, Chapel-house-street Coventry Cradley Longford

Rotation of the Conference. — The following order was adopted in 1844 —

Longford, Union-place

Netherton

Nuneaton

Walsall

Wolverhampton

Wolvey

1845.-

1847. — January

Longford, Uniou place May .... Netherton September Wolvey

-January . . Wolverhampton May .... Coventry September Cradley 1846. — January . . Longford May .... Austrey September Birmingham Time. — The second Tuesday in the month.

Representatives. — All members of the churches belonging to this Con- ference are allowed to speak and vote.

Order of business. — Afternoon— 1. The states of the churches. 2. Cases. 3. Appointment of the morning preacher for the next Con- ference.

Public services. — Morning — Sermon. Evening — Sermon, or other service as appointed by the church where the Conference is held.

The Cheshire and Lancashire Conference held its first meeting in Manchester on Whit-Tuesday, 1840: a meet- ing — composed of representatives from Manchester, Stockport, Tarporley, and Wheelock Heath — having been previously held at Macclesfield, April 21, to make preliminary arrange- ments. Churches —

Audlem

Congleton

Macclesfield

Manchester

Jer-

Tarporley Wheelock Heath

Staleybridge Stockport sey-street | Stoke-on-Trent

Rotation of the Conference. — The summer meetings of this Conference shall be held on the Tuesday in Whitsun-week, at one of the country places, and the winter meetings on Christmas day, except when it falls on the Lord's day, when it shall beheld on the following Tuesday at one of the large towns. The precise place to be fixed by the previous meeting. Executive Committee. — The secretary and treasurer, with six other persons to be appointed at the winter meeting, shall be constituted an

THE CONFERENCES.

301

executive committee for carrying out the arrangements of the Conference. All cases from private individuals shall first be submitted to the com- mittee, according to whose judgment upon them they shall be submitted to the Conference, or otherwise. In order to this, such cases shall be sent to tbe Chairman of the meeting some time previous to its assembling.

The Chairman. — The resident minister of the place where the Con- ference is held, shall preside over its meetings.

Order of business -Afternoon — 1. The receiving of reports. 2. Cases: to be presented in writing and discussed in alphabetical order. 3. The business of the home missionary society.

Public services. — Morning — Sermon: the preacher to be chosen by the preceding Conference. Evening— Home missionary meeting, and a collection in aid of its funds.

The Derbyshire Conference began Dec. 25, 1839, at Belper. The churches composing it continued members of the Midland Conference until August, 1844, when their rela- tion to that meeting ceased. Churches composing the Con- ference —

Alfreton I Chesterfield I Duffield I Smalley

Belper | Crich | Ilkeston | Wirksworth

Rotation of the Conference —

1845. — March Wirksworth.

August Crich.

Decern her . . . .Alfreton.

1846.— March Smalley.

August Dufiield.

December .... Ilkeston.

Represen/alives.—EdLch church to send two representatives for every twenty members.

Order of business. — 1. Read the Minutes of the last meeting. 2. Call for the names of the representatives, the reports of the churches, and the written cases to be attended to. 3. Attend to cases standing over from the previous meeting. 4. New cases. 5. Propose the ques- tion for discussion — "What more can we do for the benefit of the churches and the extension of the Redeemer's cause ?"

Public service. — Evening. The nature and arrangement of the service to be left to the church where the meeting is held.

Note. — Some of the churches are not directly connected with any Con- ference.

CHAPTER IV.

INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLICATIONS.

SECTION I. THE ACADEMY.

ITS ORIGIN AND FORMATION.

The design of forming an institution for assisting young men in their studies for the ministry, appears to have been enter- tained at an early period. A manuscript found among the papers of Mr. Dan Taylor is entitled " A plan for assisting the studies," &c. This paper is dated 1779 ; and the writer adds, " the design has annually obtained credit and reputation, since it was first begun by a poor blind brother in Wadsworth church and myself." As the churches increased in number and respectability, the necessity for such an institution became more apparent ; the subject, therefore, became the frequent topic of conversation among individuals, and on public occa- sions. The Boston Association in 1796, recommended the churches to adopt measures for facilitating the design, and to open subscriptions for the purpose. This recommendation prepared the churches for the consideration of the subject at the ensuing Association at Kegworth. At that meeting it was agreed to establish funds, and to open books for subscriptions without delay : — a committee was chosen — Messrs. Heard of Nottingham, J. Bakewell of Castle Donington, and W. Parkinson of Quorndon, were requested to act as joint trea- surers — and the foundation of the fund was laid by individuals then present, twenty-five of whom presented donations amounting to ฃ174 17s. 6d., and eight became annual sub- scribers to the amount of sixteen pounds per annum. In January 1798, an Academy was opened under the super- intendence of Mr. Dan Taylor, at Mile End, London.

THE ACADEMY. STUDENTS UNDER MR. TAYLOR.

303

James Taylor Wm. Felkin . . John Bissill . . Joseph Goadby Samuel Driver Joseph Jarroui Wm. Smedley

— Morgan . . N. Hurst ....

F. Cf.meron . .

— Siansmore Wm. Brand . . H. Holliurake

— Couplaud. . John Preston W. Hatton . .

J. Eweu

R. lugham . .

G. Purcell

c ซ _W

1798

1798 1798 1798 1799 1799 1800 1800 1801 1801 1802 1804 1804 1804 1807 1809 1809 1810 1811

FKOM

Queeushead

Ilkeston

Knipton

Barton

Diseworth

Killi.gholm

a Welshman

Nottingham

Berkhampstead ....

Harston

Birchcliffe

Coningsby

Hinckley

Barton

Curch-lane, London Heptoustall Slack

1799 1798 1799 1799 1800 1801

180a

1801

1803 1804 1806 1805

18'2 1810 1812 1812

TO*

Derby

Ilkeston

Leake

Ashby

Hoddesden

Wisbech

Downton

Louth Louth

Loughborough Birchcliffe Headcorn, Kent Great Suffolk-street Broughton Triii g Dnffield Bessell's Green

* The individual did not, in every instance, remove to the place given in this column, the same year as he left the Academy.

There had always existed objections to the Metropolis as the locality of the institution : but respect lor Mr. Taylor's character and abilities, and the difficulties of finding any other person properly qualified for its superintendence, had induced most of the supporters to acquiesce in its continuance there. A general meeting of the subscribers was held at Loughboiough, July 29, 1812: when "it was agreed to request Mr. Taylor to consider the practicability of his removal into some central situation in the country, where he might more effectually serve the interests of the Academy as its Tutor." Mr. Taylor ad- diessed a letter to the committee, in which he stated — " the removal will be a sacrifice incomparably greater than any of the former, yet if the way appear open and the removal neces- sary, I am not disposed to decline it. I wish to spend my all, as I trust I have ever done, in the best of causes." The com- mittee met to deliberate on this answer, and resolved that — " having considered the statement contained in Mr. Taylor's letter, it does not appear proper for us to encourage his removal." As, theiefore, it had been determined at the former meeting that the Academy could not be supported in London, Mr. T.'s engagement as Tutor terminated of course. His salary was continued to the following Midsummer, and the

304

THE NEW CONNEXION

" very sincere thanks of the meeting were voted to him for his past useful and faithful services."

MR. JARROM.

Hitherto the affairs of the Academy had been managed, not by the Association, but by the contributors to its support.: the governors ceded its management to the Association in 1813, when J. Jarrom, of Wisbech was elected Tutor, James Smith treasurer, and Robert Smith secretary to the institution. It was consequently removed to Wisbech.

STUDENTS UNDER MR. JARROM.

s

J. Jones

E. Payne ... John Green . Beuj. Bullock J. Peggs . . . John Jarvis . John Lilley . Thomas Smith Wm. Hurley . . H. Asten ....

R. Abbott

Jon. Ingham . . Thomas Scott S. Wright .... John Allsop . . J. S. Thompson Thos. Sarjaut W. Butler . . . Joseph Goadby S. Steuson . . Geo. Pickauce S. Reeve ....

G. Judd

John Wood . . J. J. Poulter . . Elijah Cherry John Abbott . . Jos. Taylor . . John Goadby C. B. Talbot . . Isaac Stubbius J. Buckley. . . .•

R. Hardy

H. Wilkinson R. Ingham . .

T. Acroyd

Wilders

1814

18U

1810

1816

1816

1817

1817

181

1817

181

1819

1819

1820

1820

1820

1821

1821

1821

1822

1824

1824

1826

1827

1828

1829

1829

1829

1830

1830

1831

1833

1834

1834

1835

1830

1836

1837

Birmingham

Berkhampstead

Long Whatton

rastle Douiugton

March

Wolvey

Derby

Heptonstall Slack. . . .

Wolvey

Birchcliffe

Wisbech

Hept'-nstall Slack. . . . Friar-lane, Leicester

Spalding

Hinckley

Norwich

Norwich

Cauldwell

Barton

Castle Donington Broad- St., Nottingham Friar-lane, Leicester. .

Wisbech

Beestou

Sevenoaks

Broad-st., Nottingham

Wisbech

Burton- ou-Trent

Ashby

Isleham

Fleet

Ashby

Broad-st., Nottingham

Wisbech

Heptonstall Slack. . . . Heptoristall Slack. . . . Kegworth

1816 1817 1817

1817

1818

1819 1818 1819 1819 1821 1822 1823 1824 1822 1823 1 823 1824 1825 1827 1827 1828 1831 1828

1830

1831

1833 1834 1836 1837 1837 1839 1838 1838 1838

Louth

Morcott

Barton

Geduey Hill

Norwich

To Calvinists

Tydd-St.-Giles

Heptonstall Slack

Qaeenshead

Burnley

Staleybridge

Halifax

Cork, Ireland

Magdalen

Quorndon

Gosberton

.March

Kegworth

Manchester

Ketford

Stamford

Norwich

I'oningsby

Whittlesea

left

died

Tydd-St.-Giles

Orissa

Wendover

Orissa

Harborough

Stamford

Orissa

Bradford

See union; &c.

Smalley

THE ACADEMY.

305

EDUCATION SOCIETY.

This society was formed in 1825, by representatives from several of the midland churches : its design was " to afford such instruction to brethren apparently gifted with ministerial talents, as shall tend to qualify them to become more useful preachers of the everlasting gospel." Mr. Stevenson, of Loughborough, was appointed Tutor, which office he held until the union of the two institutions ; assisted, for a time, by his son, Mr. J. Stevenson, as Classical Tutor.

STUDENTS OF THE EDUCATION SOCIETY.

I b

R. Kenney. . . S. AyrtoD . . J. Underwood Adam Smith.

F. Beardsall . Ju. Stevenson Jos. Heathcote E. H. Burton John Dunkley LFerneyhough Thos. Yates . .

W. Brand

Thos. Hoe

John Brooks. . J. Cotton .... J. T. Bannister W. Underwood

E. Bott

R. Compton . . M. Shore ....

G. Staples.. ..

F. Chamberlain R. Stanion .... J. Knight ....

1825|Leicester, Archdcn.-ln.jl828 Macclesfield 1829 Manchester 1829 Boston

1829 Nottingham, Broad-st 1829 1 Harborough

IGlasgow University 1830Lyndhurst

IS26 182G 1826

1827 1829 1829 1829 1830

Retford

Loughborough

Longford

1 826! Hull

1826 Loughborough

Austrey

Austrey

Netherseal

Derby, Brook-street . .

Leicester, Archdcn.-ln.

1830/Portsea

ISSO.Broughton

1832, Melbourne & Ticknall

1832 Derby, Brook-street . . 1832Portsea

1833 Loughborough

1834 Nottingham, Stoney-st.

1835 Isleham

|1835jDerby, Sacheverel-st. . i 1836 Loughborough

1 1837] Leicester, Dover-street 1 1838, Leicester, Archdcn.-ln. il838|Wolvev

1832Portsea 1832 Morcott

1832 London, Mary-le-bone 1833, Melbourne 1831 'Northampton

1833 Spalding 1833,Orissa (mission) 1835 Isleham

1835 Coventry

1836 Wirksworth

1837 Leake 1838'Berkhampstead 183? Sheepshead

1839 Measham

1840 Cradley 1840 Melbourne

died

UNION OF THE ACADEMY AND THE EDUCATION SOCIETY.

The indisposition of Mr. Jarrom rendered it necessary to resign the tutorship in 1837. His resignation was accepted " with every sentiment of sympathy with his affliction, and respect for his talents and character :" and steps were imme- diately taken and subscriptions opened, for the purpose of raising an annuity to be settled on Mr. and Mrs. Jarrom. The Association in 1838 resolved-

x

That we recommend that

306

THE NEW CONNEXION.

the Academy and Educational Society be united, and consti- tuted the Academy of the Connexion ; and that brother Ste- venson, of Loughborough, be requested to accept the office of Theological Tutor." A meeting of the brethren constituting the committee of the Education Society was held, when they " cheerfully resigned the direction of that institution to the committee appointed by the Association;" and Mr. Stevenson signified his willingness, for the present, to fill the office assigned him. The students in the Education Society at the period of union were — Messrs. Staples, Chamberlain, Stanion, and Knight. Mr. Acroyd, the only remaining student at Wisbech, was transferred to Loughborough. ( He died 1839.)

STUDENTS IN THE ACADEMY UNDER MR. STEVENSON.

NAME.

Enter- ed.

o

3

TO

H. Rose

1839 | Birmingbam

1840

Whittlesea

Josiah Pike . . C. E. Keighley

J. Fox

Amos Smith . .

T.Lee

J.Elsey

W. Chapman. .

1839 Brook-street, Derby . . 1839 j Queenshead

1840 Derby, Brook-street. . 1840 Longford (U. P.)....

1 840 Loughborough

1840 Nottingham

1840 Wendover

1841 Glasgow University 1841 Coventry

1841 Glasgow University lS42iDerby, Saeheverel-st.

1843Isleham

1842 Stamford

RESIGNATION OF MR. STEVENSON.

The report in 1841 states, — "Your committee have deep sorrow in reporting that the health and vigour of the Rev. T. Stevenson, the laborious and devoted Tutor, have recently so rapidly declined, as to incapacitate him for all labour, and in- duce him to tender the resignation of his office." In accept- ing the resignation of Mr. Stevenson, the Association expressed its high estimation of his very valuable services, and its deep- est sympathy with him in his painful illness : and tendered him the same pecuniary consideration as was offered to Mr. Jarrom on his retirement.

ACADEMY IN LONDON.

