committed to historic Baptist & Reformed beliefs

 

CHURCH POLITY

Editor?s Note: The following are some accolades for the first edition of Reynolds? The Kingdom of Christ, which was printed in 1846. The longer version, reprinted above, was first published in 1849.

NOTICES BY THE PRESS, OF THE FIRST EDITION

The following are some of the notices of the first edition:?"The Kingdom of Christ, by Rev. J. L. Reynolds, Prof. of Bib. Lit. in Mercer University, Ga., constitutes the third number of the Periodical Library. The subject is well treated by the author. We know of no work on the nature and organization of the church better suited to general circulation. It should be in the hands of every Baptist, as containing a brief, but clear and able defence of the doctrine we hold concerning the constitution of the Church of Christ."?South Western Baptist Chronicle.

"Prof. Reynolds shows in this little work, that he has bestowed much thought upon the subject. He has with great clearness and force exhibited the Polity of the New Testament, and traced the gradual departure from it in the Churches which succeeded those planted by the Apostles."?Western Baptist Review.

"The Kingdom of Christ. An exceedingly able little work bearing the above title, has just been received from the publisher. It is an able treatise on the great question respecting Church Polity. It defends the sentiments of the Baptists with much power, and we hope the day is not far distant when the distinguished author will be permitted to present the larger volume to the public."?Chrystal Fount.

"The style of the work of Prof. Reynolds is very handsome; it exhibits much learning and research; and we believe every position of the writer meets our hearty concurrence. We object only to its brevity. It seems to be the abridgment of a larger design. Bro. R. will, we trust, soon write out his views on the whole subject, and place them before the public in a more perfect form. Meantime we should be glad to see this work in the hands of all our friends. It is the cheapest and best work of the kind in the nation."?Dr. Howell, of Tenn. Baptist.

"The subject of this work has received a large share of attention from many distinguished men during the last year or two, but not more than it has deserved. It is important, especially in the Churches that adopt the form of Church government which Baptists have always advocated. Bro. Reynolds has done much service in this cause. The chapter on Church Membership is worth more than the price of the book. Buy and read it."?Mississippi Baptist.

1John 18:37.
2Hengstenberg?s Christology, 1, p. 14?19.
3Der Prophetismus der Hebraer von A. Knobel. Th. I. S. II. Baumgarten-Crusius? Biblische Theologic, ?6, 1. "The primary notion of a prophet," says Stillingfleet, "doth not lie in foretelling future events, but in declaring and interpreting to the world the mind of God, which he receives by immediate revelation from himself." Origines Sacrae, B. II. chap. 5th. Stuart on the O. T. p. 90, note.
4Jer. 30: 4, 9; Eze. 37: 24; Hos. 1: 10; Isaiah 11: 10; and Dan. 7: 14.
5Twesten?s Dogmatik, I. S. 323. Knapp?s Theol. ?91. For a full examination of the Messianic predictions of the O. T. see Hengstenberg?s Christology.
6The word in the original, which is translated kingdom, is equivalent to kingly authority; and this expression, modified according to the context, may generally be substituted for it. Dr. Dagg?s interpretation of John 3: 5, pp. 9, 23. The expression, kingdom of heaven, is a periphrasis for the Christian state or dispensation, and is evidently derived from the mode of thought and speech common to the Jews. "The God Jehovah was their proper king, supreme over their state and nation. He governed them through the instrumentality of human regents and deputed kings.

Their constitution was theocratic, to make use of a happy term, first applied to the subject by Josephus. Hence, the Israelitish state and nation are called the possession, and the peculiar people of Jehovah: as Ex. 19: 6; Psalms 114: 2. In the same way the later Jews applied the phrase, kingdom of God, or of heaven: vid. Schoettgen, de regno coelorum, (Hor. Heb. T. I. extr.); and Wetstein on Matt. 21: 25." Knapp?s Theology, ?99. (1.) vid. Bland on Matt. 3: 2. Campbell on the Gospels, Diss. 5, part 1.

The Lexicons have blundered sadly on this phrase. Tholuck, after an elaborate criticism on Wahl, Bretschneider, and others, gives the following as the true definition: "Christ designates, by ?the kingdom of heaven,? the community of those, who, united through his Spirit under him as the head, rejoice in the truth and enjoy a holy and blissful life; all of which is effected through communion with him." Biblical Repository, I, p. 567. Christian Review, IV., p. 380. Even this is a partial view.
7John 4: 25?26; 9: 35, 37; Matt. 26: 63, 64; 16: 15?17; 27: 11.
8John 6: 15.
9Matt. 17: 24; 22: 21; Luke 12: 13.
10John 18: 36.
11Luke 19: 43.
12Acts 1: 6.
13Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte von Dr. F. H. Meier, ?32.
14Robinson in his Lexicon, p. 130, has assigned this meaning to the phrase, but the texts he cites fail to establish it.-e. g. Matt. 6: 10, manifestly relates to the spiritual reign of Christ. Schleusner does the same. Pasor is more correct.
15Essays on the Church, New York, 1843, p. 18.
16Matt. 13: 24, 30, 47, 50; 16: 19; 25: 1; 28: 19, 20; John 20: 21, 23.
17Christian Review, vol. 8, p. 202.
18 Mark 10: 15; John 3: 3; Col. 1: 13; Eph. 5: 5; Matt. 3: 2; 5: 3, &c.
19 Pages 8?10.
20 Isaiah 40?66.
21 Hengstenberg?s Christology, vol. I, p. 438.
22 Rosenmuller thinks the figurative use of these expressions is so evident as scarcely to need notice. Per lucem Hierosolymae oriturum felicem ejus statuin significari, uti supra 45: 75, 8: 8, 10, vix monitu opus. Vid. Scholia in V. T. II. p. 747.
23 Dick?s Theol. Lec. LXIV. Col. 1: 15, 19; Heb. 1: 3, 14.
24 Matt. 28: 18; Eph. 1: 22; John 13: 3; Phil. 2: 9, 11. 1 Peter 3: 22; 1 Cor. 15; 24, 26.
25 Psalm 45: 6; Heb. 1: 8; Psalm 72: 5.
26It has been supposed that the phraseology of the 25th verse implies the termination of the reign of Christ. "He must reign till, &c." But the word does not necessarily limit the reign of Christ to the event specified, viz: the subjection of his foes. It is said in Romans 5: 13 "Until the law, sin was in the world." But this does not imply that sin did not exist after the giving of the law. See also parallel expressions in Genesis 28: 15; 1 Samuel 15: 35; Isaiah 22: 14; Psalms 112: 8; 1 Timothy 4: 13. The passage is similarly interpreted. Biblical Repos. 3, p. 749-755, and Am. Biblical Repos. 2, p. 443.
27 Hooker Eccl. Pol. B. 3 ?2. ?11. So also Tomline, Paley and other Episcopal divines. Burton?s Hist. Church, p. 60. Neander, in Coleman?s Prim. Ch. Introduc. p. 18.
28 Edwards?s Works, 4, p. 377.
This point is very ably discussed by Dr. Smyth, in his learned work on Presbytery, ch. II., and on Prelacy, Lee. II., Note C. Lec. III., Vid. Dr. Woods? Lectures on Church Government, pp. 9?12. Haldane?s View of Social Worship, &c. ch. 2. Milton?s Reason of Church Government, ch. I., II.
29Punchard?s Hist. of Congregationalism, p. 22. Campbell?s Lec. on Eccl. Hist. Lec. X. part I. Gieseler?s Church Hist, I. ?65. Mosheim, I. p. 144. Neander, p. 111. Kirchenverfassung von K. D. Hullmann, S. 35.
30Spiritual Despotism, by Isaac Taylor, Sec. 3.
31Stuart on the Old Testament, pp. 88, 388?392. Edward?s Works, IV. pp. 390, 594. Woods? Lectures on Church Government, p. 13. Lord Bacon advised the removal of the offensive term priest from the English Liturgy. Pacification of the Church, Works I. p. 356. This argument is, in the hands of Prelacy, self-destructive; for the Jewish hierarchy was not prelatical. Smyth?s Presbytery, ch. XIII. Taylor?s Spiritual Despotism, Sec. 3.
32Arnold on the Church. Miscellaneous Works, pp. 16,18.
33Milton of Reformation in England. Prose Works, p. 1.
34Old Testament, p. 395.
35Vid. Vitring a de Synag. et Selden de Synag. Neander?s Planting of the Chr. Ch. chap. 2. Gieseler. ?25. Whately?s Kingdom of Christ, pp. 78?80. Coleman?s Prim. Ch. chap. 2. Smyth?s Presb. B. 1. ch. 13.
36The divine institution of the synagogue is pleaded by Dr. Smyth and others, from the expression in Psalm 74: 8. "God?s synagogues." But at the time this Psalm was composed, synagogues were not in existence. The Hebrew is more properly rendered, "the places of assembly," alluding to Ramah, Bethel, &c., the seats of the prophets (Gesen. Heb. Lex. p. 554); or the plural may be used, as Stuart thinks (O. T. p. 72), for the singular, and the allusion be to the temple.
37Josephs, a learned Jew, in his English and Hebrew Lexicon, London, 1834, under the word church, gives phrases which indicate only the house used for religious purposes.
38Coleman?s Christian Antiquities, ch. 1, ?3.
39Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, I. S. 114. Compare Hooker?s Eccl. Pol. B. I. ch. 14. Townsend?s N. T. P. 10. Note 9.
40Marshall?s Notes on the Episc. Pol. New York, 1844, p. 16. Of the accuracy with which this writer states facts, the reader may judge by the following statements: "The latest improvement upon the Baptist heresy is Mormonism." P. 345. "The great body of Methodists, following Dr. A. Clarke, have departed from the true doctrine of the Trinity." p. 346. These statements are made upon the highest "American authority." We may smile at the easy credulity of this "curate of Swallowcliffe;" but what shall we say of the Rt. Rev. Editor, Jonathan M. Wainwright, D.D., who endorses these and similar "old wives? fables?"
41Dr. Onderdonk?s Episcopacy, tested by Scripture, p 1. Barnes? Reply, p. 99, See also Carson?s refutation of Whately?s illogical assumption with respect to the burden of proof, in his work on Baptism, ch. 1.
42Goode?s Divine Rule, chaps. 5?7. Daille on the right use of the Fathers. Smyth?s Pres. and Prel. pp. 314?328. Apostol. Succ. p. 79. Knapp?s Theology, ?7. Dwight, 4, pp. 239?242. Neander?s Church History, p. 407. Baumgarten Crusius, Compendium der Dogmengeschichte, Leipzig, 1840, ?20. Milton?s Animadv. on Rem. Def. Sec. 4. Jortin says of Antiquity (or the Fathers), "she is like Briarius, and has a hundred hands, and these hands often clash and beat one another." Eccl. Hist. 2. p. 57.
43Arguments of Romanists Discussed and Refuted by Rev. Dr. Thornwell, p. 213. The testimony of the Fathers is the medium per quod, not the medium propter quod. Twesten?s Vorlesungen, I. S. 433, Pictet. Theol. Lib. 1. cap. IX, 4. Chillingworth, ch. 2. Answer, ?25.
44Lectures on Church Government, p. 61.
45Ecclesia ab apostolis traditionem accepit etiam parvulis baptismum dare. Sciebant illi . . . quod essent in omnibus genuinae sordes peccati, quae per aquam et spiritum ablu deberent. Orig. In ep. ad Rom. Opp. T. IV. p. 565.
46Campbell?s Lectures on Eccl. History, Lee. 6, p. 100, 105, 106. King?s Prim. Church, chap. 1. [It is sometimes asserted that Lord King subsequently renounced the views maintained in this book, Vid. Rose?s note to Neander?s Church History, Pref. p. 4. But the evidence is not satisfactory. Vid. Punchard on Congregationalism, p. 147.] Haldane?s View of Social Worship, &c., ch. 5, ?1. Dagg?s Essay on Communion, chap. 3, ?1. Dr. Johnson?s Gosp. Developed, ch. 2. Barrow, Wks. (Am. Ed.) III. 312.
47The best definition of the Church of Christ, is that given by Augustine, and incorporated by Calvin in his Cat. Eccl. Genev. Quid est ecclesia? Corpus ac Societas fidelium quos deus ad vitam aeternam praedestinavit. See also Inst. IV. I. n. 2. 7. Pictet Theol. Art. XXVII. 7.
48Neander?s Church Hist. p. 120. Munscher Dogmensge. [Ed. Von Coln.] ?34. Meyer, ?25. The name, holy Catholic Church, first occurs in the epistle of the Church of Smyrna, concerning the martyrdom of Polycarp, written A. D. 169. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. IV. 15. The earliest patron of the notion was Irenaeus, ( 201): it was fully developed by Cyprian, ( 258,) in his book De unitate ecclesiae. Having referred to the history of Eusebius, I take this opportunity to caution the reader against trusting too implicitly to Cruse?s translation of the work, published by Rev. R. Davis, Phila. It was made under Episcopalian influence, and is deeply tinged with it. Some of its errors have been noticed in Dr. Smyth?s Confirmation Examined. Note A. p. 199. The expression Catholic Church, is also found in the larger collection of the epistles of Ignatius. Ep. ad Smyrn. c. 8 ( 107). But the passage is not considered genuine. Munscher, ?34.
49Marheineke Grundlehren der Christl. Dogmatik. S. 445. Nitzeh. System der Christl. Lehre, ?188.
50Mohler?s Symbolism, p. 377. Barrow, Unit. ch. VIII. 4.
51Hill?s Divinity, p. 695. Dick?s Theology, 2, p. 456. Smyth?s Ecclesiastical Catechism, p. 11, with a copious citation of authorities. "The Church," says Ogilby, "is Christ?s mystical body. This body of Christ is a visible body, made of many visible parts," Lectures on the Church, p. 13, New York, 1844
52Walker?s Church Discipline, p. 10, where he says the term Church, in Matt. 16: 18, "appears to include, generally, such professed believers as hold the Christian faith and practice uncorrupted, throughout the world."
53Mason?s Essays, pp. 5, 195, and elsewhere.
54This is the error of Bellarmine, de Ecclesia Mil. III. cap. 12. Non dici potest [ecclesia] societas hominum, nisi in externis et visibilibus signis consistat. See, also, Walter, Kirchenrecht, ?11.
55 Summary of Church Discipline of the Charleston Association republished by Rev. D. Sheppard, Charleston, 1831. This Summary was prepared, probably, by Oliver Hart, Francis Pelot, and David Williams. Rippon?s Register, for A. D. 1796, p. 511.
56Acts 2: 47; 13: 1; Rom. 16: 1, 5; Col.. 4: 15; Acts 9: 31; 15: 40, 41; 1 Cor. 16: 19.
57King?s Prim. Church, cap. 2, ?12.
58R. Hall?s Wks. 4, p. 394.
59Gieseler?s Church Hist. I. p. 56.
60Acts 2; 44, 46; 4: 23-31; 5: 11?14. Comp. 3: 2, 11; 6: 1?6.
61Acts 13: 1?4; 14: 25?27; 15: 22?30; 1 Cor. 11: 20, 33; 14: 23, 26.
62Dick?s Theol. 2, p. 478. Hill, p 692. Milner, Church Hist. Cent. 3, ch. 20.
63The baptism of the three thousand is not so improbable a case after all. I baptized, on one occasion, seventy-six persons in seventeen minutes, and that without any special view to expedition. I did not even know that any one was noticing the time. The twelve apostles, baptizing at the same rate, would have baptized the three thousand in fifty-five minutes and fifty-five seconds!