Mr. John Stevenson, of London, was requested to accept the appointment to the office -of Tutor : the Association at the same time stating it to be "exceedingly desirable that the Gene- ral Baptist Academy be in the midland district." „ The eight students then on the institution were placed under the care of

THE ACADEMY.

307

the following ministers until Mr. Stevenson's answer was re- ceived by the committee — J.Stevenson, London; J. Goadby, Leicester; J. G. Pike, Derby; and R. Ingham, Belper. Mr. Stevenson's answer was reported to the Association held in London in 1842, stating his willingness to accept the office of Tutor, but only on the condition that the Association allow the institution to be conducted in London. After a lengthened discussion, the Association "agreed that the former resolution, ■ that the Rev. J. Stevenson, of London, be requested to accept the appointment of this Association to the office of Tutor to the Academy,' be confirmed, and that it be conducted in London."

STUDENTS UNDER MR. J. STEVENSON.

s

W. Chapman

* W. Orton . .

R. Payne

•G.W.Pegg..

* J. F. Farrent

* T. Horsfield

* J. C. Jones. .

* R. Horsfield

* R. J. Pike . .

* W. StevensoD

1840 1841 1841 1842 1842 1842 1842 1842 1842 1842

Measham

Ckesham

Derby, Brook-street..

London

Lineholm

Maich

London, Borough-road

Derby

Nottingham, Stoney-st.

1842

Longford retired

* These students were in the Academy at the time of its removal to Leicester.

REMOVAL OF THE ACADEMY TO LEICESTER.

In the early part of May, 1843, Mr. Stevenson, " finding the duties of his office to be incompatible with the preservation of his health and with his general comfort, signified to the committee his determination to resign the institution at the ensuing Association." After a protracted discussion* it was resolved, " That the location of the Academy shall be in the midland district," and " That Mr. Stevenson be affectionately re- quested not to resign his office as tutor." A note having been received from Mr. Stevenson, stating that, from the views he entertained and has repeatedly expressed, both as regards London as a locality and his own pastoral relations, there was not any probability of his removal into the midland district, his resignation was accepted. It was then resolved — 1, that the institution should be removed to Leicester — 2, that the tutor should not be pastor of a church — 3, that Mr. Joseph Wallis, of Commercial-road, London, be requested to become

* By the Association.

x2

308

THE NEW CONNEXION.

the tutor. Mr. Wallis complied with the request, and was commended to the sympathies, support, and prayers of the churches. Commodious premises were immediately taken at Leicester, and the Tutor and students removed thither.

STUDENTS UNDER MR

WALLIS.

NAME.

1*

FBOM.

ปS 1

TO

* W. Orton . .

18441

Morcott

*G. W.Pegg..

1845 !

London, Com.-road

* J. F. Farrent

* These had pre-

1844

Manchester

* T. Horsfield

viously studied under

1845

Sheffield

* J. C. Jones. .

Mr. J. Stevenson.

1845

Glasgow University

* R. Horsfield

1844

Wendover

* R. J. Pike . .

1845

Beeston

* W. Stevenson

1845

London University

J, Lewitt ....

1843

Leicester, Friar-lane

1844

Coventry

W. Allen

1843

Derby, Mary's-gate . .

1844

retired

J. C. Sarjant W. Greenwood

1844

March

1846

Glasgow University retired

1844

Heptonstall Slack. . . .

1845

J. A. Jones . .

1844

Derby, Mary's-gate . .

C.Springthorpe

1844

Leicester, Dover-street

W. Bailey

1844

Castle Donington ....

1845 Orissa (mission)

W. Millar

1844

Staleybridge

1845 0rissa (mission)

T. Stan ion.. . .

1845

Leicester, Archdcn.-ln.

T. W. Deacon

1845

Bourne

J. Lawton . . . .

1845

Staleybridge

G. Stubbs

G. Needham . ,

1815

1845

Hose

died

Queniborough

Thos. Barrass

1847

Barton, Leicestershire

Edwd. Mitchell

1847

Burnley, Lancashire. .

CONSTITUTION AND RULES. {As revised in 1845.)

Design.— It is the design of the Connexion by the maintenance of this Institution to cherish and support the sentiments contained in the articles drawn up and signed in the year 1770, at the formation of the Connexion.

Object. — The object of this Institution is, to prepare young men of approved ministerial abilities, for greater usefulness; by supporting an Academy for the instruction of such as can devote their whole time to preparatory studies; — and furnishing assistance to those whose circum- stances forbid them to leave their homes.

Management. — The management of this Institution shall be vested in the Association; who shall appoint its Committee and officers, receive its annual report, and at all times have the power to make such sugges- tions and give such directions to the committee, as may be deemed ex- pedient; and the business relating to it shall be transacted at the open

THE ACADEMY. 309

meetings of the Association, on Thursday morning after breakfast. There shall be a General Committee for its direction, consisting of all the ministers of churches who collect annually for the Institution, and of all subscribers of not less than one guinea per annum; which shall hold an annual meeting during the Association. Out of this, a Standing Committee shall be selected, who shall take the whole management of the Institution between the general meetings, and report to the annual meeting of the General Committee, who are to report to the Association The Standing Committee shall consist of twelve brethren to be nomi-' nated by the Association, three of whom shall go off by rotation annually, live shall form a quorum. All Members of the Geueral Committee shall be eligible to attend its meetings. The confirmation of all the pro- ceedings of the Committee shall be vested in the Association. The names of the Committee shall always be printed in the Minutes.

Sub-Committee. — On the removal of the Academy to Leicester, a Sub-committee was appointed to superintend the financial arrangements and general concerns of the Institution.

Tutor's Salaky. — Whatever be the number of students, the Tutor shall have a fixed salary. A salary shall also be assigned to some quali- fied female, who shall act as Matron, and manage the household affairs. The salary of the Tutor shall be ฃ100, and that of the Matron ฃ20 per annum.

Introduction, &c. of Students. — 1. Every young man shall be re- commended by the church and minister with which he is connected. 2. The minister and deacons, or the major part of them, shall have heard the candidate not less than three times before the recommendation is given. 3. It is very desirable that every young man admitted on the Institution should previously have some knowledge of English grammar; and absolutely essential that he discover a taste for mental culture. 4. Every young man applying for the advantages of the Institution, in his letter of application shall be expected to give an account of his conver- sion, and his general views of divine truth. 5. To ascertain how far applicants for admission into this Institution possess the requisite abili- ties for the christian ministry, they shall preach at three places as may be directed by the Committee, or before the Committee, or shall furnish evidence that they possess the qualifications desired, in some other way that shall be satisfactory to the Committee and Tutor. 6. Every stu- dent shall be admitted on probation for three months ; after which the Tutor shall report especially on his case to the Committee. 7. The time of students entering upon study shall be at the close of the vacation. 8. Three years shall be the general period of study, but the Committee shall have discretionary power to contract or prolong this period, if cir- cumstances should seem to render it desirable. 9. Every student leaving the Academy, shall be considered as under the direction of the Committee for one year. 10. The regular vacation shall be for two months; about the 25th of June, to the same time in August. The Tutor shall be at liberty to allow the students a few days recreation at Christmas, if desired. 11. Before the commencement of the vacation, there shall be an examination of the students. 12. Each student is ex- pected to defray his expenses in travelling, clothing, washing, &c.

310

THE NEW CONNEXION.

INCOME OF THE ACADEMY.

ฃ. s.

d. I

ฃ. s. d.

1

JE. s. d.

] ฃ. s. d.

1800

136 6

2

1813

98 5 6

1825

131 15 11

1838 200 9 4ง

1801

184 13

0*

1814

162 18 94

1826

119 4 10

1839258* 6 1ฑ

1802

156 11

'^

1815

175 7 7ฑ

1827

139 7 3

1840,367 1 llf

1803

171 3

H

1816

140 19 2ฑ

1828

131 2 4ง

1841418 1 5f

1805

169 1

2

1818

150 16 10ฃ

1829

122 7 10*

1842 422 15 1

1806

133 18

1819

166 14 6ฑ

1830

122 2 4

1843441 10 3

1807

176 14

H

1820

164 18 4

1831

286 14 9

1844 608-f-ll 4|

1808

130 17

2

1821

185 3|

1832

130 9 8ง

1845 450 4 11

1809

112 4

1822

212 2 1ฑ

1834

242 12 4

1846 390 17 2|

1811

139 12

Si

1823

247 15 5|

1835

146 8 lOf

1812

136 15

3

1824

143 18 6ง

1836

174 ii iii

I

* This sum includes the balance from the Education Society.

t A specia

1 appea

1 was made this year to augment the funds.

ACADEMY FUND.

A fund had been gradually accumulating, which, in 1831, amounted to upwards of ฃ800 : in that year eleven houses were purchased — two, No. 5 and 6, Union-row, Hyson Green, and nine at Carrington, Nottingham; to be called "Academy Row." The whole amount of purchase was ฃ833 5s. lOd. : leaving abalance due to the treasurer of ฃ8 4s. Id.. The following trustees were appointed, selected from the different districts —

Midland. — Nathan Hurst, Nottingham; James Smith, jun., Nottingham; John Wallis, Loughborough; Joseph Balm, Quorndon; John Harvey, Leicester; William Wilkins, Derby; John Earp, jun., Melbourne.

Lincolnshire. — Robert Clark, Wisbech ; Kemp San by, Long Sutton.

London.— T. W. Dunch ; T. H. Bissill.

Yorkshire. — Richard Ingham, jun., Heptonstall : Joseph Dobson, Birchcliffe.

SECTION II.

THE PUBLICATIONS.

In 1798, a monthly magazine, entitled the " General Bap- tist Magazine," was commenced. Mr. Dan Taylor was ap- pointed editor; and for some time it promised to be of great service to the Connexion. It did not, however, obtain a suffi- cient support ; and was, therefore, discontinued after Dec. 1800, at the close of the third volume. In 1802, Mr. Adam Taylor,

THE HOME MISSION. 311

at the request of the Association, undertook to publish a periodical miscellany under the title of the " General Baptist Repository." At first, a number (12mo.) appeared every six months; in 1810, it began to be published every three months. After the completion of the tenth volume, in 1821, the " Missionary Observer" and the " Repository" were united in one publication to appear monthly ; the 8vo. size was adopted, and Messrs. A. Taylor and J. G. Pike, were appointed editors, each to have his own department under his own con- trol. After the death of Mr. A. Taylor, the Association agreed ( 1833) that Mr. Pike should continue to edit the "Missionary Observer," and that there should be two editors of the " Re- pository" — one in London, Mr. J. Wallis, who should take charge of the first sheet; and one in the country, Mr. J. Goadby, who should attend to the other half-sheet and superin- tend the publication. This arrangement continued until the end of 1838, when it was deemed expedient that Mr. Goadby should in future be sole editor of the " Repository." A Hymn-book was published soon after the formation of the union : in 1791, it was thought desirable to publish a new one, and Mr. J. Deacon was appointed " to form a collection from different hymn-books," a committee being nominated " to examine and decide upon the above collection." At the request of the Association in 1829, the proprietors of the Hymn-book sub- mitted it to the revision of a committee appointed by the Association. The alterations proposed by the committee were submitted to the Association in 1830: they were approved; and it was resolved " That the Hymn-book, with these altera- tions, be received as the Hymn-book of the New Connexion of General Baptists."

SECTION III. THE HOME MISSION.

THE ITINERANT FUND.

At the annual meeting held in London in 1810, the cases of several decayed churches in Lincolnshire were considered. It seemed desirable that some minister should go and labour among them for a few weeks: but the inquiry arose—" How shall the expenses be defrayed ?" On this a friend observed

312 THE NEW CONNEXION.

that it would be well if a fund could be established for the ex- press purpose oi meeting such demands. The hint was ap- proved, and it was resolved, "that a. fund be raised for pro- moting the cause of religion and the G. B. interest ;" several friends present subscribed nearly fifteen pounds. The Mel- bourne Association, in 1811, resumed the subject, confiimed the resolution, agreed that " the management, application, and distribution of this fund were vested in the annual Association," and appointed Mr. John Heard tieasuier. This was called " The Itinerant Fund."

Some of the places to which assistance was afforded during the first few years of its collection were — Forncett, Peter- borough, Burton-on-Trent, Ashford, Mansfield, Staleybridge, Knipton, Wendover, Wrotham, Wymondham, Chatteris, Man- chester, Netherton, Yarmouth, Kirton, Downton, Lyndhnrst, Wirksworth, Lincoln, &c.

THE HOME MISSION.

At the Association in 1821, it was resolved that the institu- tion hitherto called the Itinerant Fund, should be henceforth designated " The General Baptist Home Missionary Society :" each Conference was requested to appoint a district committee, and each district committee to appoint a district treasurer and secretary. The principal stations assisted by this institution from 1821 to 1828 were — Manchester, Macclesfield, Preston, Coventry, Sevenoaks, Newbury, Lincoln, Sutton Coldfield, Burton-on-Trent, Ashbourne, Belper, Mansfield, Whittlesea, &c. A " Village Mission" was formed, and a Village Mis- sionary, or Bible Reader, was employed.

NEW CONSTITUTION.

A plan, recommended by the midland Conference, for alter- ing the constitution of the Home Mission, was discussed and adopted by the Association in 1828. It was agreed that each Conference should continue the superintendence of its own stations and expend the money raised in its own district for home missionary purposes, without the intervention of a general committee: that the midland Conference should "have -Man- chester, Macclesfield, and Coventry: the Lincolnshire, Lin- coln; and the London Conference, Sevenoaks." It was also resolved " that in order to promote christian union and brotherly love, the secretaries of the Home Mission in the various con- ferences, are particularly desired to send an annual report of the proceedings in their respective districts, to the Association."

THE HOME MISSION.

313

HOME MISSIONARY MEETINGS.

Considerable activity was manifested by the friends of this institution to promote its interests: public meetings were held at the quarterly Conferences, and the first annual meeting of the society for the midland district was convened at Nottingham, in June, i829. Mr. Pickering presided, and stirring addresses were delivered by Messrs. Goadby, sen., Tyers, Stevenson, sen., Orton, &c. Mr. Pickering observed — " The more we succeeded in such efforts to spread the gospel at home, the gieatei would be our facilities for diffusing it abroad. The Home Mission was the basis of the foreign : as the former succeeded the latter would prosper; and just in proportion to the extension of the one would be the success of the other."

A WORTHY EXAMPLE.