Since writing the above, I have learned that "Elder Courtney baptized seventy-five persons in the basin on the canal, in Richmond, Va. He had assistants, who led the candidates to and from him; and he performed the whole in seventeen minutes, notwithstanding he was seventy years old." Life of John Leland, Richmond, 1836, p. 33. For similar cases among the earlier Christians, see Christian Rev. III. p. 91.
64 Rom. 16: 1.
65 Col. 4: 13?16. Calmet states that Hierapolis and Laodicea were five miles apart, and Colosse midway between them.
66 Punchard, on Congregationalism, p. 49, gives a list of the thirty-five churches. Also, Dr. Curtis, Bible Episcopacy, p. 97.
67Haldane, Social Worship, chap. 5, ?1. Leonard Bacon, Manual for Church Members, p. 15.
68T. Jackson on the Church, p. 19. Phila., 1844.
69"No one," says Marheinecke, "is a member of the Church by birth: he becomes one first by the new birth." Die Grundlehren der christlichen Dogmatik. ?693.
70In the famous controversy between Pres. Edwards, and Solomon Williams, concerning the half-way covenant, the former took the broad scriptural ground, that none but such as gave credible evidence of their faith in Christ should be admitted to the Lord?s Supper. But, as a pedobaptist, he was obliged to admit that those who had been baptized in infancy were "in some sort members of the Church." In this they were both agreed. Here Williams erected his strong battery, and managed it with great effect. He proved that the position of his opponent, if maintained, would annihilate infant baptism. Either that ordinance must be given up, or Edwards must surrender. He did not choose to abandon infant baptism, and was vanquished, not by the truth of his opponent, but by his own error. Edwards, Humble Inquiry, Works 4, p. 423?428. Curtis, Bib. Episc. p. 173.
71 Haldane, Social Worship, ch. 6. Punchard Congregationalism, pp. 40?47.
72 Eccl. Catechism, p. 80. This is excellent. But we find, in the same work, among the meanings ascribed to the word Church, the following: "The whole body of those, with their children, who profess the true religion." p. 10, Dick Theol. 2, p. 380, 460. Punchard, p. 40.
73Rev. S. Helffenstein. The Church of God. Am. Bib. Repos. 2, p. 314. C. C. Jones, Catechism, p. 246.
74 Haldane, Social Worship, p. 321. He afterwards renounced infant baptism. Indeed it is surprising, that one who could write such a book should practice it.
75 Rev. W. Hodges, Infant Baptism tested by Scripture and History, Phil. 1844, p. 243.
76 C. G. Neudecker. Lehrbuch der christl. Dogmengesch. ?56, where he says that the "Lutheran, Reformed, Roman and Grecian Catholic Churches supported infant baptism against the fanatical Anabaptists and Mennonites, and against Schwenkfield on the ground that it was, in general, necessary to salvation." Hinton?s Hist. Baptism, p. 338.
77 Preservatives, p. 146?150, quoted by Booth. Vindic. Bap. Sec. 1.
78 N. Y. Christian Advocate, copied in Biblical Recorder. N. C., Jan. 27, 1844.
79 Archbishop Leighton writes to one of his friends:
"Touching baptism, freely my thought is, it is a weak notion, taken up on trust almost generally, to consider so much, or at all, the qualifications of the parents. Either it is a benefit to infants, or it is not. If none, why then administered at all? But if it be, then why should the poor innocents be prejudged of it for the parents? cause?" Works, p. 681. Baptism, in his view, "signifies and seals our washing from sin and our new birth in Jesus Christ," p. 506. The seal, however, proves to be very brittle, for "the open wickedness of the most testifies against them" that though sprinkled with water in baptism, yet they are strangers to the power and gracious efficacy of it; they are swearers, cursers, drunkards, unclean," p. 223.
80Jahn. Heb. Com. p. 38, 138. So Photius and Chrysostom and Theodoret, quoted by Dr. Brantly, Baptist Library, 3, p. 400.
81Gal. 3: 18, 29; 4: 28, cf. Rom. 9: 7, 9.
82Stuart on the O. T. p. 394. Letters of David (Jones) and John (Dagg) on the Lectures of Dr. Woods, Lec. 3. Carson on Baptism, p. 214, 237. Hinton, ch. 5, ?1.
83Curtis, Bib. Episc. p. 145.
84Smyth, Eccl. Catech. 1, ?1, 6. Dr. Miller, Presbyterianism, p. 58.
85"The Church or particular community of which he is a member." Bland, Bloomfield. The old English versions of 1539 and 1541 render: "Tell it to the congregation."
86 Congregationalism, p. 65. Haldane, p. 346.
87 Coleman, Prim. Ch., ch. 5, p. 90. Bacon, Manual, p. 22. Walker, Church Discipline, ?10. King, ch. 7, ?3.
88 Vid. Macknight and Bloomfield, in loc.
89 Planting of the Church, p. 38. We have an example of the same method of teaching in ch. 8. T. Grantham thus explains the passage, "Every woman praying or prophesying," &c. He says: "The whole Church is said to do a thing, when it is actually performed by one person or a few," cf. ch. 14: 23, 24. Hence a woman is said to pray, when she does so through the person who prays in the Church. Christianismus Primitivus, Part II B. III. c. 7, ?2 London, 1678.
90Benedict, History Baptist, 2, p. 472. "There were some fanatical sects in the ancient Church, such as the Montanists and, Collyridians, who authorized and encouraged women to speak, dispute, and teach in public. But the sentiment of the Church has uniformly been opposed to such indecencies." Coleman, Christ. Antiq. p. 118.
91Taylor, Spir. Desp. p. 324?333.
92Punchard, p. 59. Coleman, p. 56.
93Townsend, N. T. Part 9, note 30.
94Punchard, p. 164. Church Discip. Charleston Assoc. ch. 2. Haldane, ch. 7.
95Bloomfield.
96Potter cuts the knot here, by rejecting "and" from the the text, and reading "the apostles and elders, brethren.?? The design of this artifice is obvious. Church Government p. 291. London, 1839.
97Pflantz und Leit. der ch. Kirche. S, 703.
98Quumque ipsi per suffragia creassent presbyteros.
99Gospels. Diss. 10 Part. 4, 7.
100Coleman, p. 51. Punchard, p. 59.
101Chapin, Primitive Church, p. 155, New Haven, 1846.
102Antiq. 1, 13, 2, 2.
103"When Paul gives Titus power to appoint rulers of the Church," says Neander, "who had the requisite qualities, nothing is thereby determined as to the nature of the election; it does not necessarily follow that an election by the Church itself is absolutely excluded." Church Hist., p. 108, Augusti. in Coleman. Antiq. p. 131. Neander, in Coleman?s Prim. Ch. Introduction, p. 10.
104View Sec. Worship, p. 210.
105So also Hullmann, Kirchenverfassung, S. 21, 196. Curtis, Bib. Episc. p. 129. Burton, Church Hist., ch. 12, p. 262. Punchard, Hist. of Congregat. ch 10.
106Hill?s Divinity, p. 754.
107The Century Confession was republished, with other valuable matter, by Rev. D. Sheppard, Charleston, 1831. It coincides in doctrine with the Westminster Confession, from which, indeed, it was taken; and this latter was designed to be an exhibition of the faith of English Protestantism. Vid, Dr. Smyth?s Hist. Westm. Assembly, Sec. 2. The copy of the Baptist Catechism in my possession, which is in fact the Shorter Catechism of the Assembly, adapted to our own views, in certain particulars, was published in Charleston, S. C., 1813. The Confession of the General Baptists, entitled, "A brief Confession or Declaration of Faith, set forth by an Assembly of Messengers, Elders, and Brethren of the Baptized Churches," may be seen in Grantham?s Christianismus Primitivus. London, 1678.
108The above brief compend of doctrine was drawn up by the Rev. Dr. Dagg. The following document presents another very excellent digest of the Century Confession:

ARTICLES OF FAITH

Of the Mississippi River Baptist Association, adopted October 2d, 1846

1. We believe in one triune God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the same in essence, equal in power and glory.

2. We believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament were given by the inspiration of God, and are the only rule of faith and practice.

3. We believe in the fall of Adam from original rectitude; in the imputation of his sin to all his posterity; in the total depravity of human nature, and in man?s inability to restore himself to the favor of God.

4. We believe that God has loved his people with an everlasting love; that he chose them in Christ before the foundation of the world; that he called them with a holy and effectual calling; and, being justified alone by the righteousness of Christ imputed to them, they are kept by the power of God, through faith unto salvation.

5. We believe there is one Mediator between God and man-the man Christ Jesus, who, by the satisfaction made to law and justice, in becoming an offering for sin, hath, by his most precious blood, redeemed the elect from under the curse of the law; that they might be holy and without blame before him in love.

6. We believe that good works are the fruits of faith, and follow after justification, and are evidences of a gracious state; and that all believers are bound to obey every command of God from a principle of love.

7. We believe in the resurrection of the dead, and a general judgment; that the happiness of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked will be everlasting.

GOSPEL ORDER

1. We believe that the visible Church of Jesus Christ is a congregation of faithful persons, who have given themselves to the Lord, and to one another, by the will of God and have covenanted to keep up a godly discipline, agreeably to the gospel.

2. We believe that Jesus Christ is the head of the Church, the only Lawgiver; that the government is with the Church.

3. That Baptism and the Lord?s Supper are Gospel ordinances, appointed by Jesus Christ, and are to be continued in his Church until his second coming.

4. That the immersion of the body in water, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is the only Scriptural way of Baptism, as taught by Christ and his Apostles.

5. That none but regularly baptized Church members, who live a holy life, have a right to partake of the Lord?s Supper.

6. That it is the privilege and duty of all believers to make a public profession of their faith, by submitting themselves as subjects for baptism, and as members of the visible Church.

7. That it is the duty of every regularly organized Church to expel from her communion all disorderly and immoral members, and who hold doctrines contrary to the Scriptures.