Many of the most talented and respected ministers engaged in Home Missionary labours : at the above meeting, Mr. Stevenson, of Loughboiough, stated —

" If I might with propriety refer to myself, I might state that last Friday evening I preached in the open air in the most degraded part of the town. Hundreds were soon collected; I felt as I wish to feel while I attempted, as plainly and as pointedly as I was able, to warn them that they were in the road to hell: numbers were affected, and, at the close of the service, after hand-bill tracts had been given away, they were invited into a neighbouring house where a prayer-meeting would be immediately held. The room was crowded to excess ; many stood round the window. A few friends, with much warmth of feeling, engaged briefly in prayer, and at the close of this prayer-meeting, several con- tinued, who with many tears inquired what they must do to be saved, and were directed by our friends to the gracious Redeemer. Now, these are some of the extraordinary exertions that must be used by us: we must in this matter, turn missionaries, and preach to the people as if we were for the first time preaching to heathens.''

PROGRESS.

The Lincolnshire report for 1828-9, states — " Previous to the past year, Chatteris, Magdalen, Lincoln, and Norwich, have had ministerial assistance, and become settled churches : our more immediate attention has been directed to Whittlesea and Stamford." The Warwickshire report mentions Nuneaton, Sutton Coldfield, and Tipton, as stations. The midland society, in addition to places already mentioned, introduced the gospel into Northampton and Market Harborough, where meeting-houses were opened : that at the former place having been purchased of the quakers, and that at the latter erected by the society.

314

THE NEW CONNEXION.

REORGANIZATION OF THE MIDLAND HOME MISSION.

In accordance with the direction of the Conference, a meeting of the Midland Home Mission committee was held at Nottingham, Feb. 21, 1838, when the district was divided into six circuits for home missionary purposes, viz. —

Leicester Circuit. Leicester Churches Northampton Market Harborongh Fleckney and Smeeton Eothley and Sileby Queniborough Billesdon

Derby Circuit.

Derby Churches

Belper

Duffield

Wirksworth

Crich

Smalley

Burton

Cauldwell

Alfreton

Bocester

Loughborough Circuit.

Loughborough

Quorndon

Leake &Wimeswould

Broughton & Hose

Knipton

Nottingham Circuit. Nottingham Churches Beeston Ilkeston

Kirkby Woodhouse Betford Boughton Sutton Ashfield Mansfield Warsop

Donington Sf Melbourne. Donington Melbourne Ashby Measham Kegworth Sutton Bonington Long Whatton

Barton Sf Hinckley. Barton Hugglescote Hinckley Shilton Thurlaston Wolvey Austrey

Longford Churches Birmingham Coventry

It was agreed that the general committee should consist of two delegates appointed by each circuit committee; all ministers who are subscribers, or whose churches collect, to be members ex officio. The Conference afterwards recommended the general committee to admit that churches consisting of 100 members, and under, send two deputies to their meetings.

YORKSHIRE AND MIDLAND DISTRICTS.

The chief efforts of the Yorkshire district were directed to the establishment of the cause at Bradford— the Leicester circuit at Northampton — the BaTton circuit at Coventry — the Nottingham and Loughborough circuits at Sheffield. The Melbourne and Donington and the Derby circuits united with the Yorkshire friends in a vigorous effort to plant a church at Leeds, while some attention was paid to the Staffordshire potteries, and assistance afforded to Burton. The Lincolnshire district assisted Magdalen, Stowbridge, Stamford,and Castleacre.

CHESHIRE AND LANCASHIRE DISTRICT.

This district society was constituted in 1840, at the forma- tion of the Conference. '* Under its auspices, the excellent and

THE HOME MISSION. 315

commodious chapel and school-room with the premises at Congleton, were purchased for the use of the General Baptist cause, and occupied as a Home Mission station." Stoke-on- Trent has also received considerable assistance from this society.

LONDON DISTRICT.

At the London Conference, held in vEnon chapel, Oct. 9, 1841, it was resolved that this Conference form itself into a branch of the Connexional Home Missionary society : and that the secretary of the Conference be the secretary of this branch. This branch has not hitherto adopted any particular station, but occasionally appropriates a portion of its funds to the assistance of needy churches connected with the Conference.

LINCOLNSHIRE DISTRICT.

The affairs of the Lincolnshire Home Mission were under the immediate superintendence of the Conference until 1846 : at the Conference held at Gosberton, Sep. 3, it was resolved, — " that for the more efficient management of our Home Missionary affairs, a committee be appointed to transact its business, and that this committee, from time to time, report its proceedings to the Conference. That at each midsummer Con- ference, the members of the committee who have attended its meetings the least frequently, go off, and their places be filled up by the Conference."

REGULATIONS. LEGACIES.

The Derby Association in 1841 passed the following reso- lutions —

That the Association be considered as the general committee of the Home Missionary Society ; and that the treasurer and secretary of the Association be the treasurer and secretary of the Home Mission, for general purposes.

That all legacies left by will for the benefit of the General Baptist Home Missionary Society, be paid to the treasurer of the Association, and that he give a receipt to the executor or executors. That the general treasurer be directed to divide the same amongst all the branches of the said society, accord- ing to the number of members in each district, and to transmit the several amounts without delay to the treasurers of the different branches.

316 THE NEW CONNEXION.

A VOICE FROM THE TOMB.

It is regretted that the absence of a complete series of reports has prevented a more interesting sketch of this important institu- tion : it is a matter for serious inquiry whether it occupies that prominence in the proceedings of the Connexion which its interest demands. Perhaps this review cannot be more appro- priately concluded than with the observations of our departed brother Goadby, of Ashby, " who being dead yet speaketh" —

" We must endeavour to do something, and we must do it effectually too. There is great need for such a society as this : there are rnany reasons why we, as a denomination, should have such a society as this. Other denominations have their home missionary societies, and the General Baptists, heing at present such a small hody, have more home work to do, perhaps, than any other. Let us then have our home mis- sionary society, and let it live. Do not, by withholding your pecuniary contributions, starve it to death; but give it your hearty prayers and your willing contributions, that it may be very instrumental in turning many of our dark countrymen from darkness to light, and from the power of satan unto God."

SECTION IV. FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY.

ATTENTION AWAKENED.

At the annual Association in 1802, the inquiry was made, as a case from the church at Castle Donington, " Can any sort of foreign missionary business be undertaken by the General Baptists ?" It was thought that the resources of the Connexion were unequal to such an effort. In 1S09, a letter signed A. J. was presented to the Association at Quorn- don, urging on the brethren the importance of directing their attention to the subject, when Mr. B. Pollard observed, that " he could almost have sold his coat from his back for the missionary cause,' or to that effect: at the request of that association the letter was inserted in the " Repository," and considerable attention was excited in different parts of the denomination. In 1813 and 1816 other letters appeared signed " P. Derby," calling for the formation of a Missionary society. The church at Nottingham, roused by 'some local

FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 317

circumstances, ventured to commence a subscription, and recommended the subject to the midland Conference : that meeting addressed a note to all the churches in the Connexion, requesting them to attend to the subject and send their repre- sentatives properly instructed to discuss it at the ensuing Association.

THE SOCIETY FORMED.

The subject was accordingly brought before the meeting at Boston in 1816; after considerable deliberation it was resolved unanimously — "We highly approve of a Foreign General Baptist Mission, and heartily recommend it to the friends of this measure immediately to form themselves into a society for the promotion of this important object." Before the close of the session " The General Baptist Missionary Society" was formed : Mr. R. Seals was requested to act as treasurer, and Mr. J. G. Pike as secretary. An energetic address was circu- lated among the churches, in which it was asked " should it be said ( the General Baptists are the only christians that never planted a church amongst heathens !' No, let us strive to plant the first upon some pagan shore." During the year auxiliary societies were formed in London and Lincolnshire, public collections were made by some of the churches, and monthly Missionary prayer-meetings were established.

THE GROUND CHOSEN.

The selection of a suitable sphere of labour was an impor- tant subject in the deliberations of the society. Mr. Ward, one of the Baptist missionaries from Serampore was then in England; and his advice was sought. India was recom- mended ; and Mr. W. observed — " I shall be very glad of the company to India of one of your missionaries, and would assist him on the voyage in Bengalee." This was regarded as an opening of Providence, and the committee were anxious to embrace so favourable an opportunity for commencing the society's operations in the missionary field. At this juncture Mr. Bampton offered his services, and soon afterwards Mr. Peggs devoted himself to the service of God among the heathen. These two brethren, in company with Mr. Ward, set sail for India on board the ship Abbenon, May 29, 1821. On their arrival in India, Messrs. Carey, Marshman, and Ward, were consulted respecting a station : their unanimous opinion was

318 THE NEW CONNEXION.

that Orissa appeared the most suitable, and the brethren resolved to settle at Cuttack.*

As a detailed account of the operations of the missionaries is given in the " Sketch of the Orissa Mission," it is unneces- sary to enter into particulars here.

MISSION TO THE WEST INDIES.

At the annual meeting held in 1824, it was resolved to establish a Mission in the West Indies. In May, 1826, Mr. and Mrs. Hudson embarked for Jamaica, and were followed in January, 1827, by Mr. and Mrs Bromley. In July of the same year, Mr. and Mrs. Allsop sailed to join the band in Jamaica. Notwithstanding the opposition of slave-holders, considerable success attended the efforts of the missionaries : but the three labourers by different circumstances were removed from their stations. In September, 1829, Mr. Allsop died, upon whose life, at that peculiar crisis, the existence of the mission appeared to depend. To have attempted the renewal of the Western Mission would have required all the energies of the society ; while the Eastern Mission needed every exer- tion to promote its prosperity, and even insure its continuance. Under these circumstances many of the judicious friends of the society deemed it the wiser course to direct all its efforts to the establishment of the Eastern Mission, and leave the Western field to other christians who had already manifested a disposition to labour there.

MISSION TO CHINA.

The opening of China giving the churches of Christ access to millions of benighted souls, the society resolved to attempt the establishment of a Mission in this populous empire. Mr. Hudson, formerly of the West India Mission, and Mr. W. Jarrom, son of the late Mr. Jarrom of Wisbech, offered them- selves for the work, and were accepted by the committee. The ordination of Mr. Hudson took place at Loughborough, March 26, 1845 : Mr. Ferney hough delivered the introductory dis- course, Mr. Wallis offered the prayer, and Mr. Pike presented the charge. Mr. Jarrom was ordained at Wisbech, April 16, Mr. Goadby .delivered the introductory discourse, Mr. Jones of March offered the designator)' prayer, and Mr. Pike gave the charge. These two brethren sailed on board the " Duke of

* John Slater and John Glover ฃboth members of the church at Derby} were theirs* who offered themselves to the Mission.

FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY.

319

Portland," captain Hamlin, May 8, 1845, arrived at Hong Kong on Lord's-dav, September 27, and landed the next morning. After having consulted Mr. Shuck, the Baptist mis- sionary, and made all the inquiry they could respecting the most suitable locality, they determined to commence their labours at Ningpo, one of the five ports recently opened to Europeans.

THE MISSIONARIES.

The following account of the missionaries sent out by the society, with the time of their leaving their native country, &c, may be interesting : —

Mr. Bampton left May, 1821, died Dec. 17, 1830.

Mrs. Bampton.

Mr. and Mrs. Peggs ....

Mr. and Mrs. Lacey

Mr. Sutton

Mrs. Sutton

Mr. and Mrs. Hudson . . Mr. and Mrs. Bromley . .

Mr. Cropper

Mr. Allsop

Mrs. Allsop

Mr. and Mrs. Brown ....

Mr. Goadby

Mrs. Goadby

Mr. and Mrs. J. Brooks . .

Mr. Stubbins . ,

Mrs. Stubbins

Miss Kirkman

Mr. and Mrs. Wilkinson

Mr. Grant

Mrs. Grant

Mr. and Mrs. W. Brooks

Miss Derry

Mr. Buckley

Mr. Hudson

Mr. and Mrs. Jarrom. . . .

W.Bailey

W. Millar

Miss Collins

returned 1831.

May, 1821, returned May 1, 1826. May, 1823, * Aug., 1824, *

died May 15, 1825. May, 1826, returned. Jan., 1827, resigned. June, 1827, died Dec. 8, 1828. July, 1827, died Sep. 14, 1829.

„ returned.

June, 1830, left the mission 1837. July, 1833, returned Feb. 1838,

died July 13, 1834. Aug., 1834, returned 1845.

Aug., 1836, *

died Feb. 19, 1837. 1837, * married Mr. Stubbins Sep., 1838, * June, 1841, died Feb. 4, 1843.

married

June, 1844, May, 1845,

June, 1845,

married Mr.Buckley

A MEMORIAL OF DIVINE GOODNESS.

A review of the period over which the above table extends is interesting and affecting. Many labourers sent into the mission- ary field have been summoned to their reward : many honoured brethren also who assisted at the formation of the society and fostered it in its infancy, have exchanged earth for heaven.

320

THE NEW CONNEXION.

But there is one who yet lives as a monument of the divine goodness to the Mission — its honoured Secretary, J, G. Pike. To him, under God, the society owes its origin and its per- petuity. His extraordinary labours, as Secretary, from its formation, are known to many, and his praise is in all the chuiches. Of him, and of those devoted men who have so faithfully toiled in the land of darkness, it may be truly said " their works praise them."

INCOME OF THE MISSION

ฃ. s.

d.

ฃ. s.

d.

ฃ. s. d.

1820

1772 1

If

1830

1212 6

8

1840

1668 15 Of

1821

1159 6

5

1831

958 8

a*

1841

1732 7 0ฃ

J 822

1256 12

H

1832

1239 19

5f

*851 17 6

1823

1627 19

9

1833

1227 2

6f

i842

1929 5f

1824

1685 11

8f

1834

1552 1

*f

1843

2450 16 8

1825

1763 7

2f

1835

1652 3

2

1844

2473 18 8

1826

1595 12

%

1836

1307 2

If

1845

2375 16 24;

1827

1696 13

Of

1837

1926 13

8*

1846

2133 6 10

1828

1651 1

6

1838

1620 3

H

1829

1801 12

31

1839

1647 17

3

These receipts include American Tract Societies

Legacies, Money Grants from the English and , &c.

Special for additional Missionaries.

CONSTITUTION, REGULATIONS, ETC. (Revised by the Secretary.)

1. Members. — Every person subscribing 10s. 6d. per annum, or col- lecting in small sums sixpence per week, shall be a member of the society ; and every person presenting a donation of ฃ5 5s. shall be a member for life.

2. Management. — The affairs of the society shall be conducted by a committee consisting of fifteen members, in addition to the secretary and treasurer; the committee shall fix the time and place for their meetings.

3. Regular ministers, that are members of the society, are, according to No. V. of its original rules, declared to be entitled to attend and vote at the meetings of the committee.

4. The persons who go off the committee shall be that one-fourth who have attended least frequently during the preceding year ; but in case attendance shall have been so equal that this rule will not apply, then that one-fourth shall retire who have been longest on the committee.

5. An annual meeting of the committee is held on Tuesday evening in the Association week, when the proceedings of the committee during the preceding year are laid before them.

6. All subscribers of 10s 6d. per annum and upwards, shall be eligi- ble to be chosen on the committee.

7. Controul. — See Constitution of the Association, Article. 9, page 277.

CHAPTER V.

SKETCH OF THE OEISSA MISSION.

SECTION I. ORISSA AND HINDOOISM.

FIRST MISSIONARIES.

Messrs. W. Bampton and J. Peggs offered themselves to the Mission, and were engaged for the great work. May 15, 1821, Mr. Bampton was set apart as a missionary at Loughborough. The chapel was crowded to excess: the meeting was solemnly interest- ing. Brother Stevenson gave out the hymn beginning

" Behold the mountain of the Lord In latter days shall rise, Above the mountains and the hills, And draw our wondering eyes."

The vast multitude rose and gave vent to their emotions in one universal swell of harmony and devotion. Robert Smith, of Not- tingham, offered the designating prayer, full of unction and solem- nity ; W. Pickering, of Nottingham, delivered the charge; and in the afternoon, Mr. Ward, of Serampore, addressed the congregation. In the evening a missionary prayer meeting was held. Collections were made after all the services in aid of the missionary cause, and though made merely at the gates of the burying-ground, the amount exceeded seventy pounds. On Thursday following, Mr. Peggs was set apart at Wisbech. Mr. Bissill delivered the introductory dis- course; Mr. T. Ewen offered the prayer ; and Mr. Jarrom gave the charge. This day was one of great interest ; the meeting was well attended, and much tender solicitude for the comfort of the mission- aries and for the success of the Mission was apparent.

THE DEPARTURE.

After these solemnities, the missionaries set out for London, whence it was expected they would immediately embark for India. A passage was secured on board the ■ Abberton,' captain Gilpin. On the 28th of May, the secretary, and a number of friends to the Mission, accompanied the party on board the vessel : there they

Y

322 THE NEW CONNEXION.

found Mr. Ward and his friends who were to be their companions of voyage. All retired to the dining cabin ; prayer was offered by Mr. Ward and Mr. Pike, and an affecting parting took place : the next day the ship left the river and proceeded on her voyage. Good- ness and mercy followed the friends throughout their passage : on the 24th of September they cast anchor in Madras roads, and Nov. 15th, arrived at Serampore.

ORISSA.

No definite instructions were given to the missionaries as to the selection of their sphere of labour ; they were advised to consult the brethren at Serampore, and commence their labours in the locality that might appear most eligible. Messrs. Carey, Marsh- man, and Ward, were consulted, and their unanimous opinion was that Orissa appeared the most suitable station. The country of Orissa is situated between 19 and 23 degrees of north latitude, and 84 to 88 east longitude : it consists of a narrow strip of land, ex- tending from Midnapore in the north to a few miles below Ganjam in the south ; and from the shores of the Bay of Bengal in the east to the vast range of mountainous country in the west, comprising a tract of about 300 miles in length, and from 20 to 170 in breadth. The principal towns in Orissa are — Cuttack, containing about 40,000 inhabitants, Pooree, 30.000, Jagepoor, 12,000, Balasore, 10,000 ; to these may be added Midnapore at the northern ex- tremity, nearly as large as Cuttack, and Ganjam and Berhampore in the south, each containing probably 30,000 inhabitants. Besides the large towns, there are 23,840 villages scattered over its sur- face; these are generally mere hamlets: there are a few large villages, as Jellasore, Soro, Bhuddruk, Piplee ; and some others towards the south. If we examine a map of the eastern world, the eye naturally rests upon Hindoostan as the field of operation for the eventual subjugation of its tribes and nations to the faith of Christ : let Hindoostan be minutely surveyed and the province of Orissa presents an interesting character. It is connected with all Hindoostan : myriads annually resort to its famous temple at Pooree, which is one of the strongest holds of Hindoo superstition. A blow at idolatry here is a blow at the root.

AWFUL NATURE OF HINDOOISM.

The Hindoos profess to believe in the doctrine of the divine unity, but at the same time believe in the existence of 330 millions of gods; some of which are the personification of all that is most vile and degraded in the records of depravity. They have no proper notion of divine government, supposing the world to be uuder the management of deities having no love of righteousness, no settled form of government, often quarrelling with each other and subverting each other's arrangements : thus, among their 330

THE ORISSA MISSION. 323

millions of governors they know not whom to obey or in whom to confide. Tliey are equally ignorant of the law of God ; the injunc- tions of their shasters (holy books) are often contradictory, and sometimes puerile and vicious, encouraging pride, impurity, false- hood, revenge, and murder. Dreadful cruelties are practised in honour of their deities : persons are suspended in the air by hooks thrust through their backs, in the same way as meat is suspended upon hooks in a butcher's shop : others have their sides pierced, and cords introduced between the skin and the ribs and drawn hack- wards and forwards, while these victims of superstition dance through the streets : others have a hole cut through the middle of the tongue, in which they insert a stick, a ram-rod, or any thin substance, and thus dance through the streets in honour of their deity. Many Hindoo mothers, in fulfilment of a vow entered into for the purpose of procuring the blessing of children, drown their first- born in a river. When the child is two or three years old, the mother takes it to the river and encourages it to enter as though about to bathe it, but suffers it to pass into the midst of the current, when she abandons it and stands an inactive spectator, beholding the struggles and hearing the screams of her perishing infant. Persons afflicted with incurable distempers are encouraged to put a period to their existence by casting themselves under the wheels of Juggernaut's car, or into some sacred river, or fire prepared for the purpose ; the Hindoo writings promising self-murderers that they shall rise again in a healthful body, whereas if they died a natural death they would be liable to have the disease perpetuated in suc- ceeding births. They have no hope in divine mercy as it respects pardon : that sin will be forgiven, or the punishment remitted, makes no part of Hindoo faith. The shasters declare that the sins both of gods and men never leave the offender till expiated by personal suffer- ing through millions of births. If a person sins in the human shape he is doomed to pass through eight millions of births before he can again appear as high in the scale of existence as man ; that is, he must die eight millions of times, rising to life again in some other body — in that of a dog, or cat, or worm, &c. — before he shall again assume the shape of a man. A Hindoo has no hope of happiness after death unless he has given his wealth to the priests, or performed some other splendid act of merit ; or except he drown himself in a sacred river, or perish on the burning pile. Those who are supposed to attain happiness are said to ascend to the region of the gods, where, for a limited period, they enjoy an unbounded indulgence in sensual gratification : this is the only heaven of conscious bliss held out to a Hindoo.

CASTE.

The Hindoos are divided into four distinct classes, called castes: these castes are essentially and perpetually separate from each other,

y2

324 THE NEW CONNEXION.

so that no transition from one to another is allowed ; no connexion between tliem by marriage, or otherwise, is permitted, and no indi- vidual of one caste can assume the habits or engage in the occupa- tion of another. The distinction is complete in every sense, heredi- tary and personal; all the privileges or disabilities are inherited; no one is permitted to become what he is fitted to be by nature, but is obliged to become what his birth in this or that caste al- lows, or to remain what it condemns him to be. The slightest transgression of these laws is punished with loss of caste, and some- times with death. Even the difference of food is precisely marked out. The first, or noblest caste, is that of the brahmins, who are priests, scholars, teachers in schools and academies, lawyers, and state officers : the second is composed of cshatriyas, or rajputs, the kings and warriors: the third is composed of voishyu, or husband- men and merchants : and the fourth the shoodru, or soodras, com- prehending artisans and labourers. These include many other divisions and subdivisions. Never was anything invented by the deep policy of man so well calculated to rivet the chains of super- stition as the caste. The mere circumstance of eating even the purest food with persons not of the same caste, however enlightened or virtuous, or venerable for age, exposes a man to being cut off from his wife, children, father, mother, and every other tender relation ; but what is still worse, the very reception of such a per- secuted individual involves the receiver, though a mother, or a wife, in the same dreadful sentence. All this must be braved by an individual who, to secure his eternal salvation, should embrace a new religion.

DEGRADED STATE OF THE FEMALES.

To the Hindoo female all education is denied by the positive injunction of the shasters, and by the general voice of the country: there was not a single school for girls all over the country. Some Hindoos were conversing with a missionary, when the subject of schools for females was mentioned : the oldest and most intelligent among them carelessly replied, "What have Ave to do with them, let them remain as they are." The Hindoo girl spends the first ten years of her life in idleness, immured in the house of her father. She is betrothed without her consent while yet a child. When married she remains a prisoner and a slave in the house of her husband. She is not permitted to speak to a person- of the other sex : never eats with her husband, but partakes of what he leaves. She receives no benefit from books or society, and her comfort is very little cared for. The individual above alluded to, when expostulated with on the neglected state of the women, replied, " They do not know how to go to heaven, but they know how to go to hell, and let them go."

THE ORISSA MISSION. 325

section n.

FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF LABOUR TO THE FIRST HINDOO BAPTISM.

COMMENCEMENT OP LABOUR AT CTJTTACK. FIRST STATION.

The missionaries readied Cuttack, February 12, 1822. The study of the language in which they were to make known the ever- lasting gospel to the benighted Oriyas, was of course their principal employment for a time : but they soon began to unfold their message of mercy. They were provided with a considerable quantity of tracts and copies of the sacred scriptures, which were received by the natives with great readiness. The natives also called on the brethren, some came more than twenty miles to see the new padries and to hear about the new religion. Schools were established for children. Another department was preaching to European gentle- men (the servants of the East India company) and their descend- ants, Portuguese, and others.

FIRST ADDRESS.

As it is interesting to know in what form the truths of the gospel were first presented to the Oriya mind, the first address (by Mr. Bampton) is here given. " I am come to shew you the way of salvation. Salvation is deliverance from hell : hell is everlasting fire and brimstone ; the holy scriptures say that all sinners will go to hell, and all men are sinners. But it is possible for us to be saved. Hear ! there is only one God ; He loves all men ; He loves Hindoos; He has a Son whose name is Jesus Christ — Jesus Christ was in the beginning with God, but God so loved the world that he gave his Son that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. Jesus Christ gave himself for our sins; he gave his life; and if we believe in Him his blood will cleanse us from all sin. This is the way of salvation, and there is no other way — no other Saviour. Acquaint yourselves with Him and go to heaven."

FIRST CHURCH.

Before the missionaries left Bengal, they engaged, as a servant, a converted Hindoo named Abraham. The first General Baptist church consisted of the two missionaries, their wives, and the servant Abraham, who was baptized by Dr. Marshman in 1821. In a short time he w r as liberated from his employment as a servant

326 THE NEW CONNEXION.

and engaged in making known the gospel to his countrymen. The English congregation assumed a more encouraging aspect, and Mrs. Rennell and her sister, who had been baptized by Mr. Peter, at Baiasore, united in fellowship with the church at Cuttack. Mr. Rennell (son of the celebrated engineer), was baptized by Mr. Bampton, April 27, 1822. This was the first baptism.

POOKEE OR JUGGERNAUT. SECOND STATION.

Encouraged by the prospect of further strength from England, the brethren felt the propriety of establishing a second station : and after consultation with the brethren at Serarapore, they resolved upon attempting to form a station at Pooree or Juggernaut. Pooree is about fifty miles from Cuttack, on the shore of the Bay of Bengal, and is the site of the great temple of Juggernaut. Juggernaut is the most celebrated idol in India : there are a great many images of this god set up in different parts of India, but the one established at Pooree is the principal and by far the most venerated. The idol is a large piece of nim wood of the most ugly shape and frightful countenance, without arms or legs, and well fitted to inspire terror into the minds of its trembling devotees. The province of Orissa is annually visited by probably a million of pilgrims from all parts of India to this celebrated temple. The influx of so many people from such great distances to this renowned place of idolatry, is pro- ductive of indescribable misery and a vast destruction of human life. The bones and skulls of the unhappy pilgrims who have fallen in many parts, literally whiten the sandy shore in the vicinity of this horrid temple. The Ruth Jattra, or Car festival, held in honour of Juggernaut once a year, takes place about the end of June, and is sometimes attended by 250,000 pilgrims : many thousands of these pilgrims perish every year on their return home. The idol, on a ponderous car, is dragged through the streets by ropes, and sometimes individuals voluntarily throw themselves beneath the wheels and are crushed to death. This is one of the strongest holds of Hindoo idolatry : hence the immense importance of this as a missionary station. The pious Dr. Buchanan after witnessing the " horrid solemnities" of Juggernaut some years be- fore, expressed the hope that " some institution fostered in Britain would gradually undermine this hateful idolatry, and put out the remembrance of it for ever." The General Baptist missionaries resolved to make the attempt, and hither Mr. and Mrs. Bampton removed, September 17, 1823.

HORRORS OF THE PILGRIMAGE.

During one of the festivals at Pooree, one of the missionaries observes —

" I saw many pilgrims, and many of them the most miserable objects that can be imagined. One was a blind old man wasted away to such a

THE ORISSA MISSION. 327

degree that with his sunken, sightless eyes, he formed a very striking resemblance to the picture of death. Others were young men who have performed a pilgrimage of perhaps 1000 or 1500 miles ; and now almost nuked, starving and exhausted with fatigue, they are slowly retracing their weary way. Most of them are worn out with walking, and their feet are so blistered and torn that they are obliged to bind them up with the only piece of cloth they have, to enable them to prosecute their journey at all. And what is the fruit of all this toil ? Why, they have a picture of Juggernaut, such as is seen in England, suspended round their necks, and two or thiee little sticks coloured with red ochre, to take home, if they ever reach it, as a memorial of theirpilgrimage. We have now travelled fifty miles along the great load to Juggernaut, and every where it is alike full of pilgrims travelling to and from that accursed thing. Many are blind, who go to obtain holiness by approaching the vile block : one of this description now lies at the door of our tent at the foot of a tree. What a poor wretch he is ! He is perpetually crying f Give me some food ; I die, I die ; my body is shrivelled up, my feet are broken, and my substance is passing away with the cholera. Here am I come four months' journey to visit Juggernaut, and he gives me nothing but sorrow. What can I do ? I die. What can I do ? Ram, Ram, Ram, O Juggernaut!' I have now," says the missionary, "given him a rupee and some rice, and put him in the road ; and now, afflicted and aloue, he is gone groping his way, blind in body and soul. But this is not a solitary case : the majority of those who return, go labouring along with tottering steps and broken feet and bended back and a death-like, emaciated frame ; begging and sighing and groaning all the way."