109Dr. Johnson, Gospel Developed, p 197.
110Luke 1:1. A creed is not norma normans, but norma normata. It contains the very kernel and essence of the Scriptures ? ipsa medulla scriptures. Of confessions of faith it has been well said ? non imprimunt nobis credenda, sed exprimunt a nobis credita. Twesten, Vorlesungen. I ? 21, S. 296. Or, as Turretin has it, they are norm?/i> secundari?/i>, non veritatis sed, doctrin?/i> in aliqua ecclesia recept? quoniam ex illis quid cum ecclesi?doctrina conveniat, quidve ab ea discrepet, perspici potest et dijudicari. Theol. Elenc. Loc. XVIII. Qu?t. 30, ? 9.
111 Works, II. p. 466 Boston, 1833.
112 Works, II p. 630.
113 Fuller, Works, II p. 630.
114Matt. 6: 5. 2 Cor. 2: 17. 2 Tim. 2: 18. Titus 1: 11. 2 Peter 3: 3?16. 1 John 4: 6.
115Eph. 4: 13. Heb. 13: 7. Tit. 1: 9.
116Hill?s Divinity, p. 756.
117Hill, p. 760. It is well known form the history of heresy, that the use of Scripture language, in a sense opposed to orthodoxy, is one of the most common disguises of errorists; and as to the use of general terms, it has been the refuge of heresy in all ages.
118Works, II. p. 629?630. "The persons most ready to bring forward this objection are those whose system excludes some of the doctrines which the great body of Protestants agree in receiving. In their manner of stating the objection, they are careful to conceal their disbelief of particular doctrines, under a zeal for liberty of conscience, and the right of private judgment; and instead of affirming that a confession declares what is false, they choose rather to say, that by the particularity with which it states the received opinion, it abridges and invades that freedom in every thing that concerns religion, which Christians derive from the spirit of the gospel." Hill, Divinity, p. 760.
119Coleman?s Christian Antiq. p. 253. ">From the earliest organization of the Church, some confession and rule of faith must evidently have been necessary. This rule of faith must have been derived from the teaching, either oral or written, of the apostles; and may have been earlier than the writings of the New Testament in their present form. Luke 1: 1?4. Gal. 1: 11. As the preaching of the Apostles preceded their written instructions, so an oral confession may have preceded a written one, comprising an epitome of the gospel. From such a source may have sprung the great variety of forms which were known previous to the council of Nice."
120Mosheim, Ch. Hist. 1. chap. 3. Gieseler, 1. ?49. Munscher (Ed. Von Coln), 1. ?12. Barrow?s Works (Am. Ed.), II. p. 569.
121 Dr. W. B. Johnson. A Church of Christ, a Sermon, p. 26. Ripley and Barnes in loc. Curtis, Bib. Episc. p. 131.
122 Dr. Burton is an Episcopalian. How different the language of another writer of the same Church, who has ventured to assert that "the system of Independency is totally without the remotest support from either Scripture or Antiquity." Townsend, N. T. Part 4, note 2.
123Dick, Theol. 2, p. 491. Hill, p. 695. Smyth, Catechism, p. 103, where, also, may be found the other objections which are here examined.
124R. Watson, Institutes part 4, chap 1. Mr. Wesley said: "We are no republicans;" and his followers seem content to repeat the confession.
125Curtis, Bib. Episc., Lec. 6.
1261 Cor. 12: 28; Eph. 4: 11. Neander, Apos. Church, ch. 5.
127Barnes, Episc. Exam. p. 2?5. Curtis, Bib. Episc. Lee. 2. Punchard, p. 71. Smyth, Pres. and Prel. chap. 4. Haldane, chap. 7. Bacon, Manual, p. 32. Campbell, Eccl. Hist. Lee. 5. Even Townsend, an Episcopalian, says, that to be made a witness of the resurrection with us" is equivalent to "being raised to the apostolate." N.T. part 9, note 2.
128Eph. 2: 20. Rev. 21: 14.
129Kingdom of Christ, p. 128. The argument is stated with great force, by Chillingworth. Chap. II. Answer, ??64?68.
130 Bacon, Church Manual, p. 35. Discipline, Charleston Association, chap. 2. Walker, Church Discipline, ?2.
131Annotation on the Gospels and Acts, p. 562 In proof of a plurality of elders see Haldane, ch. 7, p. 210?224. Smyth, Name, Nature, &c., of Ruling Elders, p. 38. Coleman Primitive Church, chap. 6. Bacon, Manual, p. 39. Woods? Lectures on Church Government, p. 50. Gieseler, Church History, 1, 29. Neander, Apostolic Church, p. 35, 92. Milman History Christ, p. 194?199. "The plurality of ministers over the same church continued, even to the fourth century, to be the order of the churches." Planck Gesell, Verfass, 1, 551.
132Calvin, Com. in loc. Smyth, Ecclesiastical Catechism, chap. 3, ?6. Miller, Presbyterianism, p. 58.
1331 Tim. 3: 2; Titus 1: 9.
134Smyth, Office of Ru1ing Elder, p. 48. Pres. and Prel. B. I. chap. 6.
135Punchard, Congregat. p. 81. Upham, Ratio Discipl. ?38. Pictet, Theol. Christ. Lib. XII. c. 10
136Lehrbuch des Naturrechts. ?281.
137Lex. N. T. p. 315; Neander, Apost. Church, B. 3, chap. 5, p. 92.
138In the postscrips to the epistles to Titus and Timothy, these evangelists are called bishops. But these postscripts are spurious, not having been annexed to the epistles until the fifth century. "Certain it is that in the first three centuries, neither Timothy nor Titus is styled bishop by any writer." Campbell, Ecclesiastical History, Lecture 5, p. 79, where the absurdity of magnifying Titus into a metropolitan bishop is fully exposed.
139Bishop Onderdonk, Episcopacy Tested by Scripture, p. 12. Waddington, History Church, chap. 2, ?2. Bloomfield, N. T. note on Acts 20: 17. Maurice, Kingdom of Christ, p. 370.
140Reformation in England. Wks. p. 19. 11
141Ep. 83, ad Ocean, Coleman Primitive Church, p. 132.-Gieseler, Church History 1, ?29, note 1. Coleman. Christ: Antiq. p. 98.
142Coleman, Primitive Church pp. 133?145. Barnes, Episc. Exam. Pp. 130?133. The subject of this chapter is discussed, at large, by Dr. Smyth, in his Presbytery and Prelacy, B. I. Turretin, Theol. Elenc. Loc. XVIII. Quaest. 21.
143Punchard, History Congregat. chap. 10.
144Punchard, P. 197. The sentiments of the Reformers are exhibited by Burnet, History Reformation; and Neal Hist. Puritans.
145 Dr. Johnson, Gospel Developed, p. 78.
146 Haldane Soc. Worship. pp. 242?248. See an excellent sermon by Andrew Fuller, in his Works. IL p, 226. Boston: 1833.
147Num. 18: 20.Deut. 10: 8. 14: 27. 18: 1.
1481 Cor. 9: 13, 14.
149Luke 10: 12.
150Gal. 6: 6. 1 Cor. 9: 7?11. 16: 17. Phil. 4: 15?20. 2 Cor. 11: 8, 9. 1 Tim. 5: 17, 18, where the word honor means reward, stipend, or wages.
151Howell, on the Deaconship, chap. V. Haldane, p. 226. Gospel Developed, p. 86.
152Acts 6: 2. The brokers, or money-changers, sat upon tables; in the market or other public places. Hence the import of the expression, serve tables, is to take care of money affairs, to have charge of temporalities, alms, &c. Robinson, Lex. N. T., p. 830. Bloomfield, in loc.
153Acts 21: 8.
154Smyth. Presbytery and Prelacy. B. I. chap. XI.
155So also among the Greeks, according to the testimony of Cornelius Nepos, in the Preface to his Lives.
156Macknight and Bloomfield in loc.
157The existence of such a class is illustrated by Pliny, in his letter to Trajan, who calls them ministrae Ep. Lib. X. p. 96. Comp. Romans 16: 1; Timothy 6: 3; Titus 2: 2; Phil. 4: 3.
158Coleman Christ. Antiq. p. 118. Punchard p. 85. Neander Ch. Hist. p. 108. Apos. Ch. B. 3, chap. 5, p. 97. Haldane, p. 227?235.
159On the subject of this chapter see King, Prim. Church, chap. 5, ?1. Hullmann, Kirchenverfassung, S. 15. Bacon Manual, p. 40. Punchard, pp. 92, 10. And for a thorough discussion of the whole subject, Howell, On the Deaconship. Phila, A. B. P. S. 1848.
160Acts 14: 23; cf. Tit. 1: 5.
161Gospel Developed, ch. xii?xv.
162Acts 2: 42; 20: 7.
163The Deaconship, p. 65; King. Prim. ch. p. 1, ch. 3?4; Crowell, Church Member?s Manual, p. 106. Boston, 1847.
164Acts 6: 6.
165Social Worship, ch. viii, p. 254; Smith. Presbytery and Prelacy, B. 1, ch. vii. ?2; Coleman, Prim. ch. p. 140.
166Smyth, Presb. and Prel. B. I. ch. vii.-x.; Apostol. Succession, Lec. xx. note A; Coleman, Prim. ch. pp. 176?198; Dr. Woods, Objections to Episcopacy, Lec. IV.; King, Prim. Ch. P. I, chap. 3; Fuller?s Works, II. p. 660.
167Analogy, P. II. Chap. 1.
168Westlake, Gen. View of Bap. chap. 1. Booth, Pedobap. Exam. P. 1, chap. 1. Carson on Bap. Preface.
169Booth Pedobap. Exam. P. I., chap. 2. Hinton Hist. Bap. page 55.
170This common sense principle of interpretation, is recognized by Daehne Paulin. Lehrbegr. S. 93.
171On Baptism; pp. 13, 79. N. Y. 1832.
172Bibl. Repos. 3; pp. 292, 293.
173Bland, Annot. on Matt. I. p. 74.
174Ripley, Exam. of Stuart, pp. 62-15. Carson, Jewett, Hinton, and Hague.
175Works III. 890. Hague, Bap. Ques. 107. Crowell, Church Member?s Manual, 152.
176Booth, Ped. Exam. Part I. ch. 3, ch. 6. Westlake, ch. 3, 4.
177Augusti Denker, VII. 77, remarks: "This passage contains distinct evidence of the custom of immersion."
178I have given the translation of Dr. Murdock, in his edification of Mosheim, I. 167. Prof Emerson, of Andover, more correctly renders the last clause "for they then perform the ablution in the water." Christian Rev. VI. 305. The original may be seen in Munscher, Dogmengesch. (Von Coln) I. 99.
179Cyp. Epis. 76 (69) ad Magnum.
180Eccl. Hist. VI. 43. Valesius, in his note on this passage, says: "As baptism properly signifies immersion, perfusion could scarcely be called baptism. "I take this note of Valesius from Dr. Sears (Christian Rev. 111. 106), although admonished by his inaccurate citation of Eusebius, of the hazard of quoting at second hand. Hinton, Hist. Bap. p. 166.
181Hist. Inf. Bap. II. ch. 2, p. 462. We may contrast with these sensible remarks, the refinement of some recent American writers. "It [immersion] is indelicate. It violates a natural and healthful sense of propriety for females to expose themselves in water, with and before the other sex. Though modesty forbids the statement of this objection in all its force, it is enough to say that the sacrifice of female modesty, in a religious rite, is an offering not required at our hands." Hints to an Inquirer. By Parsons Cooke and Joseph H. Towne. Boston: 1842. p. 59. The use of such an argument in support of affusion, presents an instance of what Cyprian might well denominate a "pressing necessity."
182Journal from his embarking for Georgia, p. 11.
183Stennett against Russen. p. 176.
184Dogmengesch. 11. S. 203; also S. 208, where he cites the following passage from Thomas Aquinas. In immersions expressius repraesentatur figura sepulturae Christi, et ideo hic modus baptizandi est communior et laudabilior. Summae, P. III. Qu. 66.Art. 6.
185Dogmengesch 11. ?231.
186Paulin. Lehrbegr. S. 224.
187Lehrb. der Dogmengesch. II. S. 147.
188Bibl. Repos. 111. 359.
189Vol. 111. 413, 414.
190Art. Baptism. 1. 288. See also Coleman?s Christian Antiq. p: 275, and the citations in Christian Rev. III. 99?108. Hinton, Hist. Bap. 197?2,08. Booth, Pedobap. Exam. P. I. ch. 4.
191Min Manscher, Dogmengesch. ed. Neudecker, 111. 618, where the requisite quotations are found.
192Klee, Dogmengesch. II. 149. Mosheim, II. 502. Hague?s Baptismal Question, p. 17. Coleman, Chr. Antiq. p. 266.
193The history of sprinkling is as curious as it is obscure. We have seen how pouring was introduced in the case of Novatian, and sustained by the authority of Cyprian ( 258). The passage of Cyprian was introduced by Gratian into his Decretum (de Consecr. Dist. 4. cap. 126) A.D. 1150. Yet in the time of Thomas Aquinas ( 1274), immersion was the more common practice, as we learn from the angelic doctor himself. He gives it as his judgment that although it is safer to baptize by immersion, because this was the more common, affusion or aspersion will answer the purpose, particularly in case of necessity. This necessity exists when, 1, there is a great multitude to be baptized; 2, water is scarce; 3, the administrator is feeble; 4, the candidate is feeble. A case occurred, under the first head, in the baptism of the Lithuanians, A.D. 1387. (It ought to be mentioned that the first ecclesiastical authority for sprinkling was given by the Council of Ravenna A.D. 1311. The case of Stephen, referred to by Hinton, p. 191, seems somewhat apocryphal. Basnagu Monumen. I. Prae- fat V. 4. Robin. Hist. Bap. 429). The circumstances were these: Jagello, Grand Duke of Lithuania, aspired to the hand of Hedwig, the heiress of the Polish crown; but neither she nor her subjects would favor his pretensions unless he became a good Catholic. Hence, although he had been baptized twice before, he consented to receive baptism again, in Cracow. Many of his subjects followed his example; and the Duke rewarded each of them, for this pious act, with a new suit of clothes. This was too great a temptation to the rest of the Lithuanians; they came in crowds to be baptized and get a new coat. Et quoniam labor immensus erat, &c., because the labor of baptizing such a multitude was too great, they were filed off into separate companies, and sprinkled, each company receiving a Christian name; as the company of Peter, of Paul, &c.; and every member of a particular company, bearing the name by which it was designated. Gieseler, Ch. Hist. ?124. Von Coln, 11. 209. The only persons who opposed immersion on any other ground except necessity, were Theophronius and Eutychius, the disciples of Eunomius, who poured water upon the head and arms. The reason which they gave for this practice is not fit to be repeated here. Vid. Klee, 11, 148.
194Antiq. B. 18, c. 5, ?2.
195Infant Baptism, by Wm. Hodges, A.M., Phila., 1844, p. 168. The practice of proselyte baptism among the Jews in the age of the apostles, by which this writer, after Wall, proves the existence of infant baptism, cannot itself be proved. Dr. Gill assures us there is no mention made of it, either by the Jewish doctors or the Christian fathers of the first three or four centuries. Dissertation on Pros. Bap. Dr. Lardner considers it "a mere fiction of the Rabbins by whom we have suffered ourselves to be imposed upon." Letter to Dr. Doddridge. "It is at length settled by the great critics of Germany, that the existence of a proselyte baptism, as a Jewish institution in the time of Christ, cannot be proved." Christian Review, 3, p. 203. This is the judgment of such men as Neander, Olshausen, Hase, Bottiger, Winer, &c. But proselyte baptism, if admitted to have existed at that time, would be decidedly against the practice of pedobaptists. Children that were born after the parents? adoption of the Jewish religion, were not to be baptized. Analogy would require that the children of Christian parents should not be baptized; only the children who were born before the parents came to the rite would be entitled to participate in it.
196Crowell, Church Member?s Manual. Boston, 1847. P. 158.
197Carson on Baptism, N. Y., 1832. P. 307.
198Coleridge, Aids to Reflection. Burlington, 1829. P. 220.
199Of this passage Carson remarks: "We might as well seek a warrant for infant baptism in Magna Charta, or the Bill of Rights. Baptism, p. 319.
200For a discussion of these points, the reader is referred to the works on Baptism. Carson, pp. 319?338. Hinton, Booth, and others.
201Justin Apol. I. Wall?s Translation.
202Hodges on Infant Baptism, p. 112.