MR. LACEY.

Soon after the removal of Mr. and Mrs. Bampton to Pooree, they received the gratifying intelligence of the arrival at Calcutta of Mr. and Mrs. Lacey. Mr. C. Lacey was set apart to the missionary work at Loughborough, May 7, 1 823. All the interest that had been excited by the ordination of Mr. Bampton appeared again in action. Tears flowing from the eyes of hundreds of witnesses manifested the deep emotion they felt. May ]7, Mr. and Mrs. Lacey embarked on board the Abberton to sail for distant India ; on the 2fith of Sept. they reached Calcutta. They spent about three months in Bengal, waiting for a passage to Orissa ; they left Serampore, December 2nd, and arrived at Cuttack on the 19th. On the 11th of Feb. they removed to Pooree where they expected to take up their abode : but the illuess of Mr. Peggs incapacitating him for pursuing his important labours at Cuttack, Mr. Lacey removed to that station.

MODE AND EXTENT OF LABOUR.

The direct missionary labours of the brethren are of various kinds. They come in contact with the European and Hindoo- British, Hindoo and Mussulman, rich and poor, old and young. At home in the hot and rainy season, they are employed in instructing

328 THE NEW CONNEXION.

ithe natives who resort to them for books, medicine, employment, alms, &c. — in visiting the schools — in speaking to the people under the shade oi a banian tree, in a verandah of a house or temple — or, like Paul at Athens, disputing in the bazaars or markets daily.

" The preacher," says Mr. Bampton, " always has his hat on unless he finds it more pleasant to take it off. Sometimes he stands, sometimes he sits, and most commonly does both several times in the course of a single opportunity. Sometimes he tries to conciliate by assuring the people of his goodwill — sometimes he states truth, sometimes defends it — sometimes he persuades, sometimes he expostulates — sometimes he attacks and opposes error. Sometimes he is ridiculed and scurrilously abused by men who, to obtain a paltry sum of money, would perhaps ab- jectly prostrate themselves before him on the ground. Sometimes he bears this without emotiou, but at other times it is only a sense of duty that prevents his returning railing for railing. Sometimes a number of persons listen to him for a few minutes together, and at other times, though a considerable number are present, only two or three or four will hear what he is saying. Sometimes his voice is interrupted by the hurry of his congregation; and now and then they follow him with their * hurree bol, hurree bol' after he has left them." During the cold season from November to February, the brethren go out on missionary excur- sions, sometimes being from home for several weeks together. Mr. Stubbins, describing one of these journeys, observes — "I started on a tour which lasted three weeks, and most of the country had never been visited before — at least by an Oriya missionary. During this tour I met with several very large and attentive congregations; and on several occasions deep convictions of the falsehood of idolatry and of the truth of Christi- anity were evidently produced. I attended several large markets where we preached and distributed the word of life to from 1500 to 3000 people. Last Sunday for instance, I attended one where there were at least 3000, and on the following day another nearly forty miles distant, where we met from 1800 to 2000. Many go from a distance of thirty miles round to attend, so that they are most admirable opportunities for doing multum in parvo — preaching and distributing books to persons from hundreds of villages which we could not possibly visit. During one week I attended four similar markets."

MR. AND MRS. SUTTON.

Mr. Amos Sutton having offered himself to the Mission, the solemn services connected with his ordination took place at Derby, June 23, 1824. The services were deeply impressive : fervent and affectionate prayers were offered, and the uplifted hands of a thou- sand persons gave the pledge to pray for and support the mission- aries and the Mission. Mr. and Mrs. Sutton embarked for India in the Euphrates, August 12, 1824, and arrived at Cuttack March 11, 1825. Bat a dark cloud soon gathered over them ; in a few months Charlotte Sutton was summoned to the world of spirits. Mr. Sutton subsequently removed to labour with Mr. Bampton, at Pooree.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 329

A SUTTEE I WIDOW RESCUED FROM DEATH BY MR. SUTTON.

Among the horrors which the reign of idolatry entails upon India, no practice is more horrible than the crying abomination of the Suttee — the burning of the widow with the corpse of her departed husband. A fire is kindled and into the flames the widow leaps. Should she have a son, he, with his own hand, is directed to apply the lighted torch to the pile that is to burn her alive. When the fire burns briskly he is to shout for joy, and consider that the act adds high honour to him, pleases the gods, and gives salvation to his parents. The following abridged account of the rescue of a widow at Pooree is highly interesting.

" On Friday, October 28, we were informed that there would be a Suttee in the afternoon. Two military gentlemen having expressed their determination to go, at half-past four we set off towards the spot where the Suttee was to take place. The spot was thickly strewed with human skulls and skeletons of Juggernaut's adorers. About a furlong from the pit we ascertained from the noise of the tin-kettle drums, &c, that the woman was approaching. In a few minutes a vast concourse of people made their appearance, shouting and beating their drums, &c. : even little children were employed in this unholy work. In tbe centre of the crowd we discovered the destined victim surrounded by a slight hoop of bamboo, so that she might walk clear from the press. She appeared to be under twenty years of age. Round her person was wrapped a white cloth smeared with turmeric ; under her right arm she carried a handy, or earthen pot, containing a little rice, a piece of cocoa- nut, one or two other trifling things, and some fire to throw into the pit: in her left hand she held some pice (halfpence) which she was to dis- tribute among the bystanders. Her jet black hair was smeared with ghee and other greasy substances, and decorated with flowers and gaudy ornamented p>per; round her neck was a large rope nearly as thick as my wrist, and one or two smaller ones: thus attired, she looked the pic- ture of all that is degraded and wretched. Before her stood a priest with two paltry pictures of Juggernaut, which he was very anxious she should look upon continually. Altogether, I never saw anything so in- fernr.l. We bid the people stop; I got off my horse, and the two European officers came near with their elephant. I made my way to the woman, and lound her quite intoxicated. A thrill of horror ran thiough my veins ; we thought the law protected us, and determined to rescue her. The crowd thickened upon us and assumed a rather formidable appear- ance : but there was no time for parley, we put on a determined aspect and insisted on her being taken back. Captain G. and Lieutenant M. behaved nobly; they charged a few servants in their employ to keep back the people, who soon gave way without making any further resistance, and left us in charge of the woman and the principal actors. The people seemed thunderstruck, and exclaimed, 'Now you have done something !' others said, ' This is merciful !' and indeed among the thousands of spectators not a sound of disapprobation was heard. The woman herself kept saying, as well as we could understand, 'This is well done, you have broken my purposes.' On Tuesday the judge determined that she should not burn."

330

THE NEW CONNEXION.

RETURN OF MR. PEGGS.

For some time the health of Mr. Peggs had been in a declining state: he still, however, struggled against the influence of the climate, but at length found it necessary to leave Cuttack, the immediate scene of his labours. Health not returning, the de- cided opinion of the various medical gentleman was that necessity required his removal from India: he accordingly embarked for England, Nov. 9, 18-25.* After his removal Mr. Lacey continued to occupy the Cuttack station : as his health was but feeble, and the duties of the station were heavy, it was agreed that Mr. Sutton should remove to Cuttack.

FIRST MEETING-HOUSE AT CUTTACK.

The first General Baptist meeting-house in Orissa was com- menced in May 1826. The ground on which it stands was once occupied by a heathen temple of one of the most filthy and disgusting of the Hindoo deities. The size of the meeting-house was forty feet by twenty-two. It was opened on Lord's-day Nov. 6, 1826. This was erected for English worship.

ERUN, THE FIRST HINDOO CONVERT.

The missionaries prosecuted their arduous labours for five years without witnessing the conversion of one Hindoo : their labours had been blessed to the conversion of individuals, but nearly to the close of 1827, their efforts had been without apparent success as it respects actual conversion among the Hindoos. Erun was the first Hindoo who broke the chain of caste in Orissa and put on Christ by bap- tism. Erun was a Telinga, and was converted to Christianity by the labours of Mr. Bampton at Berhampore, where he was bap- tized by him Dec. 25, 1827. These are the words in which the baptismal formula was first announced in Oriya —

Father Son Holy Ghost in the name of I to you baptism give. Peeta Pootra Dhurmatmar namorai ambhai toombokoo doobo dayee.f

As these words were addressed to Erun, he thought right to reply, and said " Acha" that is, "Very good."

* Of this devoted friend to the Mission, Mr. Sutton observes— " Of Mr. Peggs it may emphatically be said, that he did what he could. He was incessantly engaged, during the whole period of his missionary history, in labouring for the good of India : and since his return to his native land, the valuable pamphlets he has published on the miseries of the Suttee, the Pilgrim Tax, Ghaut Murder, Slavery, and Infanticide among the Hindoos, declare plainly his ruling passion. But he is one of those respecting whom Mr. Thomas, the first missionary to Bengal, observed — ' Don't send men to India with- out feeling, for they will do no good : don't send men of feeling, for they will soon die !' He felt too deeply the horrors of heathenism, and especially the bodily suffering of its victims. By day his mind was perpetually on the rack in devising schemes to alleviate them, and by night his imagination was haunted by the horrors he had witnessed during the day. . . . His sympathy with suffering humanity wore down his frame."

t This is as stated in the ReporJ and Peggs' Orissa. Mr. Wilkinson gives the follow- ing as used now — Peeta Pootra Dhurmatmar nautora ambhatuumbokoo doobawna deau.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 331

SECTION III.

FROM THE FIRST HINDOO BAPTISM TO THE FORMATION OF A CHRISTIAN VILLAGE.

BALASORE. THIRD STATION.

Mr. Bampton thinking himself capable of attending to Berhara- pore in connexion with his station at Pooree, it was resolved that Mr. Sutton should form a third station at Balasore. Balasore con- tains about 10,000 people and. is surrounded by a great* number of little hamlets: it is situated about 100 miles from Cuttack and 150 from Pooree. To this place Mr. Sutton removed early in 1827. Here several schools were soon formed and the gospel was made known to multitudes.

MR. CROPPER.

April 25, 1827, Mr. J. M. Cropper, who had been for some time appointed to proceed to India, was solemnly designated to the great work at Archdeacon-lane, Leicester. He embarked on board the Clyde, June 9th, and arrived at Calcutta Dec. 22. Mr. Cropper was at first stationed at Pooree with Mr. Bampton, and gave hope of eminent usefulness. He commenced his labours with ardour and performed several journeys in the country, from the last of which he returned Nov. 29, 1828. On his return, he got wet in crossing a river, and took cold. He was brought down with a fever which made rapid progress till it terminated his life on Monday, December 8. (See Obituary, page 248.)

GUNGA DHOR, FIRST ORIYA CONVERT.

The first christian light which entered Gunga's mind was from a small tract entitled, "The not-proceeding of Juggernaut's car." He perused the tract, and saw and felt that it clearly disproved the divinity of the Serampore Juggernaut; he contracted a supreme contempt for that idol, and also felt his confidence shaken in the more venerated image of this god which is worshipped at Pooree. A thought occurred to him which is characteristic of the man, that he would prove Juggernaut, and so give him an opportunity of evincing his right to divine honours. He resolved to go to Pooree and propose a question to the god, his 'answering which, either by dream or vision, should prove his divine power ; but fail- ing to do so should prove his want of it. He proceeded to the temple, repeated his request to his god, and retired to rest, prepared

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THE NEW CONNEXION.

for the appearance of Juggernaut : however, he awoke in the morn- ing without having had a dream, or seen a vision. The next day he mentioned to the officiating puuda of the temple that Juggernaut did not attend to his prayers; the priest said Juggernaut was absorbed in abstract meditation, and required to have his attention awakened. To effect this, Gunga proceeded to the town and pro- cured a piece of rod iron some inches long, and had it well pointed. Arrived at the temple, he went through the proper forms of worship in the presence of the idol ; then, unobserved by the priests, he stepped behind the god, and there drawing his goad, which had been concealed under his cloth, he goaded and pierced the idol about the back and ribs with all his strength. After the applica- tion for some time of this awakening process, he again proposed his question to Juggernaut, and requested an answer, as he had done before : but " there was no voice, nor any that answered," and Gunga arose in the morning divested of all reverence for Jugger- naut, and left Pooree, to which he never returned an idolater. When he left Pooree his mind was athirst for information on the subject of Christianity, and he obtained several tracts. January 1, 1826, Gunga Dhor, and several of his friends and fellow-inquirers, arrived at the house of the missionaries at C received instruction in the w r ay of salvation.

GUNGA DHOR'S BAPTISM.

Gunga continued to sustain the character of an inquirer until 1828 ; having heard of the baptism of Erun, he became exceedingly earnest in his application for baptism. It was thought best to defer it until his return to Cuttack : he was then at Calcutta, and promised to return to Cuttack for baptism the next Lord's-day, and in the mean time went home to inform his friends and see his family. The expostulations and affectionate intreaties of his friends induced him to hesitate, but the idea of the Saviour giving up his life for him inspired him with the determination to sacrifice all for his service. When his wife was informed of his design, she fell at his feet, and in a flood of tears besought him to remember himself and her ; if he persisted, she must lose either her husband or her parents and friends for ever. His answer was, "The Lord called him, and he must go." The next sabbath (March 23) dawned which was to witness the baptism of the first Oriya christian con- vert.* The river Maha Nuddy was the place fixed on for the ordinance. Gunga wore his poita, or brahminical thread, which is the badge of a brahmin's divinity, until he stood in the water prepared to put on Christ : he then took it off in the sight of the multitude and gave it with apparent satisfaction into the hands of the minister, and was immediately baptized. He no sooner rose from the water than his friends departed from him— some for ever.

* Erun was a Telinga.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 333

IMPORTANCE OF GUNGA DHOR's CONVERSION.

The conversion of Gnnga Dhor was an event of no ordinary importance. The brahmins in their countenances expressed this when they stood in the Chowdry bazaar and heard him deliver his first address : they gnashed their teeth upon him and abundantly uttered their curses and imprecations, wishing most sincerely that he might die. Guuga Dhor was a brahmin of high caste, of great respectability and influence among his own people of every class. It may in truth be said that when Gunga Dhor threw off his poita and assumed a christian profession by baptism, the temple of Juggernaut received a severe shock. Then that progress of ruin commenced which will work till "one stone shall not be left upon another that shall not be thrown down." Hitherto, the chain of caste, which rivets idolatry with its degrading observances upon the attention of the people, remained unbroken among the Oriyas; but now it was separated to be repaired no more.

FIRST ORIYA PREACHER.

It has been remarked that native preachers are the means by which the Mission must penetrate the dark recesses of superstition and misery in Orissa. Gunga Dhor was the first Oriya that was regularly engaged in this important work. Before his baptism he had become mighty in the scriptures, and had been frequently engaged in preaching to his fellow-countrymen : he was afterwards unanimously received on the funds of the Mission as a native preacher. Possessing a superior mind and those qualifications which might render him an efficient minister, the brethren found reason to thank God for raising up such a convert. With reference to the preaching of Gunga, on one occasion, Mr. Lacey remarks, "He spoke with astonishing effect, and the people looked as I have seen congregations look in England while listening to an orator : the gospel was clearly made known." His labours were soon blessed: an aged brahminee on pilgrimage to Juggernaut heard Gunga preach, and said " He had said what she wanted to hear." She renounced her pilgrimage and professed faith in Christ. On Lord's-day, Feb. 1, 1829, she was baptized as the first-fruits of Gunga Dlior's labours. The wife of this zealous brother was also baptized, April 6th.

ORPHAN ASYLUMS.

Orissa abounds with orphans exposed to abject misery, especially the females. The destitution of these little ones may be tiaced chiefly to two sources — viz., the ravages of cholera and the ingress of pilgrims. Not less than eight hundred thousand or a million pilgrims annually visit Orissa ; the major part of these are lemales, many of whom carry their children with them. Thousands of these pilgrims die befoie they reach their homes; and the province

334 THE NEW CONNEXION.

of Oi issa generally is the place where the bodies fall. Many who thus die are mothers, and their children are left friendless and destitute. Should the child be a boy, perchance some one will pick it up and add it to his family as a slave or menial : if a girl, it is left to perish near its dead mother. The brethren recommended the establishment of orphan asylums at the Mission stations, into which these poor children might be gathered, fed, clothed, and edu- cated, under the conduct of the missionaries. It was calculated that each child might be fed, clothed, and instructed, for about ฃ2 10s. per annum. The first asylum was commenced at Cuttack, Feb. 2, 1829. These institutions have been exceedingly useful. In 1837, the committee "judged it desirable to establish a distinct fund to support, educate, and clothe orphan children at the different stations, as soon as funds sufficient for the purpose will allow of such an extension of their plan of benevolence." Several churches at home determined to be responsible for one child each, in some cases a family or an individual took one : thus it was resolved to support these philanthropic institutions independently of the general Mis- sion fund.

RAMA CHUNDRA, SECOND NATIVE PREACHER.

The seed of the word sown by the brethren became increasingly productive : several more Hindoos were added to the flock of Christ, among whom were Krupa Sindoo and Rama Chundra. Rama Chundra had heard the gospel some years before : he was convinced of its excellence, but the difficulty of giving up his credit, caste, &c, was great. His parting with his wife, mother, three sons, and a daughter, was very affecting. They and other friends followed him with cries and lamentations, intieating him to stay with them. On Lord's-day Nov. 1, 1829, his relations arrived at Cuttack in a large company to persuade him to recant and go back with them. When he set out for the river in which he was to be baptized, his brother came up to him and hung upon him weeping and intreating him not to go; all his friends were much affected. But a sense of duty and a feeling of gratitude for salvation rendered him firm in this trying hour, and having arrived at the river he professed his sincerity by baptism. The brethren concluded that Rama should be received as a native preacher, and reside at Pooree to assist brother Bampton.

BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. MR. BROWN.

An English school was opened Oct. 23, 1823, by the brethren at Cuttack, which received the decided approbation and support of the English community in that town. In 1829, a boarding-school was added, which provided for ten destitute children : these chil- dren to be taught, fed, clothed, and lodged gratuitously. Commo- dious premises for this institution were erected, in the design and completion of which valuable assistance was afforded by Mr. Pigou,

THE ORISSA MISSION. 335

the pious judge at the station. The premises were secured to the society with the entire concurrence of the donors and subscribers. Before the missionaries entered the province not an English school of any kind existed. Mr. Brown, who had been pastor of the church at Sevenoaks, Kent, was designated to the work of the Mission: his special department was to be the management of this institution: the female department was to be under the care of Mrs. Brown. They arrived at Cuttack in Dec, 1830. Mr. Brown laboured with diligence for some years : he afterwards went to Berhampore to engage in more direct missionary exertions; but as it was not intended when he Avent to India that he should take a missionary station, the committee declined making any arrangement which would place him permanently as the society's missionary at Berhampore. He consequently left the Mission and entered into the service of the government : Balasore has been for a number of years the place of his residence.

CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE CHRISTIANS.

In 1830, a black conspiracy was formed which threatened the lives of all professed christians in Orissa. The mussulman high priest persuaded several others of the mussulman class to join with him in an attempt to cut off the infidels, as they termed the chris- tians. They ripened their plans and at length some of the native officers were joined in the conspiracy ; and one of the neighbouring rajahs was concerned. Their intention was to attack the chris- tians on some sabbath evening while at worship, murder all they found there, and then appoint ten persons to each christian family at Cuttack and Pooree to destroy those that remained, and after- wards to proceed and roh the public treasury. One of the con- spirators was the servant of the judge, and as he saw the dark design ripening and the time fast approaching for its execution, he trembled for the consequences and dared no longer conceal the plot. He addressed a letter to his master, who sent and had some of the gang taken into custody : the priest fled into the jungles and evaded discovery. But the purpose was frustrated, and God thus brought to nought the design of wicked men.

DEATH OF MR. BAMPTON.

While on a missionary visit to Ganjam, Sep- 1827, Mr. Bampton caught a bad cold, attended with a c ugh from which he was never afterwards entirely free. Apprehensions were entertained of con- sumption. A voyage was strongly recommended by the doctor, and Mr. and Mrs. Bampton left Pooree to visit Cuttack and Bala- sore. In the autumn of 1829, they returned by sea to Pooree and Mr. Bampton's health for a short time seemed to improve ; but soon failed again and continued to decline. Tn May, Mr. Lacey wrote respecting him — "He is convinced that the time of his

336

THE NEW CONNEXION.

departure is not far distant. There is only one thing which our dear Bampton seems unwilling to leave, and that is his work. Not a man in the whole world can fill his place for years. He will work till he dies, or nearly so. He visits the bazaar though he can hardly get on and off his horse : he has his chair carried, on which he sits in the street and from which he talks to the people. He is cheerful and pleasant, and dissipates the gloom and melancholy so natural in such a condition to all who live in the same house. His hand is fastened on the skies ; he smiles at all before him and triumphs over all through the Saviour's blood." From this period Mr. Bampton continued to decliue: on Dec. 17, 1830, he peace- fully exchanged time for eternity.

THE BEST MEMORIAL.

A neat tomb was erected on the spot where were deposited the remains of our departed brother : but the best memorial is found in his character and labours. Brother Bampton was an indefatigable labourer in his master's cause. It has been remarked that during the nine years of his exertions in India, probably as much actual ministerial labour was performed as is accomplished by most minis- ters in this country in twenty years. During his first year's resi- dence at Cuttack, thousands of individuals heard from him in his own hou^e and compound, something of the gospel, and received numerous tracts. Of his many long and laborious journeys to spread the gospel "in the regions beyond" the ordinary sphere of missionary labour, it is impossible to form an adequate opinion. No man in India, in modern times, not excepting his great favourite the apostolic Chamberlain, ever endured such privations of Euro- pean society, food, &c. as did our departed brother. Bampton was richly endued with patience, conscientiousness, self-possession, and perseverance to endure the contradiction of sinners against himself. (See Obituary, page 251.)

BLOSSOMS IN THE DESERT.

In 1831, several more Hindoos were added to the church : Krupa Sindoo (the second of this name), Radhoo, and the wife of Ramara, Hurrce the wife of an oilman, and subsequently the oilman himself, were baptized. After referring to the second baptism in July of this year, Mr. Lacey thus notices the concluding services of the day — "We sat down with a goodly number of dear native christians at the sacred feast. There were Gunga Dhor and his wife, Ramara and his wife, Krupa Sindoo and his wife, Koranasaw and his wife, the other Krupa Sindoo, Boodee, Purama, Radhoo, aud Betsies Maha; all natives won from idolatry and satan, celebrating the most solemn christian ordinance; forming the foundation of the church of Christ which will spread wider and wider — forming a leaven which will work until it has leavened the whole lump."

THE ORISSA MISSION. 337

REMOVAL OF MR. SUTTON TO POOREB.

Soon after the death of Mr. Bampton, it was thought by surviving brethren that Mr. Sutton should remove from Balasore to occupy the station at Pooree. It was with considerable reluctance that he yielded to the arrangement, but the superior importance of Pooree as a missionary station appeared to justify the removal, and induced his compliance. Here Mr. Sutton continued to labour until the middle of 1832, when the disease which for some time had been undermining his constitution at length drove him from his labours, and finally obliged him to seek the benefit of a sea voyage.

FORSAKING ALL FOR CHRIST.

Two females, a mother and her daughter, in Koojebur, had for three years been under serious impressions. They were at length desirous of being baptized : three of the more judicious of the native brethren were appointed to converse with them, and report their experience to the missionaries. The report was of a pleasing kind : they were in comfortable circumstances, and there was every reason to believe then* motives were sincere. It was accordingly resolved to baptize them. They were visited by Mr. Lacey and Mr. Brown, and closely examined as to their acquaintance with Christianity — their motives — the duties of christians, &c. One question and answer were as follows — Q. "Your profession of Christ will involve your loss of caste, relations, husband, children, and your comfortable circumstances of life, it may be ; and will involve yon in disgrace and persecution , and perhaps poverty : had you not better consider well whether you can endure these things ?" — A. "I have thought of all this, and am willing to bear all. I came out of my house after having made up my mind to do so ; I wish now to sacrifice myself to my Lord : I cannot bear anything com- pared with what he bore." They were baptized, and after their baptism the husbands presented a petition to the magistrates for the personal ornaments of the women and the child of one of them. A counter petition was presented by the wives, begging the magis- trates to order that the mother might retain the child, as it was but nine months old and would die if deprived of its proper nourish- ment ; stating, moreover, that there was a girl of four years of age with the father, and therefore they hoped the mother might be allowed to retain the infant she held in her arms. They further stated then- willingness to return to their husbands and to wait at their feet as heretofore. The petition was of no avail : the mother begged to have the child for at least three months, and promised then to give it up to the father if he should still refuse to receive her. This was refused, and the child was forced from the mother's arms. A few days afterwards, they again appeared before the judge; the magistrate produced the inheritance law, as affecting

338 THE NEW CONNEXION.

those Hindoos who become mussulmen, prostitutes, leave their husbands to live with other men, &c. ; by this law such are stripped of all. With these characters the two converts were classed, and the order was given for them to be stripped of the little property remaining on their persons : the very clothes they had on were taken away, and they borrowed garments of their native christian friends. The females behaved throughout the trying scene with a gentleness, firmness, and modesty, which greatly recommended their profession, and which could not but produce the most salutary impression on all who witnessed their conduct.

CHRISTIANPOOR NATIVE CHRISTIAN VILLAGE.

Hitherto the native converts had been scattered among the popu- lation, and had not on that account been able to render each other any assistance, or to be properly recognised by the people as chris- tians. In 183 1, a piece of land was purchased at Cuttack sufficiently large to form a tolerably sized village : the native christians built their houses in a uniform manner on this ground, and formed a neat village which is called Christianpoor, that is, The place of christians. In 1833, a fire broke out in the Buxee bazaar, and extended to Christianpoor : the whole of the houses inhabited by the native converts were destroyed, except that of Rama Chundra. At the time the fire occurred Mr. Brown was alone at the station : Mr. Lacey and Rama Chundra being out on a missionary excursion. Mr. Brown, without delay, gave orders for, and superintended the reconstruction of the dwellings, and Christianpoor soon rose again from its ashes. In 1835, a new meeting-house was built here en- tirely by the liberality of one gentleman. Mr. Brown preached in it for the first time, April 27th. Nov. 1, he baptized two candidates, and the following day, married two of the native converts. Respect- ing the christian school at this village Mr. Brown observes —

" This is the most pleasing of all our native institutions. The scholars are nearly all children of our brethren in the church. I hope it is not too much to say that these shew an intelligence and seriousness when talking on religious subjects, which would rejoice the hearts of our religious friends in England, if they could hear and understand them. A visit to this little pleasing institution almost always refreshes my soul and cheers me when melancholy. They read both Oriya and English, and what is most cheering, they shew an extensive acquaintance with the Bible and the general structure of the creation, always important to Hindoos because it at once upsets any remaining prejudices arising from the Hindoo system.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 339

SECTION IV.

FROM THE FORMATION OF A CHRISTIAN VILLAGE TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A PRINTING OFFICE.

DOYTARI. THIRD NATIVE PREACHER.

Doytari, a respectable Oriya of considerable learning and judg- ment, obtained his first knowledge of the christian religion from some tracts circulated by the missionaries.

" By these books," he observes, "we obtained to know what sin was, we saw also what future punishment of the wicked was: and so we had great anxiety and fear about our salvation created in our minds. We perused the books of the country diligently to discover therein a saviour, or to ascertain any way by the performance of works whereby we might obtain deliverance from sin and condemnation, but found none. In this distress of mind we beheld Jesus Christ set forth in the New Testament, and our minds clung to him and we hoped for mercy. One day Rama Chundra came to my house and explained the scriptures unto me, after which my mind became still more distressed, and with great earnestness I prayed to the Lord for strength to follow his commandments: I was now enabled, by the grace of the Holy Spirit, to give up my relations, my caste, my acquaintance, and other things held dear in this world. After our festival or mella 1 bid adieu to five hundred members of my caste and profession. I set out for Cuttack and went to the vicinity of Lacey Sahib. I was baptized in the Maha Nuddy before many people, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. This was on Lord's-day (1831). Thus to this dead world I died, but rose to newness of life in Christ, and being filled with joy I offered my prayers to the Lord Jesus."

At the Conference held at Cuttack, August, 1834, he was received as a native preacher.

FIRST NATIVE CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE.