203Adv. Her. Lib. XI. c. 18.
204Dogmengesch. S 1209. So also Engelhardt, Th. 1. S. 333. Munscher, 2, ?233.
205De Bap. 18. Robinson and Hinton, Hist. of Bap. p. 246, contend that there is no reference here to infant baptism; but their argument is founded upon an erroneous translation of the passage. They render norint, "they just know," instead of "let them know."
206Infant Baptism, &c. By William Hodges, A.M., Rector of Bruton Parish, Williamsburg, Va. Phila. 1844. pp. 87?93.
207De Poeniten, 6.
208Christian Review, III. p. 214.
209
Engelhardt. Dogmengeschichte. Th. 1. S. 333. Erlangen, 1839.
210Leslie?s Hist. View of the Baptists, p. 33. Here we have the children of Christian parents remaining unbaptized. The first instance on record of the baptism of a child, is that of Galates, the dying son of the Arian emperor Valens, who was baptized by order of the monarch, who swore that he would not be contradicted. Christian Review, p. 6, May, 1846.
211Munscher (Ed. Von Coln) Dogmengesch. I. S. 469.
212Neander, in Bibl. Repos. IV. p. 272.
213Prof. Stuart, Bibl. Repos. III, p. 385.
214Knapp. Theology, II p. 535. Storr and Flatt speak of the silence of the N. T. concerning it. Bibl. Theol. P. 527. See also, Gieseler, Church Hist. I, pp. 93, 98, 195. Mosheim, I. p. 167. Booth has collected a host of similar witnesses, in his Pedobaptism Examined. Part. II, ch. I.
215Neander, Hist. Chr. Religion, p. 361. So, also, Meier, Dogmengesch, S. 132. Giessen, 1840. Mosheim, I, p. 230. Gieseler, I, p. 159, note 4. 11 If we except Tertullian," says Wall, "Vincentius (A, D. 419) is the first man upon record that ever said that children might be saved without baptism." Booth, Pedobap. Exam. P. II, ch. 3, ?8,
216Knapp, Theology, II. p. 555. Mosheim, I. p. 230. ?3, note. Gieseler, I. p. 159. Munscher (Ed. Von Coln), I. S. 481. Meir, ?68. S. 163. Hinton, Hist. Bap. pp. 323?330. Chillingworth, Works, p. 744. Phila. 1841.
217Turrettini Op. Loc. XVIII. Quaest. 8. Munscher, (Ed. Neudecker) III. S. 601?628. Hinton, Hist. Bap. chap. X. "Baptism is the divinely appointed form of ratifying God?s covenant of grace with every believer . . . and is in its nature a pledge, on his part, of spiritual blessings," &c. Crowell, Ch. Mem. Manual, p. 152.
218Carson, on Baptism, pp. 375?377. Georgia Pulpit, p. 142.
219Luke 7: 37?48. Matt. 9: 2. Luke 23: 39?43.
2201 John 4: 7; 5: 4.
221Hodge on Romans, p. 436.
222Grotius in loco. Calvin, Winer, Teller. See also Dr. Dagg?s detailed examination of the passage, Phila. 1839.
223For the various forms in which this dogma is held, the reader is referred to Hinton on Baptism, chap. 8. 10; Howell on Communion, chap. XII.; Ferdinand Walter, Lehrbuch des Kirchenrechts (Bonn. 1839), ?274, Landis? Review of Cambellism, in Biblical Repository (new series), vol 1, together with Mr. Campbell?s reply, in the same work. Baptist Preacher, vol. 2, sermon by Rev. J. B. Jeter. The Confessions of Faith of the various denominations. The view of the Baptists is thus set forth in the Baptist Catechism: Charleston, S. C., 1813, a work originally published by the Baptists of Great Britain, A.D. 1689, and adopted by the Philadelphia Association, in 1742, "Quest. 97. What is Baptism? Ans. Baptism is an ordinance of the New Testament, instituted by Jesus Christ, to be unto the party baptized a sign of his fellowship with him, in his death, and burial, and resurrection, of his being ingrafted into him, of remission of sins, and of his giving himself up unto God, through Jesus Christ, to live and walk in newness of life."
2241 Cor. 11: 23?26; cf. Matt, 26, Luke 21, Mark 15.
225Matt 28: 20.
226Picteti Theologia Christiana, Lib. XIV., cap. 5. Turrettini Theol. Elenc., Loc. XIX. Quaest. 21. Opera. III. p. 359. New York, 1847.
227Booth, Vindication, sec. 1. Howell on Communion, p. 105, Phila. A. B. P, S. 1847.
228This was the view of the older Baptists. See the Baptist Catechism (London, 1689), Quest. 102.
229Mohler, Symbolism, p. 311.
2301 Jno. 1 3; Jno. 3: 11; Luke 24: 29.
2311 Cor. 10: 16; 11: 26. Carson on Transubstantiation, Protestant Quarterly Review, I. p. 137?178, a most masterly argument. Storr and Flatt, Bibl. Theol. p. 545.
232Nat. Deor, 111. 16.
233 Tertullian, Lib. IV. contra Marc. Hoe est corpus meum id est figura corporis mei. August. Epist. ad Adimant. cap. 12, signum claret corporis sui. Vid Picteti Theol. Lib. XIV. cap. 6,
234For the history of Transubstantiation and its affiliated errors, which are of comparatively recent origin, vide Munscher Dogmengeschichte. (Ed. Von Coln, ??103, 104, 142?145. Knapp, Theol. II. ?146). The Protestant?s Evidence, by Simon Birckbek, p. 37. London, 1635. Dowling, Hist. Romanism, pp. 192, etc. Gibbon, Rom. Emp. IV. p. 160, who says: "Innocent III. may boast of the two most Signal triumphs over sense and reason: the establishment of transubstantiation, and the origin of the inquisition."
235 Mohler, Symbolism, p. 322.
236Baptist Confession of Faith, Chap. XXXI. ?7.
237Booth, Vindic. Bap. Sec. 1. Remington, Def. of Restricted communion. King, Prim. ch. P. M ch. vi.
238For a more full discussion of this topic, the reader is referred to Dr. Howel?s work on Communion. Phila., A. B. P. Society. 1847.
2391 Cor. 12: 13; Eph. 4: 5; 6: 18; Jno. 17: 20?26; Rom. 16: 1, 2 ; 3 Jno. 8?10 ; Acts 15.
240Acts 11 : 22?27; 15 : 22?27; 18: 27; Eph. 6 : 21; 1 Cor. 16 : 15?18.
2411 Cor. 16: 1?3; 2 Cor. 8: 1?4, 13?24; 9: 1?15; Rom. 15: 26.
242Bacon?s Manual, p. 145.
243Acts 13: 2, 3; 2 Cor. 11: 8,12: 13,18; Phil. 6: 10?18.
244Power and Duty of an Association, by Rev. B. Griffith, adopted by the Philadelphia and Charleston Associations.
245Summary of Church Discipline, ch. vi. published by D. Sheppard, in the volume before referred to. Charleston, 1831. On this subject see, also, A Treatise on Church Discipline, in the same volume, ch. x., xi. Griffith?s Essay, pp. 231?237. Baptist Confession of Faith, ch. xxvii., ?14, 16. Crowells Manual, pp. 86, 266. Punchard on Congregationalism, pp. 103, 119. Bacon?s Manual, ch. vii. Grantham?s Christianismus Primitivus, B. II. ch. x.
246Hullmann Kirchenverfassung, ??31?35. Coleman?s Christ. Antiq. pp. 356?367. Prim. Ch. chap. viii. King?s Prim. Ch. P. I. chap. viii. Mosheim (Ed. Murdock), I. 86, 142?4. Waddington, Eccl. Hist. p. 44. Gieseler, I. pp. 96, 102, 152.
247This obvious principle furnishes a satisfactory reply to all such special pleading as is found in Marshall?s Notes on Episcopacy, chapter V. It might be easily shown that the Church of England, of which this writer is so strenuous an advocate, is, in the language of one of her own sons, "the child of regal and aristocratical selfishness and unprincipled tyranny, and bears and has ever borne the marks of her birth." Dr. Arnold. Life and Correspondence, p. 478. Appleton & Co., New York.
248Haldane, Social Worship, chap. XIV.
249"I am convinced," says Dr. Arnold, "that the whole mischief of the great anti-christian apostacy for its root the tenet of a priestly government transmitted by a mystical succession from the apostles." Life, p. 320. Again, "That the church system, or rather the priest system, is not to be found in the Scriptures, is as certain as the worship of Jupiter is not the doctrine of the gospel." p. 409
250The limits to which I proposed to confine myself, in this chapter, permitted nothing beyond a cursory glance at some of the advantages of the revealed polity. For a more extensive view of the subject, the reader is referred to Punchard on Congregationalism, Part V. Haldane?s Social Worship, chap XIII. Christian Review, May, 1846.