Another step in the progress of the christian cause in Orissa is presented by the first native christian marriage, which took place Nov. 20, 1 832.* Mahadeb, lately baptized, and a daughter of Krupa Sindoo, were the parties united. A goodly number assembled at the chapel, and when all were seated, the contracting parties were asked iu a tone sufficiently loud to be heai d by the whole congrega- tion, whether they desired to be united to each other in marriage ? They answered in the affirmative. Brother Brown then commenced with a few words in prayer : when this was concluded, the man and woman stood up and repeated after Mr. Lacey their respective

* See Report, 1833, page 18.

z 2

340 THE NEW CONNEXION.

duties and gave their respective pledges. They then sat down, and the passages of scripture were read containing the duties of husbands and wives. The parties then joined hands and engaged, as God had commanded them, to serve, and help, and comfort, and love each other. The service was concluded with prayer ; and brother Lacey, in the presence of all assembled, acknowledged them as husband and wife. A certificate of the marriage was prepared, which, after signature by the officiating missionary, the contracting parties, and the witnesses of the solemnity, was delivered to the female. A duplicate was also prepared and signed in the same way, and recorded in a book.

THE MARRIAGE YEAST.

" The wedding was furnished with guests :" and it will be in- teresting to give a short account of the wedding dinner, as illus- trative of Hindoo manners. The place were the parties dined was what is in India called a compound, a small piece of ground sur- rounded by the sheds belonging to the house. The ground was covered with a kind of native mat. One side of the feasting place was occupied by the cooking apparatus, consisting of a hole in the ground for a fire-place, a large basket to receive the rice when boiled, something like an enormous spoon, and some earthen pots and pans. At this entertainment, as is often the case at times of rejoicing, was heard the hurried dissonance of the Oriya singing. The fare was strikingly in character with the other parts of the entertainment : it consisted of rice ; ghee (a kind of boiled butter) ; a kind of split peas ; goats liver ; currie (vegetables stewed with spices and ghee) ; sweets made of black sugar fried ; some stewed fish mixed with ghee and spices. All these were served up smoking hot at the same time : each individual sat upon the ground some- what like an English tailor, and upon a plantain leaf before him were placed the different varieties of diet ; fingers being used to supply the place of spoons, knives and forks, &c. Gunga Dhor was master of the ceremonies, and it was amusing to see him plunging his gigantic hand into the smoking rice up to the elbow, and serving out Benjamin's messes to all without distinction. After the entertainment, a chapter was read, prayer was offered, and the parties separated.

MR. JOHN GOADBY.

Mr. John Goadby was designated to the work of a missionary at Loughborough, May 29, 1833. Brethren Goadby of Leicester, Pickering of Nottingham, Derry of Barton, and Jarrom of Wis- bech, were engaged in the interesting service : brother Goadby of Ashby (the missionary's venerable father) delivering the charge. Mr. and Mrs. Goadby embarked on the 2nd of July, and reached Cuttack Dec. 17. They had not long resided at this place before

THE ORISSA MISSION. 341

Mr. Goadby experienced severe affliction. In January, Mrs. Goadby began to manifest symptoms of consumption. All human help was vain: she gradually sunk, and on July 13, 1834, expired in peace. Mr. Goadl>y, though deeply distressed by the long ill- ness and subsequent death of his wife, still pursued his missionary work with zealous activity. In 1836, he removed to the station at Balasore, whither he was accompanied by Gunga Dhor and family, and another native convert. Mr. G. was married again to an American lady, and after staying for some time at Balasore, they both suffered so much from illness that their return to England was considered necessary to the recovery of health. They arrived in Feb. 1838, and soon after, their connexion with the Mission ceased: they subsequently sailed to America, where Mr. G. is now the pastor of a baptist church.

RETURN OF MR. SUTTON.

It has already been observed that the enfeebled state of Mr. Sutton's health rendered a long sea voyage necessary. He sailed to America, and after his arrival there in 1833, he gained strength considerably. He found the christians there intensely eager for missionary information : to gratify which he published a " Narrative of the Orissa Mission." While in America, Mr. Sutton was actively engaged in promoting the interests of the Mission, and a considerable sum was collected in its behalf: a missionary society was established and several candidates for missionary labour came forward.* After a beneficial stay of a few months in America, Mr. Sutton left for England and arrived Dec. 1833. Here he was instrumental in promoting zeal and activity in behalf of the Mission. He sailed for America early in August 1834, and was again actively engaged there in visiting different churches, making collections for the Mission, and diffusing information. Sep. 1835, he left that country to return to India : several missionaries sailed in the same vessel, among whom, were Mr. and Mrs. Noyes and Mr. and Mrs. Phillips, who were to he fellow-labourers with our brethren in Orissa. They arrived at Calcutta on the 6th of February, and reached Cuttack March 12, 1836. Mr. Sutton settled there: the pastoral care of the English church, as well as, in a great degree, that of the native church, devolved upon him.

MR. JOHN BROOKS. MIDNAPORE.

Oil Tuesday, July 8, 1834, Mr. John Brooks was publicly set apart at Derby to the work of preaching the gospel among the heathen, an affecting charge being delivered by Mr. Sutton. Mr. and Mrs. Brooks sailed with Mr. Sutton to America, and leaving him there, reached Cuttack April 1, 1835. At the Conference held at that place in 1836, it was judged desirable that Midnapore should

342 THE NEW CONNEXION.

be occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Brooks as a station. Midnapore stands on the borders of Orissa and Bengal, about seventy miles from Calcutta. In 1837, a meeting-house was erected here under the superintendence of Mr. Brooks : its size is fifty -feet by twenty-five, with a verandah ten feet wide on each side ; it cost 1500 rupees, which the missionary collected and paid.

ORDINATION OF NATIVE PREACHERS.

Another interesting feature in the history of the Mission is the ordination of native preachers. At the Cuttack Conference, 1834, it was resolved that Gunga Dhor and Rama Chundra should be publicly ordained as native preachers, their character and ability having been well tested. The service was begun by singing a hymn, and prayer by Mr. Brown : after singing a second time, Mr. Goadby stated the reasons of dissent from church establishments : another verse having been sung, Messrs. Brown, Goadby, and Lacey, laid hands on the two native brethren, and Mr. Lacey offered the ordination prayer, and afterwards delivered the charge from 2 Tim. iv. 5. Several European officers were present, all the native christians with their children, and the schoolmasters; while many Oriyas and mussulmen stood round the door. Much interest was felt in the service.

RETURN OF MR. LACEY.

For several years Mr. Lacey had suffered repeated attacks of indisposition, and Mrs. Lacey's health was so precarious that little hope was entertained of her life being continued unless she visited a milder climate. Under these circumstances it was judged advis- able that they should both return to England : they did so, and arrived in June 1835. During his stay in his native land Mr. Lacey's health improved, and the interests of the Mission were promoted by his exertions. The farewell services connected with his departure for Orissa took place at Archdeacon-lane, Leicester, Aug. 22, 1837. Mr. aud Mrs. Lacey, accompanied by Miss Kirk- man, set sail in Sep. and landed at Calcutta in Jan. following.

In March, Mr. L. arrived at Cuttack and received a hearty wel- come from the native christians.

NEW ENGLISH MEETING-HOUSE AT CUTTACK.

In October, 1834, Cuttack was visited by a destructive inunda- tion : much damage was done to the Mission premises. The Eng- lish meeting-house was nearly destroyed : it was rebuilt by sub- scriptions kindly contributed in the neighbourhood, and was re- opened April 12, 1835.

BERHAMPORE. MR. STUBBINS.

On Thursday, July 7, 1836, Mr. Isaac Stubbins was ordained to missionary labour in the General Baptist meeting-house, Fleet. Mr.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 343

and Mrs. S. embarked Aug. 5, and arrived in India in January. On their arrival at Calcutta, Mrs. S. was attacked with influ- enza, but seemed better after they arrived at Balasore. She, however, soon grew worse, was attacked with fever, and died Feb. 19. Mr. Stubbins was directed to occupy Berhampore as a station. This town is surrounded by populous villages, and had been several times the scene of the occasional labours of Messrs. Bampton, Lacey, Brown, Sutton, and Goadby. It pre- sents an extensive field for missionary operations : here the Telinga language begins to be spoken, a language computed to be used by several millions of people : and through this place multitudes of pilgrims pass on their way to Juggernaut. A place of worship was opened here which was formerly a small heathen temple. Towards the close of 1839, Mr. Stubbins writes respecting Berham- pore — " I have now a school of eighteen destitute children, and a church of thirteen members."

SECOND ORDINATION OF NATIVE PREACHERS.

In 1836, Doytari and Pooroosootum were publicly set apart to the work of the ministry. The former ordination was an event of deep interest, but there was one circumstance connected with this service which imparted to it additional interest : Rama Chundra, himself an ordained native preacher, engaged in prayer and united in laying hands on the candidates — two Hindoos were beheld devoting themselves to the christian ministry, and a third, not many years before a benighted idolater, was seen uniting as a chris- tian minister in the solemn service to which they were set apart.

THE CHILD AND THE DEVOTEE.

One important result of the efforts of the missionaries is, the lessening of the influence of Hindooism upon the minds of the rising generation and preparing them for the reception of the gospel. A circumstance displaying the effect of christian instruction on the mind of a little child strikingly illustrates this. A devotee went one day to Gunga Dhor's house to ask for rice : Gunga's son, about six years of age, was at the door, and replied, " I cannot give you rice, ask the house;" the devotee answered, "Why should I do so, it cannot give me anything;" then said the boy, "Ask the tree," pointing to a cocoa-nut tree ; " That cannot answer me if I do," was the reply. " Then ask Juggernaut whom you worship," con- tinued the lad, " he will understand as well as the tree, because he is wood." The poor devotee immediately walked away, bearing his rebuke as well as he could.

DEATH OF LOCKSHMEEB1E.

The Reports of the Mission furnish many interesting instances of the blessed effects of the gospel on the minds of the dying converts.

344 THE NEW CONNEXION.

The Quarterly Paper for March 1838 contains a delightful memoir of Lockshmeebie, the wife of Rama Chundra, written by Rama himself, from which we extract a few sentences relating to her death.

" In the evening of Tuesday she took her meal as usual, and then attended to her family and private devotions. Almost as soon as she came out of her room where she had been engaged in prayer, she was taken with looseness of her bowels : she lay down again on her cot, but was soon obliged to rise ; and so on through the night. The cholera was heavy upon her. On Wednesday, Padree Lacey came and felt her hand and said, 'this is the cholera,' and gave her some medicine which she was unwilling to take, observing, 'I shall not stay long.' . . . She said to Padree Sahib, 'pray for me !' He did so, and into the Lord's hand com- mitted her. To the christian brethren and sisters she said, ' my son Sodanunda, and my daughter Bochanabie, I commit under God to your care, for I shall not survive to care more for them.' . . . She was asked how she felt in her mind, to which she replied that her heart was with the Lord, and she was quite happy. Her mind now wandered again, but soon she recovered and exclaimed, ' O how happy I am !' Sodanunda read a portion of the New Testament, when she said, ' My Saviour is in heaven; I know Him! He will save me. I am not afraid but willing to depart.' . . . Her symptoms relaxed and she appeared much better: this improvement lasted not long, for presently her eyes turned upwards and became fixed. She was unable to speak, but lifted up her hand to intimate that she was happy. In the afternoon the Padree, and Gunga Dhor, and other christian friends came, and while they prayed her spirit departed. . . . The Padree remained and consoled our minds, and settled our grief. Next morning we put her into a coffin, and Gunga Dhor bringing a hackery we conveyed her to the burying-ground. There were there the three Padrees and the native brethren, and after worship we put her body into the grave. Thus lived and thus died Lockshmeebie. She was a good mother to her children, instructing them in the word of God. She was a good neighbour, for she sought the good of all around her. But more especially was she useful to the native christian females. She was diligent in her household, and as far as her abilities, com- passionate to the widow, the fatherless, and the poor. In her religious duties she was faithful and constant. In prayer she had an excellent gift, and used to pray in her family and closet with great punctuality. She grew daily in the knowledge and experience of the word of God. At public worship she was always present and the first that was ready to go. When even the people around heard of her death, they placed their hand on their foreheads and exclaimed, 'Ah ! Ah !' for they all respected her. On the next Lord's-day, Padree Lacey preached her funeral sermon in Oriya, from Ezekiel xxiv. 16, ' Son of man, behold, I take away from thee the desire of thine eyes with a stroke.' By this sermon theminds of all were benefited, and we could be no longer sorry. Lockshmeebie was thirty-five years of age when she died.

Thus have I written the history of Lockshmeebie. She is taken from me! taken before me! But the Lord has judged well; yes, it must be so, because he is merciful, and therefore will I for ever and for ever praise the Lord."

THE ORISSA MISSION. 345

PROGRESS REPORTED.

The year 1836 forms an interesting epoch in the history of the mission : it is the tenth year since the opening of the first place of worship entirely dedicated to the service of God. Up to that time (18-26), the European neighbours of the missionaries ridiculed the idea of attempting to make converts in Orissa, and advised them to go home or remove elsewhere : but they relied on the power and faithfulness of God, and he strengthened their faith and encouraged their hearts by giving success to his word. From the commencement of their labours to Sep. 1836, there had been 116 individuals of all classes connected with the church in Orissa. Of this number, eighty-four had been baptized by the missionaries — of these eighty-four, five were Europeans, twenty- seven East Indians, and fifty-two pure natives. Besides these, various individuals of other communions had been savingly bene- fited or refreshed by the means of grace administered by the missionaries. These facts afford a pleasing indication of the appro- bation and blessing of Him in whose name the brethren went forth bearing precious seed.

MISS KIRKMAltf. FEMALE SCHOOLS.

Miss E. Kirkman, of Barlestone, Leicestershire, offered herself as a candidate for female labour in the schools in Orissa : her generous offer was accepted, and she sailed with Mr. Lacey in 1837.* In 1838, Miss Kirkman states — "The Cuttack female asylum consists of nineteen girls ; four have recently entered, three of whom were picked up at Pooree." In 1839, Miss K. writes — "The whole of the Oriya girls amount to thirty-five, and furnish, with other things, plenty of employment. Seven children connected with our schools were recently baptized ; four w r ere girls now under my care, and the fifth had previously been : they continue to give increasing satisfaction. Two or three others appear seriously inclined." Miss Kirkman's attention was not confined to the school, she soon began to visit and instruct the native females. On the 23rd Jan., 1840, Miss K. was married to Mr. Stubbins, when she removed to Ber- hampore, the station occupied by her husband. But though re- moved from her former sphere of labour, she did not relinquish her missionary exertions. Respecting her Mr. Stubbins observes in 1840—

" She has charge of an interesting littJe group of twenty-five native children: she also attends to the christian females, teaches them to read, write, &c, besides attending to their spiritual interests; and daily, when weather permits, visits the native females in their hovels of wretched- ness, and endeavours to raise them above their present situation of

* It is worthy of record, that Miss Kirkman's esteemed parents not only consented to give np their beloved daughter to the Mission, but generously offered to provide for her support in India.

346 THE NEW CONNEXION.

unspeakable degradation and future prospect of eternal misery.by teaching them lessons of morality and religion, and directing them to the cross of Christ. It is exceedingly interesting to us that she is generally received with as much courtesy as natives know how to display, and is listened to with attention and delight."

THE KHTJNDS.

The country of the Khnnds, or district of Ghoomsur, lies between the mountains which form the west boundary of Orissa. The Khnnds are a savage race : there seems to be no distinct orders of society among them, one uniform plan of building prevails, every man appears in similar apparel, eats the same food, and pursues the same amuse- ments. A number of villages, about forty or fifty, situated in the same valley, are connected with regard to their political and social relations : this congregation of villages is called a moota, and the different mootas are sometimes engaged in sanguinary wars. In each of the villages a man is chosen from among the rest to bear a certain kind of rule, as head of his village community. There is a per- son styled molika, who bears sway over, and connects in one social relation, all the villages of the same moota. The language of the Khnnds is different from any of the surrounding dialects. It is entirely unwritten ; not a character used to represent sound is to found among them: every thing, therefore, is intrusted to the reposits of memory. The custom of burning the dead prevails to a great extent: few are buried, except young children. Their ideas on religion seem to be vague and indefinite : it is remarkable that no temple is found in the country, no building dedicated to the worship of any deity : hence it has been described as a land with- out temples or priests.

HUMAN VICTIMS. CHILDREN RESCUED EROM SACRIFICE.

About 1837, Mr. Brown followed the track of a small army sent by the Indian government to quell a disturbance which had broken out in the Khund territory. Enclosed by hills on every side, these fierce inhabitants of the mountain-valleys had never before been visited by any minister of the Redeemer. It was discovered that infanticide and the sacrifice of human victims prevailed to a great extent : " every cruelty," observes Mr. Brown, "is carried on with- out a check." It appears to have been the custom from time immemorial for the Khnnds to offer a human sacrifice to the pro- tecting goddess of their haldi fields. The victims are usually -stolen or purchased from the plains of some distant neighbourhood when mere children, and fattened for the sacrifice. When the time arrives, the poor creatures are conducted, about noon, to the ap- pointed spot and lashed to a post firmly fixed into the ground. The villagers from the surrounding country assemble at the clanging of their barbarous instruments, decked out in the most

THE ORISSA MISSION. 347

frightful manner, shouting and dancing under the maddening influence of their satanic revelry. At a signal given, they rush on their devoted victim and with sharp knives cut off the quivering flesh piecemeal. They then hasten to their respective fields in order to deposit therein the bloody morsel before the day closes over them, that they may obtain a plentiful crop of turmeric. A pecu- liar value attaches to the possessor of the first piece of livid flesh ; this indeed endangers his life, as he is considered especially fitted for a similar sacrifice. In 1837, fourteen boys and a number of girls were rescued from this cruel massacre through the benevolent exertions of Mr. Ricketts, the commissioner, and several officers of the 6th. The fourteen boys and three of the girls were placed in the Mission schools at Cuttack. One of the three females thus rescued from the Khunds was a young woman of about eighteen years of age : she was kidnapped when about three or four years old and had been confined ever since. When rescued, she was chained by the ancles, and in four days was to have been sacri- ficed. Others have from time to time been rescued and placed in the Mission asylums. In 1845, Mr. Sutton issued a circular in behalf of the Khunds, which was printed in the Indian newspapers and the "Calcutta Christian Observer." Mr. Buckley writes, Sep. 23, 1845 — "I cannot but hope that a great and effectual door for the introduction of the gospel will soon be opened among the Khunds. They belong to us, and on us will devolve the blessed work of making known to them the glad tidings of great joy. . . . One thing, however, I have determined upon, and that is — if the Lord permit — to spend as much time as I can in the Khund villages near Berhampore in the approaching cold season."

PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT. MR. W. BROOKS.

There is no department of missionary labour in India which is more important than the circulation of the scriptures and religious tracts. Mr. Sutton especially devoted what time he could spare from other services, to translating and preparing works for the press. These were printed at Serampore or Calcutta. Mr. Sutton increasingly felt the inconvenience of being placed some hundreds of miles from the place where the society's publications were printed : it was therefore resolved that a printing-office should be established, to give more efficiency to this department of the mis- sionary operations. In 1838, a printing-press was set up at Cuttack under the superintendence of Mr. Sutton. One of its first produc- tions was a tract composed by Mr. Sutton for circulation among the pilgrims. Another press was soon employed ; and in 1840, Mr. Sutton writes — " I have finished our Oriya Testament : with the exception of a few copies bound in Calcutta, it was finished from first to last under our own roof. We have just printed the Anglo- Oriya dictionary — the grammar is also printed." Mr. Sutton's

348 THE NEW CONNEXION.

labours at this time were exceedingly heavy ; he had to write for the press — translate the scriptures — compile dictionaries — superintend all the printing concerns — besides preaching and a variety of other matters. In 1841, Mr. William Brooks, a printer, and brother of Mr. J. Brooks the missionary, was sent out by the society to super- intend the printing establishment. In 1 842, Mr. Brooks observes — " My time is wholly taken up in the printing-office ; w r e have now on hand the Old Testament, in 3 vols. 8vo ; and a folio edition ; an Oriya Dictionary; an Or iy a and English Dictionary; besides tracts of which we have printed 60,000, gospels," &c.

SECTION V.

FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PRINTING OFFICE TO THE FOUNDING OF A NATIVE MIS- SION COLLEGE.

MEETING-HOUSE ENLARGED AT CUTTACK.

The increase of Europeans at this station, and additions to the native church and congregation, rendered the enlargement of the meeting-house necessary. In 1838, it was accordingly enlarged to more than double its former size : its dimensions being fifty feet long by thirty wide, with a verandah ten feet wide on the sides and front. More than an acre has been added to the ground, in the centre of which a tank, one hundred feet wide, has been opened for use on baptismal occasions. The whole expense, amounting to one thousand four hundred and twenty rupees, was defrayed by collections in India. The meeting-house was re-opened on Lord's-day, Aug. 19, when Mr. Sutton and Mr. Lacey preached. It is a pleasing circumstance that these two missionaries laid the foundation of the old meeting-house twelve years before : then they had but one native convert ; now there were more than a hundred baptized native christians listening to the divine word, and many in tears.

GANJAM. MR. WILKINSON.

The ordination of Mr. Henry Wilkinson as a missionary took place at Wisbech, Wednesday, Aug. 1, 1838. Mr. and Mrs. W. embarked September 21st, and reached Calcutta Feb. 27, 1839. After staying some time at Berhampore, Mr. W. fixed his residence at Ganjam as a missionary station. Pooroosootum w r ent^with Mr.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 349

Wilkinson to Ganjam ; after sojourning there awhile, he returned to Berhampore, and Balaje took his place. Ganjam was once a very important and populous European settlement, but in conse- quence of the increasing prosperity of Calcutta, and subsequently, of a destructive visitation of Providence, called the Ganjam fever, it has been for many years nearly forsaken by Europeans, while the native population is much reduced. It is still, however, a large town, and situated as it is between the Berhampore and Pooree districts, forms an important as well as a convenient station for a missionary.

KHUNDITTA, OR BEECHER-NAGGUR.

In 1838, two persons from the Olassa district were baptized by the missionaries. This led to a great excitement and inquiry in the district, and the results have been of a pleasing nature. The brethren resolved to locate the converts at Khunditta in the Olassa district, and form a christian colony there. Khunditta is situated on the southern bank of the river Kursua, and bounded on the east by the large Juggernaut road. It is within a small distance of the large town of Jagepoor, and is on every hand thickly surrounded with villages. G. Beecher, Esq., who had resided at Cuttack from the commencement of the Mission and had contributed largely to every institution connected with it, presented to the brethren twenty acres of land at Khunditta for the site of a christian village, which is called Beecher-naggur. A small meeting-house was opened by Mr. Lacey, Nov. 1, 1840. On a subsequent visit, he ob- serves — " It presents in every way a break and exception in the surrounding sterility and desolation of the land. Here we have a number of christian families located, and a bungalow and native chapel. Here the christian natives have had rice to eat in the midst of a famine, while others have been perishing for want of food. Seebo-sahoo, an assistant native preacher, is settled among them, and conducts worship on the Lord's-day twice, when they all, men, women, and children, meet together in the chapel." A day-school was begun in 1845.

MEETING-HOUSES AT BERHAMPORE.

June 6, 1841, the first meeting-house was opened at this station : the dimensions were forty-four feet by thirty-eight feet six inches within : behind were two vestries and one retiring room, and in front of the edifice was a large terraced verandah. A baptistry occupied the space immediately in front of the pulpit. Mr. Stubbins preached in the morning, and Mr. Wilkinson in the evening. In conse- quence of serious damage sustained by this building it was thought necessary to erect another, which was opened August 11, 1844: several of the native christians contributed one month's income towards this house of God.

350 THE NEW CONNEXION.

NATIVE MISSIONARY MEETING.

Various important facts have been noticed, as illustrative of the gradual progress of the Mission; — the first meeting-house — the first convert — the first native preachers' ordination — the first native chris- tian marriage — the first native christian village — the first printing- press ; respectively marking the onward march and progressive estab- lishment of Christianity in this land of idolatry. Another most in- teresting fact in the series is the holding of a native missionary meeting, on Wednesday, Feb. 24, 1841. On this occasion, different Hindoo brethren addressed the audience : the native preacher at Miduapore commenced, and observed — " They tell us we shall not be successful — that the gospel will not become universal — we tell them we shall — what was India a little more than fifty years ago? Hardly a ray of light could be distinguished in the whole hemi- sphere; whereas now, throughout Bengal, the Upper Provinces, and the Deccan, almost innumerable christian churches have been formed which are rapidly spreading their light and influence on every hand. And what do we see at Cuttack? About twenty years ago there was not a christian in Orissa ; and yesterday I saw in this place, around the table of Christ, the most sacred chris- tian ordinance, almost a chapel full of christian Oriyas." The speaker then, in an eloquent strain, noticed other reasons for be- lieving that Christianity would become the religion of the w r orld. Bamadeb followed : he spoke of the entire absence of the know- ledge of God among the heathen, and adverted to the manner in which he is revealed in the scriptures. Rama Chundra offered various excellent observations on the means of diffusing divine knowledge. Gunga Dhor compared the earth to a jungle, which a rich merchant discovered, cleared, and cultivated into a beautiful and prolific garden. The application of the figure was good ; God was the merchant — the missionaries were the labourers — and of course, heathen lands subjected to the mild sway of the Redeemer were the beautiful garden.

MR. GRANT, MR. W. BROOKS, AND MISS DERRY.

The services connected with the ordination of Mr. Grant to the work of a missionary took place at Stoney-street, Nottingham, June 1, 1 841. At the same time Mr. William Brooks was set apart as a missionary printer, and Miss Sarah Deny of Barton, to assist in the superintendence of the schools. They sailed from England about the middle of the same month and reached Cuttack Dec. 19th: In consequence of the indisposition of Mr. Stubbins, Mr. Grant removed to Berhampore in 1842. He had not been long here be- fore he beeame indisposed. Medical assistance was procured, but it was in vain: on Saturday, Feb. 4, 1843, he departed to his rest. Miss Deny settled at Berhampore, where she soon became actively engaged in her interesting employment.

THE ORISSA MISSION. 351

BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION RELINQUISHED.

In 1841, this institution was merged into a larger government school which was removed from Pooree to Cuttack.

"This school," Mr. Sutton states, "promised to give abetter education than we could do, and upon a scale of expenditure to which we could make no approach, and would, moreover, absorb the funds upon which we had hitherto depended. Even the abolition of the pilgrim tax affected us, for on its abolition, the funds from which five boarders had been supported were withheld to keep up the pilgrim hospital. Under these circumstances Messrs. Lacey and Sutton proposed to make over the school to government, on condition that the managing committee on the part of the subscribers should relinquish all right and interest in the school premises in favour of the Society. To this they agreed, and the premises are now the property of the Society."

REMOVAL OF MR. J. BROOKS TO CALCUTTA.

Mr. Alexander, a gentleman of Calcutta, wrote to Mr. Sutton in Oct., 1841, offering to support an Oriya Mission in Calcutta. After serious deliberation, both among the brethren in Orissa and the committee at home, it was resolved that Mr. J. Brooks should remove from Midnapore to Calcutta. After having been there twelve months Mr. Brooks observes — " I have established a school for Oriya boys in Calcutta ; I have commenced a reading class for adult Oriyas, male and female, at their own request, and on Lord's- day have worship at our house. Four persons have requested to be baptized." Mr. Brooks continued at Calcutta until the termi- nation of his engagement with Mr. Alexander ; the committee not deemiug it advisable to re-engage him as an agent of the society, he laboured for a short time in connexion with the Particular Baptist Mission, and returned to England in 1845.

RETURN OF MR. STUBBINS.

The health of this talented and indefatigable missionary seriously declined; and in 1842, he removed to Midnapore, as being the most likely place, in that part of India, in which he might be benefited. In order to preserve his life and invigorate his health, he w r as ulti- mately compelled, to return to England. He and his wife arrived at their native land in September, 1843.

A PEEP AT MISS DERRY's SCHOOL.

In a letter dated Berhampore, Jan., 1843, Miss Deny observes — "Here, you are aware, dear Mrs. Stubbins has laboured with much success; and though now removed from her youthful charge, she still lives in their memory, and is frequently the subjeet of our conversation, nor do they cease to make mention of her in their prayers. Could you just peep at us, you would see me sitting at my little table with Oriya books and a Bengalee dictionary, preparing, my lessons for the Pundit. Some of our dear girls knitting, others spinning, and the little girls pre-

352 THE NEW CONNEXION.

paring the cotton for the elder girls. A quarter before nine, their work is put away, and they come into the school-room. A test of scripture is given them, a short portion of the word of God read, and a few prac- tical remarks made; after which, one of the elder girls prays. They then go into the school and are taught by a schoolmaster. At ten, I pay them another visit, and hear the different classes read, or have some familiar conversation with them on different subjects. At eleven, they put away their books and slates, and spend their time till