The Following anecdote was communicated to the Christian Watchman several years ago, By the Rev. Dr. Fishback, of Lexington, Ky.

"Mr. Editor.?The following circumstances which occurred in the state of Virginia, relative to Mr. Jefferson, was detailed to me by Elder Andrew Tribble, about six years ago, who since died when ninety-two or three years old. The facts may interest some of your readers. Andrew Tribble was the pastor of a small Baptist church, which held its monthly meetings at a short distance from Mr. Jefferson?s house, eight or ten years before the American revolution. Mr. Jefferson attended the meetings of the church for several months in succession, and after one of them, asked Elder Tribble to go home and dine with him, with which he complied.

"Mr Tribble asked Mr. Jefferson how he was pleased with their church government. Mr. Jefferson replied, that it had struck him with great force, and had interested him much; that he considered it the only form of pure democracy that then existed in the world, and had concluded that it would be the best plan of government for the American colonies. This was several years before the Declaration of independence. To what extent this practical exhibition of religious liberty and equality operated on Mr. Jefferson?s mind, in forming his views and principals of religious and civil freedom, which were so ably exhibited, I will not say."
251Acts 20:29.
2523Jno. 9. of Clem. Ep. ed Cox? 14.
253Giesler, Ch. Hist. 1, ?2. Hullmann, S. 20.
254Coleman, Prim. Ch. p. 249. Gieseler, I, p. 103. Hullmann, S. 22, 30.
255Gieseler, I, p. 156. Munscher, Handbuch, iii. S. 15.
256Some Protestant ministers in this country, arrayed in gown or surplice, gravely pretend to these awful prerogatives. Risum, teneatis, amici?
257Campbell, Lec. Eccl., Hist. X, P. 1. Gibbon?s Rome, 1. p. 276.
258A.D. 160, 170. Euseb. V. 16. Gieseler, 1, p. 102.
259Coleman, Chr. Antiq. p. 364. Prim. Ch. chap. viii. Waddington, Ch. Hist. pp. 43?45. Gibbon, Rome, 1. p. 274. Gieseler, 1, ?66.
260Gieseler, I, ??49, 66, 82. Coleman, Prim. Ch. p. 270.
261"There is," says Dr. Arnold, "societas generis humani, and a societas hominum Christianorum, but there is not one republica or civitas of either, but a great many. The Roman Catholics say there is but one republica, and therefore, with perfect consistency, they say that there must be one central government."?Life, p 166.

 
 
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